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Article

Meisam Modarresi, Zahra Arasti, Kambiz Talebi and Maghsoud Farasatkhah

The purpose of this paper is to identify the growth barriers of women’s home-based businesses (HBBs) in Iran.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the growth barriers of women’s home-based businesses (HBBs) in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative approach was used by 22 in-depth interviews with Iranian female HBBs owners/mangers.

Findings

Business growth barriers of women were categorized in a multi-level framework of individual barriers (micro), business-related barriers (medium) and environmental barriers (macro). The most important micro-level barrier is lack of skills and experience, while the financial barriers identified as the most business-related one and, finally, the problems of having work interactions with men is the most important environmental barrier women-owned HBBs mentioned.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this paper can help policy-makers better understand growth barriers for women-owned HBB and attenuate these barriers by developing purposeful supportive growth policies that are commensurate with the barriers. Also, HBB women owners themselves could better concentrate on removing barriers by deepening their understanding of their business growth barriers.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the scarce knowledge about women-owned HBBs in Iran, a rapidly growing, developing country, which can provide better insights from a less explored context. Moreover, as there is only a limited understanding of HBB growth, especially in relation to women business owners, the paper results can prove helpful for researchers in the domain of female entrepreneurs.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Rachel Doern

This paper aims to expand on existing conceptualisations of barriers to small business growth by addressing the question of how, or in what ways, do perceived barriers

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expand on existing conceptualisations of barriers to small business growth by addressing the question of how, or in what ways, do perceived barriers influence the growth intentions and behaviours of owner‐managers?

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting an interpretive methodological approach, in‐depth semi‐structured interviews were held with 27 owner‐managers working in St Petersburg, Russia. Participants were asked about their intentions for their businesses, how they intended to grow and what, if anything, prevented or interfered with these intentions. Template analysis was used to develop owner‐managers' perceptions and experiences of barriers to growth, and to facilitate theory building.

Findings

Six ways in which perceived barriers influence the growth intentions and behaviours of small business owner‐managers were identified. Barriers: stop owner‐managers from intending to grow; undermine intentions; add to the ambivalence around growth intentions; provide incentives to grow; postpone intention realization; and slow down the process of realizing intentions to grow.

Research limitations/implications

Because data were collected at one point in time, it was not possible to capture the dynamic nature of barriers or the intentions/behaviours they influenced. Future research could be strengthened through the use of longitudinal designs and process‐based methods (e.g. diary studies).

Practical implications

Educators and policy makers should help owner‐managers understand the ways in which barriers can affect business growth and be overcome.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine how barriers influence growth intentions and behaviours, and to facilitate theory development on the topic.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article

Faisal Talib and Zillur Rahman

In recent years, sustainable issues have gained increasing importance in the higher education sector across the country. To remain competitive, higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, sustainable issues have gained increasing importance in the higher education sector across the country. To remain competitive, higher education institutions (HEIs) have to engage themselves in providing world-class opportunities for higher education and research so that the beneficiaries may not be at a disadvantage in the international level. However, many HEIs still encounter barriers that can affect their growth. The purpose of this study is to identify and interpret the most significant barriers affecting the growth of HEIs in India and understand the mutual interactions and interdependence among them.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 12 barriers affecting the growth of HEIs in India were identified and sorted by literature review, and these were validated through discussion with experts. Contextual relationships were drawn between them during brainstorming sessions. A hierarchical, seven-level structural model of these barriers affecting the growth of HEIs was developed by utilizing the total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) approach.

Findings

The results of this study showed “lack of climate change research” as the topmost outcome of the model having the highest dependence and lowest driving power. “Facilitator domination over academic experts” occupied the bottom-level input, compared to other barriers of the model, with highest driving power and lowest dependence. Further, Matrice d'Impacts Croisés – Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement (MICMAC) analysis was also performed to categorize the identified barriers for better understanding. Under MICMAC analysis, five barriers were categorized as driver barriers, four barriers as dependent barriers and the rest as linkage barriers, while none as autonomous. A TISM-based model that partitioned the barriers into different levels was developed, showcasing direct and important transitive relations.

