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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Jane Tonge

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of personal contact networks in the UK public relations sector, focusing on the barriers to networking identified by practitioners.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of personal contact networks in the UK public relations sector, focusing on the barriers to networking identified by practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical research using qualitative methodologies of in‐depth interviews and repertory grids conducted with directors, managers and executives in seven UK public relations agencies.

Findings

UK public relations practitioners in the study may face up to 17 barriers to networking drivers and actions. Three types of barriers emerged–psychological, situational and social. Female practitioners identified all 17 barriers to networking, whereas men identified seven.

Research limitations/implications

An insight into the differences in men and women's networking experiences in a growing professional service, especially those negatively influencing their activities. Gender differences are identified and the apparent exclusion from power networks, especially of younger females.

Practical implications

UK public relations practitioners may be hindered in the key managerial area of networking, with women perceiving themselves to face more barriers than men. This poses challenges for practitioners to overcome such obstacles, especially for women in this female‐dominated industry. Consultancies must consider remedial strategies to counter barriers their employees face, or potentially limit their access to resources and influence which personal networks can bring.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first studies into personal contact networks in the UK public relations industry. It reveals the extent to which both men and women in this professional service face barriers to networking. The paper identifies that women in particular may experience more than twice as many barriers as male counterparts and suggests younger women may be being placed at a disadvantage.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Gareth Veal and Stefanos Mouzas

This paper seeks to give empirical examples of the processes whereby networks learn to collaborate. Specifically, the authors aim to examine efforts to learn to

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to give empirical examples of the processes whereby networks learn to collaborate. Specifically, the authors aim to examine efforts to learn to collaborate in response to the challenge of climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses case study research methods to examine concepts previously developed in the literature and propose a conceptual framework of barriers to learning to collaborate.

Findings

Existing research on collaboration over environmental issues highlights the prevalence of cognitive deficiencies, an abundance of conflicts and disputes and the ignorance of exchange opportunities among interdependent actors. Based on a theoretical review and an empirical case study, the authors put forward a framework that involves three stages. The paper proposes that networks learning to collaborate undergo a process of: framing the problem; negotiating; and achieving wise trades.

Practical implications

At all three of the stages given above, there are significant cognitive biases, which can lead to failure to learn to collaborate. The paper gives examples that should help businesses and regulators to understand and avoid in‐built barriers that could lead to a failure of the network to learn to collaborate.

Originality/value

The paper reviews a number of research disciplines linked to collaboration and gives an empirical case study that explores their links. The authors then propose a conceptual framework of barriers to learning to collaborate, which can be used to help guide practitioners. Failure to learn to collaborate can be found in the many contemporary cases of conflicts and disputes; such as in the areas of intellectual property rights, international trade, inter‐firm alliances and vertical marketing systems.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Michelle M. Arthur, Robert G. Del Campo and Harry J. van Buren

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether golf functions as a networking barrier for women in professions that require networking for career success.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether golf functions as a networking barrier for women in professions that require networking for career success.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 496 golf courses, in addition to demographic data and data about salaries in sales, managerial, and marketing and sales professions in the USA, were used to assess if differences in tee box placement between men's and women's tees would predict participation and salaries in networking‐oriented professions.

Findings

The analyses indicate that differences in tee box placement between men's and women's tees did predict differences in participation and salaries in networking‐oriented professions. It was found that the greater the distance between men's and women's tees, the lower the salaries and participation rate for women. This effect was greatest for the marketing and sales profession.

Research limitations/implications

Golf is one networking barrier among many, and so other networking barriers that have deleterious effects on women's advancement and success should be explored. Further research might include observational studies of mixed‐gender golf groups, and might also explore whether women choose not to pursue networking occupations or women are not selected for jobs that require networking on the golf course.

Social implications

Companies should be aware of how venues selected for networking might have disparate impacts for men and women, and select venues that are as gender‐neutral as possible.

Originality/value

This paper is, to the authors' knowledge, the first empirical investigation of gender relations in non‐traditional work settings with female participation and earnings in occupations that require networking for career success.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

Margaret Linehan and Hugh Scullion

The particular focus of this paper is female expatriates in Europe, which is a relatively under‐researched area. A total of 50 senior female expatriate managers were…

Abstract

The particular focus of this paper is female expatriates in Europe, which is a relatively under‐researched area. A total of 50 senior female expatriate managers were interviewed, representing a wide range of industry and service sectors. The aims of the paper are to highlight a number of critical factors which are necessary for successful female expatriate assignments. The results of the study show that female expatriates are disadvantaged in their careers because of the lack of organizational support which is readily available to their male counterparts. This lack of organizational support, together with the invisible barriers which constitute the glass ceiling, explain the relative scarcity of female expatriate managers.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Tony Newbold

At a time when technology enables more information than ever before to be disseminated faster then ever before, and markets and organisational goalposts rapidly change…

Abstract

At a time when technology enables more information than ever before to be disseminated faster then ever before, and markets and organisational goalposts rapidly change, there is increasing dependence on networks to meet both strategic and personal needs. This paper explores how to overcome common individual and organisational barriers to networking. It examines the personal and strategic drivers for networking, before studying the practical steps organisations can take to: — prepare their culture for networking — promote the skills needed — give employees practical tools to identify and develop networks.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Hayfaa Tlaiss and Saleema Kauser

The purpose of this paper is to address the research gap on Lebanese female managers and to examine female managers' perceptions of their organizations in relation to

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the research gap on Lebanese female managers and to examine female managers' perceptions of their organizations in relation to women's career progression.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was quantitative in nature. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 450 female managers. Measures included personal and demographic characteristics, organizational culture, organizational practices, organizational networks, mentoring and role modeling, tokenism, and the usage of wasta.

