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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons, Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah and Jimmy Nkrumah

Accra, the capital city of Ghana, is seeing high-rise buildings springing up with extensive glazing. Given the challenges of the country concerning energy provision, guaranteeing…

Abstract

Purpose

Accra, the capital city of Ghana, is seeing high-rise buildings springing up with extensive glazing. Given the challenges of the country concerning energy provision, guaranteeing comfort in buildings and sustainability aspects, this trend is questionable and worrying in this pandemic era. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate how glazing types and their properties could reduce cooling loads and provide comfort by following the recommendations set by the Ghana Green Building Council (GHGBC) after the Green Star of South Africa, as well as other references found in literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Indoor thermal conditions were monitored to evaluate prevailing indoor conditions. Using a simulation application, various options were probed based on the Green recommendations and others found in literature to improve thermal comfort within the structure. Moreover, a questionnaire survey with observation was undertaken with 250 architects to understand the basis of decisions taken when specifying glazing for buildings.

Findings

The results indicate that cooling loads increased by 2% when the GHGBC after the Green Star of South Africa recommendations were applied. However, the use of the recommendations of previous research conducted in Ghana could reduce cooling loads by 38% to save energy. Suggested strategies of air velocity up to 1.0 m/s as well as thermal mass, comfort ventilation, conventional dehumidification and air-conditioning were found to be means to improve indoor comfort. Furthermore, the architects revealed that around 40% of multi-storey buildings are 70%–100% glazed. Of all the buildings, 62.4% was found to be glazed with single pane windows, making them use so much energy in cooling. Additionally, the survey underlined the client’s preference, cost and functionality as the three main bases for the choice of glazing in multi-storey office buildings.

Originality/value

A significant contribution of this study to the body of knowledge is the provision of empirical evidence to support the fact that due to climate difference, each country needs to undertake more experimental research works to be able to come out with standards that work. Thus, the GHGBC after the Green Star of South Africa does not necessarily work within the climatic context of Ghana.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons and Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah

Given the climatic context and economic challenge of Ghana in its developmental strides, energy use of office buildings continues to be a task on the economy. Therefore, the study…

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Abstract

Purpose

Given the climatic context and economic challenge of Ghana in its developmental strides, energy use of office buildings continues to be a task on the economy. Therefore, the study was about finding measures that could reduce cooling loads in 10 office buildings. The paper presents the outcome of a long-term study of the thermal conditions in a selected number of office buildings in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Through long-term monitoring of environmental data, the buildings were consequently modelled in a simulation application. Thereafter, a validation of the simulation models (using regression coefficients, r2 of 0.53–0.90) was undertaken towards finding measures to reduce cooling loads.

Findings

The results showed various potentials of efficient lighting, thermal mass, night ventilation, insulation to attic floors, efficient glazing, blind deployments, etc. in reducing cooling loads in the range of 2–17.5%. By combining the potential measures to study their synergistic effects on the loads, 35, 39 and 38% improvements were achieved for the low-rise, multi-storey and fully glazed office buildings.

Originality/value

These potential measures ought to be incorporated in the design, specification, construction and operation of Ghanaian office buildings to reduce the burden on the economy and the environment. Now more than ever, there is the need for climatic regions to come up with empirical data that could help relieve the world's economies from the post-pandemic stress.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons and Frederick Wireko Manu

Many countries the world over continue to grapple with issues of thermal discomfort both within and without – a condition that has arisen due to incessant urbanization, climate…

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries the world over continue to grapple with issues of thermal discomfort both within and without – a condition that has arisen due to incessant urbanization, climate change, among others. The current study focussed on assessing the level of thermal stress both in and outdoors towards finding measures to reduce overheating in spaces within the Savannah climatic region of Ghana through a four-stage approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A four-stage approach has been used for the study; thus, a thermal comfort analysis based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), overheating assessment, a subjective thermal responses/evaluation of residents and a simulation effort to improve comfort.

Findings

There was an indication of “moderate cold stress to slight cold stress” on the coolest day (28th December). On the warmest day (12th April), however, the indoor environment had exceedance and severity of overheating of at least 56% and 38-degree hours. The acceptable comfort range and comfort temperatures of occupants of buildings in the study area have been determined to be 25.5–33 °C by the thermal sensation survey. Meanwhile, the simulation showed that a 200% increase in thermal mass, exterior wall insulation and roof extension and insulation has the potential to generate a reduction of 18% in overheated hours.