Practical implications

The TISM-based model developed in this study may provide a more realistic approach to the problems faced by decision-makers, academicians and top managers in the growth of HEIs in India. Thus, it will provide a roadmap to focus on the most influential barriers and reduce or eliminate them.

Originality/value

The present study identified major barriers that when dealt with can help overcome the effect of other barriers preventing the growth of HEIs in India. It also introduces a model to identify and manage the barriers by understanding the effectiveness of each barrier and minimizing the overall effect in Indian HEIs. Moreover, the analysis of interdependence and interactions studied among these barriers may also help decision-makers, academicians and top managers to find deeper insights, prioritize and rectify them, to re-establish the growth of HEIs and gain a competitive advantage.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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Article

Santosh Kumar and Roopali Sharma

The health care industry has experienced vibrant growth since the last few decades. Total health care business has reached more than US$160bn in the country and is still…

Abstract

Purpose

The health care industry has experienced vibrant growth since the last few decades. Total health care business has reached more than US$160bn in the country and is still growing, but sustainable growth of industry is a major area of concern. An unsustainable and uneven growth might contribute in growth presently, but will not help in the long run due to extinction in future. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The research has been divided into two phases to analyze the barriers to achieve sustainable growth, i.e., identification of barriers and their analysis. The study has used three different research phases: identification of barriers from the literature, interviews with experts of industry and designing an ISM model. The identification phase led to the selection of 19 barriers from literature and by suggestions from industrial experts. The interpretive structural modeling (ISM) analysis was used to understand the impact and linkage of identified barriers. The barriers are further classified into four major categories on the basis of drive power and dependence power using “Matrices d’Impacts Croises Multiplication. Appliqué a un Classement” analysis.

Findings

The present research identifies 19 barriers in the field of growth of health care mainly in rural area with 11 levels in ISM-designed model. Barriers such as lack of awareness, medical mistrust, cost/benefit, transportation, high out of pocket expenditure, lack of health insurance, medical unawareness and the cultural dimension (traditional beliefs) have very high dependency power. These variables are highly influenced by other barriers. Barriers such as low outreach (geographical reach), information and communication, insufficient capacity planning, and highest growth in population have very high driving and dependence power. They have a very high impact on the system as any change in them will have a direct impact on others. Remaining seven selected barriers have a very high driving power and they are generally independent in nature and have less impact on the system as whole.

Social implications

This study seeks to identify which barrier is acting as the most dominant one and this result is helpful for policy-makers to achieve goals of National Health Mission (NHM) by removing the dominant barrier.

Originality/value

Total health care business reaches more than US$160bn in the country and is still growing, but sustainable growth of industry is a major area of concern. This paper is one of the preliminary attempts to identify which barrier is acting as the most dominant one and this result is helpful for policy-makers to achieve the goals of NHM by removing the dominant barrier.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article

Yuan Zhou, Guannan Xu, Jun Su and Tim Minshall

Literature shows that university spin‐offs (USOs) have idiosyncratic strengths in comparison to other new firms; however, evidence also shows that Chinese USOs have a low…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature shows that university spin‐offs (USOs) have idiosyncratic strengths in comparison to other new firms; however, evidence also shows that Chinese USOs have a low survival rate, and only a small percent of them can grow into sustainable businesses. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical study to inquire about the variable growth barriers to Chinese USOs, in order to address two major research questions of this paper: what are the major growth barriers, and how significant they are; and what supports should university and government provide to eliminate those barriers?

Design/methodology/approach

In the first place, this paper attempts to explore the research questions through literature review and pilot interviews, based on which, a questionnaire for a survey was developed. Then, this study then attempts to address the research questions through a nation‐wide survey in 2009 across 69 national university science parks.