Findings

Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were used to explain the results. The results reveal that female managers perceive their career progression to be affected by organizational culture, practices, and networks, while mentoring and tokenism were shown to be less critical. In addition, the women in this sample perceived wasta to be a powerful determinant.

Practical implications

The findings contribute to a wider appreciation of the implicit barriers to women's career development and retention, will help organizations engage with the diversity agenda in this region and provide a better understanding of how these companies and their members can make progress, will help inform managerial interventions to make managers better able to make the most of the issues faced, and will help organizations make a much more concerted effort to manage junior female managers through helping them accelerate in their progression and development.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the limited literature on women in management in Lebanon as well as the Middle Eastern region in general.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Michael Wiech and Thomas Friedli

This paper sets out to identify barriers to intra-network exchange within international manufacturing networks (IMNs) from the micro-level perspective of key actors at the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to identify barriers to intra-network exchange within international manufacturing networks (IMNs) from the micro-level perspective of key actors at the plant level, namely, plant leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through interviews with 12 plant leaders from nine different firms operating in at least three geographically dispersed manufacturing facilities.

Findings

Six partially interrelated barriers to intra-network exchange were identified. First, there are a lack of resources, network strategies, plant overlap and individual-level ties between plant leaders. Furthermore, this study shows that the pronounced local focus of plant leaders, fierce inter-plant competition and falsely designed incentives constitute barriers to inter-plant exchange. The results underline the need for network management to consider the individual-level perspective when designing rules and policies for IMNs.

Research limitations/implications

The generalisability of the results is limited by the sample, which consists of plant leaders from firms headquartered in German-speaking areas.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that network managers should consider the interests and concerns of plant leaders when trying to facilitate network thinking. In addition to delayering the overall IMN into distinct subnetworks of peer plants, network managers should set clear and openly communicated objectives in a mission for each subnetwork that also points to inter-plant exchange and provides the resources for such activities. Practitioners should also apply shared objectives for plant leaders and promote individual-level ties between them to benefit from intra-network exchange.

Originality/value

By analysing the perceptions of plant leaders, this study sheds light on the individual level of global operations, which has been neglected in research on IMNs to date.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Rosalien Alexandra van’t Foort-Diepeveen, Aikaterini Argyrou and Tineke Lambooy

This paper aims to analyze the barriers discussed in the extant literature as to why women are underrepresented in the corporate top and explains how these barriers

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the barriers discussed in the extant literature as to why women are underrepresented in the corporate top and explains how these barriers interrelate. An understanding of the interrelatedness of the barriers can help develop suitable and effective measures to improve women’s representation.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematic review method was applied. The search resulted in 51 relevant academic articles from multiple disciplines which were used for the analysis.

Findings

Barriers identified include gender stereotypes, bias in recruitment and promotion, devaluation of women, masculine and long-hours organizational culture, work-family issues and the lack of professional support. The interrelatedness of these barriers is analyzed by means of a conceptual framework.

Research limitations/implications

The adopted method requires the use of search engines and search terms and consequently relevant articles may have been overlooked. The study is geographically demarcated to Europe and, hence is only applicable to developing suitable and effective measures in a European context. More research is needed into which measures are appropriate and effective to overcome the barriers identified.

Practical implications

The insights can be used by companies to foster gender equality and by companies and governments to develop appropriate and effective measures to overcome these barriers.

Originality/value

This review contributes to the literature by uncovering the interrelatedness of the barriers. Understanding the interrelatedness is crucial for developing appropriate measures to overcome the barriers and ultimately to achieve gender equality at the corporate top.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Jen Zdroik and Kathy Babiak

Networking practices are considered to be an important career advancement strategy. However, little empirical research exists which provides understanding of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Networking practices are considered to be an important career advancement strategy. However, little empirical research exists which provides understanding of this phenomenon as it relates to the differences in practices and experiences between genders. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the role and nature of networking and career relationships in nonprofit sport organizations is perceived to impact career development.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 34 semi-structured interviews were conducted with male and female executives in a range of nonprofit organizations to elicit views, attitudes, and information regarding formal and informal networking strategies and practices employed in this context.

Findings

Findings highlight differences in perceptions of how networking is defined, the central role of mentors, the nature of networking relationships, and networking strategies. The authors found that there are various perceived barriers with regard to gender and organizational culture in sport national governing bodies (NGBs).

Research limitations/implications

Networking practice and policy implications are discussed for sport NGBs and other organizations. The authors offer recommendations for future research.

Originality/value

The project adds value to the understanding of the career advancement of women as it directly compares perceptions of men and women.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2013

Hannah Chaplin

Using data from a survey of a stratified random sample of 900 internationalising firms carried out in 2008, this chapter examines the barriers to internationalisation…

Abstract

Using data from a survey of a stratified random sample of 900 internationalising firms carried out in 2008, this chapter examines the barriers to internationalisation faced by young innovative SMEs. The results indicate that young technology-intensive firms are more likely than non-technologically intensive firms to report barriers to internationalisation. When compared with the whole sample, young technology-intensive SMEs are significantly more likely to experience difficulties in obtaining basic information about doing business in an overseas country, and with the costs of doing business overseas. Factor analysis suggests that young technology-intensive SMEs which internationalise through non-traditional modes differ with regard to their perceptions of barriers to internationalisation from those who sell directly to customers overseas.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-315-5

Keywords

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