Originality/value

The paper unearths the flagrant disregard for thermal comfort in an attempt of “copying blindly” architecture from Southern Ghana by the affluent within the Savannah Region. Again, data provided prove that indeed human activities have worsened the plight of inhabitants through materials as well as construction methods.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Christian Koranteng, David Nyame-Tawiah, Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah and Barbara Simons

As the global population keeps increasing with its associated urbanisation and climate change issues being experienced in various degrees worldwide, there is the need to find…

Abstract

Purpose

As the global population keeps increasing with its associated urbanisation and climate change issues being experienced in various degrees worldwide, there is the need to find mitigating measures to improve thermal conditions within spaces. The study aimed to evaluate green roofs to determine whether they could provide thermal comfort within residential buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Forty-two-year weather data were retrieved from the Kumasi weather station to establish the pattern of the climatic variables. Furthermore, an experiment was conducted by constructing test cells to determine the potential of vegetation/green roofs on temperature development within spaces. This approach led to a simulation-based exploration of the thermal performance of the test cells to probe variables that could lead to the reduction in temperature after the models in the software (design-builder) had been validated.

Findings

The results on the 42 years (1976–2018) weather data showed a significant (p = 0.05) mean temperature increment of 2.0 °C. The constructed test cell with Setcreasea purpurea (Purple Heart) vegetation showed an annual mean temperature reduction of 0.4 °C (p = 0.05). In addition, the exploration using the simulation application showed combinations of various soil depth (70–500 mm) and leaf area indices (leaf area index of 2–5) having a potential to lower indoor temperature by 1.5 °C and its associated reduction in energy use. The option of green roofs as a valuable alternative to conventional roofs, given their potential in mitigating climate change, must be encouraged. A survey of occupants in six selected neighbourhoods in Kumasi showed varying subjective perceptions of several green issues (24–98%) and increases in temperature values because of the loss of greenery in the city.

Originality/value

Empirical data that point to the significant reduction of indoor temperature values and a subsequent reduction in energy use have been unearthed. Therefore, built environment professionals together with city authorities could invest in these sustainable measures to help humanity.

Details

Open House International, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons and Charles Essel

The ever-increasing demand and consumption of energy and the effects of global warming with its long-term comrade, climate change, is obvious today than ever before. In today’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The ever-increasing demand and consumption of energy and the effects of global warming with its long-term comrade, climate change, is obvious today than ever before. In today’s world, naturally-ventilated buildings hardly provide the satisfaction that occupants need and wish for. It’s on this backdrop that the study aims to investigate how responsive buildings on the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana campus are to its warm humid climate and assess students thermal comfort levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative approach was adopted for the study. Empirical investigation was carried out using the survey approach. In total, 14 buildings (offices, classrooms and halls of residences) were assessed using the Mahoney Tables. Again, subjective thermal perceptions of occupants in the halls of residences was sought. A total of 214 valid questionnaires were used for the analysis.

Findings

Adaptive principles like the Mahoney Tables are not followed in recent years. Even where these principles have been followed, indoor spaces were still found to be uncomfortable. In total, 58 per cent of the occupants in all the three halls of residence voted in the comfort band: an indication unacceptable sensations. Warm sensation votes (44 per cent) was more than cool sensation votes (29 per cent). In warm sensation, 39 per cent of the subjects preferred cooler environment. The occupants felt that opening windows and the use of fans could keep them comfortable. Moreover, 48 per cent of the subjects voted that their fans and windows were effective.

Originality/value

The papers contribution to the body of knowledge is the provision of empirical evidence in the field of adaptive designs and thermal comfort. There is a strong indication from the results that human activities in terms of blatant disregard for laid down design principles coupled with the worsening situation of global warming is making interior spaces ever uncomfortable.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Michael Nii Addy, Stephen Akunyumu and Barbara Simons

Sustained access to efficient electricity plays an essential role in improving living conditions of people and contributes to the economic development of the nation as a whole…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustained access to efficient electricity plays an essential role in improving living conditions of people and contributes to the economic development of the nation as a whole. Volta River Authority (VRA) mainly manages the generation plants (hydropower sources and thermal plants) alongside independent power producers (IPPs). Power generation in the country has been influenced by myriads of factors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the key risk factors affecting renewable energy of IPPs set-up project in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative approach was adopted for the study. Empirical investigation was carried out using the survey approach. The likelihood of occurrence of the risk and the degree of impact of same motivated the use of risk significance index to analyze the data and make deductions from the results.