Findings

This paper finds that corporate governance issues, managerial concerns, and lack of infrastructure support are three major categories of barriers that thwart the growth of USOs in China. In addition, this paper also identified the support that is expected from universities and government agencies in order to cope with the barriers.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to theory in three ways. First, it tests and validates some existing conceptual frameworks concerned with the growth barriers to USOs. Second, it sheds light on the specific growth concerns of Chinese USOs and identifies three kinds of barriers. Further, this study provides evidence for future policy making regarding USOs and university technology transfer activities in China. This research will be of interest to policy makers, academic entrepreneurs, and university administrators.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

Keywords

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Article

Amarjit Gill and Nahum Biger

The paper seeks to extend the findings of Okpara and Wynn and Robson and Obeng related tobarriers to small business growth” by using Canadian data.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to extend the findings of Okpara and Wynn and Robson and Obeng related tobarriers to small business growth” by using Canadian data.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized survey research (a non‐experimental field study design). Small business owners from Western Canada were surveyed to gather information. Subjects were asked about their beliefs and feelings regarding barriers to growth of their small businesses. To test the hypotheses, p < 0.05 significance level was used to accept or reject a null hypothesis.

Findings

The findings of this paper indicate that lack of financing, market challenges, and regulatory issues are perceived as barriers to small business growth in Canada. The results also show that sales level of small firms (“past success”) has positive impact on small business growth in Canada.

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory study to determine perceived barriers to small business growth in Canada, so the findings do not necessarily apply to other North American countries. The present study asks for responses from fixed format, set‐questions survey tools, which could exclude additional factors.

Originality/value

The findings may be useful for the Canadian governments and small business management advisors.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Cecilia Dalborg

The purpose of this paper is to investigate women-owned businesses from a life cycle perspective and with a qualitative growth approach. Building on previous research that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate women-owned businesses from a life cycle perspective and with a qualitative growth approach. Building on previous research that has identified qualitative growth platforms, this paper takes into account the time aspect and investigates perceived barriers and support needs inside different qualitative growth platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study took place in Sweden and is based on 191 women entrepreneurs in a first survey and 101 women entrepreneurs in a follow-up questionnaire three years later. To answer the research questions, descriptive frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis techniques have been used.

Findings

The motivation of growth changes throughout the life cycle, and women entrepreneurs move between different qualitative growth platforms when required building blocks of previous platforms have been established and secured. In this transfer of growth ambition, a significant correlation between business age and intrinsic growth aspiration was identified. Initially, growth is extrinsically motivated and later on in the life cycle, it is intrinsically motivated. In the late life cycle, the motivation is extrinsically motivated again. The results discern barriers to growth that hinder movement from extrinsic to intrinsic business platforms, and the author argues that the transfer of growth ambition from one growing platform to another requires different types of advice and support from the surrounding community.

Research limitations/implications

By broadening the view of growth to include both a quantitative and qualitative approach, it is possible to identify a widespread growth ambition in women-owned businesses which experience various barriers and supportive needs. Business programs that encourage exchange of experience among entrepreneurs in various growth platforms might be a way to overcome the perceived barriers. As women’s businesses only receive a low proportion of the government funding, they are prevented from developing their growth ambitions. To ensure that all forms of growth are stimulated, different measures are required depending on which stage in their life cycle the women-owned businesses belong to.

Originality/value

By considering business growth from a qualitative perspective, barriers and needs that the traditional approach may overlook can be highlighted. For example, growth aspiration in terms of more employees will not be considered until the previously, qualitative growth platforms are established and secured. The support system, however, is designed to only favor growth in terms of employment, which results in difficulties to qualify for financial support.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article

Paul Jones, Paul Beynon‐Davies and Elizabeth Muir

The development of Ecommerce within Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Wales is restricted by a number of barriers. Various projects initiated by government and…