Findings

From the study, three key risk factors have high level of severity, which include long and complex procedures for authorization of project activities, stability of the policy environment and ease of obtaining rights to land. These risks could be found in the business/strategic risks and policy/regulatory risks categories, respectively. A total of 25 key risk factors had moderate level of severity and 12 key risk factors have low level of severity on renewable energy IPP set up projects.

Practical implications

Top-ranked risk factors require maximum attention. The identified risks should be alleviated with strategies to reduce levels of severity by targeting either the likelihood of occurrence or the level of impact. This will serve as a catalyze to promoting renewable energy IPP set-up projects in Ghana.

Originality/value

Key contribution of the paper to the body of knowledge is demonstrated by the empirical evidence of the risks IPPs are likely to encounter in setting up renewable energy plants in Ghana. The distinctive attribute of this study is further demonstrated by the fact that it focused on the set-up stage, which is a critical stage in the renewable energy provision value chain.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Hui-Lan H. Titangos

To provide library service to users of all ages has been one of the primary missions of county libraries since 1908 when the first branch of the first county library system was…

1080

Abstract

Purpose

To provide library service to users of all ages has been one of the primary missions of county libraries since 1908 when the first branch of the first county library system was born in Sacramento as a proud milestone in the history of California public library. It has been a constant challenge to local governments and library staff members alike, especially when there are economic downturns or many priority programs to balance with. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces an innovative methodology in collection development to promote the concept that library collections, traditional or digital, can serve users of all ages as long as they can be adaptable to meet the changing needs of users, and compatible with changing information technologies.

Findings

By examining the process of an audio collection integrated as part of library collections and deeply rooted in users’ lives, the author reports the findings in the following areas: developing a robust audio collection catering to all users at Santa Cruz Public Libraries, despite technological changes and limited budget; getting involved in the whole organization’s programs and projects by collaborations; offering innovative promotion approaches; providing comprehensive subject coverage and always keeping the local community in mind; and evolving constantly to make technologies your friends, not foes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper analyzes a successful collection development experience in audio collections to strive to realize the original county library’s ideal to serve users of all ages in California.

Practical implications

The successful collection development experience is useful not only for acquisition librarians, but a much broader audience such as library managers in charge of library material budgets.

Social implications

The findings point out a number of social implications confronting library professionals worldwide. They include conflicts between users’ real needs vs our assumptions, limited budget vs expanding coverage, and library services vs the nature of technology.

Originality/value

The paper helps library professionals to develop, maintain, and succeed in their short- and long-term goals in collection development.

Details

Library Management, vol. 39 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Caroline Simon, Barbara Truffin and Anne Wyvekens

Based on extensive empirical fieldworks conducted in Belgian and French family justice courtrooms in order to explain how culture and ethnicity are processed and understood in the…

Abstract

Based on extensive empirical fieldworks conducted in Belgian and French family justice courtrooms in order to explain how culture and ethnicity are processed and understood in the daily reasoning and assumptions of legal professionals, this chapter analyzes different forms in which culture and ethnicity are framed in family law cases. Understanding how and along which dimensions these elements do vary in judicial reasoning constitutes the preliminary but necessary step before assessing the need of cultural expertise as such. In this attempt, we shed light on a scope of variations between complex and non-deterministic models of culture – consistent with contemporary anthropology literature – and more simplistic ones, in which culture and identity are conceived as fixed realities. Throughout this path between norms, facts, and stereotypes, we illustrate not only the multiplicity and complexity of forms which cultural elements can take in the exercise of family justice, but also the risks that some significances may carry with them and the urgent need to improve more fluid and dispassionate conceptions of cultural diversity before developing “cultural expertise” as such, an expertise that could otherwise reinforce stereotypical and fixed views of “cultures.”

Details

Cultural Expertise and Socio-Legal Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-515-3

Keywords

Content available
364

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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