Abstract

The development of Ecommerce within Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Wales is restricted by a number of barriers. Various projects initiated by government and academic bodies exist to assist SMEs overcome these barriers. However, whether these projects represent the needs of SMEs is debatable. The opportunity for SMEs to exploit information communication technology has increased due to the improved affordability and sophistication of computing equipment, along with the development and utilisation of the Internet. This progress has seen the emergence of Ebusiness and Ecommerce, whereby SMEs can operate, communicate and trade in global markets. Recent surveys by academia, government and trade bodies have identified Wales as the worst performing region for Ebusiness in the UK with sceptical attitudes towards its increased adoption. This paper reports on a quantitative study investigating Ebusiness utilisation within SMEs in Wales. Specifically this paper focuses on the key barriers influencing the adoption of Ebusiness within SMEs in Wales. The survey of the Cardiff Chamber of Commerce (CCC) membership was undertaken in 2001. The CCC is a trade body of approximately 1000 SMEs encompassing a geographical area covering Cardiff, Bridgend, Newport and the Valleys areas. The postal survey and telephone follow up achieved a response rate of 100 SME classified enterprises, a response rate of approximately 10%. Academic research has identified these barriers as deficiencies in financial resources, time, information and skills; concerns over security, legal issues and competition and doubts over the applicability of Ebusiness to their business practices and cultural and infrastructure issues. These barriers are a major influence as to how Ebusiness will develop within SMEs and this paper identifies the significance of each factor in constraining growth. The paper concludes by investigating the assistance for SMEs from academia, government and trade to develop Ebusiness activities and questioning whether these are representative and effective mechanisms for this sector. This paper contributes to knowledge by appraising and contrasting existing barriers to Ebusiness literature and comparing it with the relevant SOGM literature. Secondly it classifies barriers in two ways by type and time of occurrence. Finally the paper recognises that the support mechanisms for Ebusiness within SMEs remain unproven and require further investigation to verify their effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 7 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article

Naqeeb Ur Rehman, Arjona Çela, Fatbardha Morina and Kriselda Sulçaj Gura

Western Balkans countries (WBCs) have a great potential for growth and among the main focuses of entrepreneurial activity is small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME…

Abstract

Purpose

Western Balkans countries (WBCs) have a great potential for growth and among the main focuses of entrepreneurial activity is small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector. Moreover, SMEs are believed to contribute in the economy by stimulating employment, increasing production, transferring new technologies and so forth. Due to this crucial importance the purpose of this paper is to analyze the barriers that hinder labor productivity (LP) of SMEs in WBCs.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method employed to discover solution to this research problem is quantitative analysis by using survey data of World Bank. Research methodology applied in this paper found it correctly to use cross-sectional data and conducts a factor analysis and ordinary least square (OLS) regression as the best procedure for this type of data.

Findings

The results show variability for different countries access to finance, tax rates, tax administration, corruption, inadequately educated labor force, competition in informal sector and political instability appear to be some of the main obstacles that are negatively affecting LP of SMEs in WBC.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study is the first to analyze all the possible obstacles for the six WBCs using factor analysis better results could be obtained with larger samples and panel data.

Practical implications

The policy implications of this study suggest that in order to boost productivity of these firms there must be a reduction of the barriers and improvement of business environment. Although, this study is the first to analyze all the possible obstacles for the six WBCs using factor analysis and contributes as insight to policy makers, better results could be obtained with larger samples using panel data.

Originality/value

Differently from previous studies this work uses explanatory factor analysis and method OLS to estimate regressions for all barriers in each country of Western Balkan region.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

David Irwin

Current government policy is to encourage more businesses to grow. Access to resources – financial, human and physical – are often cited as the principal barriers to the…

Abstract

Current government policy is to encourage more businesses to grow. Access to resources – financial, human and physical – are often cited as the principal barriers to the growth of small firms. The attitudes of owner‐managers, however, are equally important, with many owner‐managers deliberately avoiding growing their businesses beyond their capacity personally to manage the business. Attitudes change as businesses develop; a skilled consultant can act as catalyst to overcome cultural barriers and, consequently, to the growth of businesses. This paper examines the cultural barriers which might inhibit the growth and development of a new enterprise and offers a model to show how those barriers separate seven stages of entrepreneurial development. It highlights the role of the consultant in moving through the stages.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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