Barbara Korth puts forward a feminist view of the relationship between values and research, and assesses my position from this perspective, agreeing in some places but…
Barbara Korth puts forward a feminist view of the relationship between values and research, and assesses my position from this perspective, agreeing in some places but disagreeing in others (see previous chapter). In response, let me begin by sketching out four significantly different positions that map the terrain concerned, thereby providing some sense of the options available.
I am the oldest daughter from a family of five girls. I was born in the 1950s and had my first real encounters with feminism as a social movement during the second wave…
I am the oldest daughter from a family of five girls. I was born in the 1950s and had my first real encounters with feminism as a social movement during the second wave women's liberation movement in the United States in the 1970s. This movement had an important impact on me. Despite the appeal of the women's movement for me, I lived a powerfully gendered life. I had not been allowed to read The Lord of the rings series in school because I was a girl. I detested Barbie dolls and yet was sentenced to hours of play with them if I was to have any social life at all. I had to pretend that I neither liked nor was competent at math and science. My high school boyfriend was paying me a compliment when decades after high school he told me, “At least you never let on that you were smart. I always appreciated that about you.” When I attended the first day of a basic calculus class at a public university in 1981, the professor announced, “No female has ever passed a class with me.” In 1983, I was reprimanded by my elementary school principal for wearing slacks to teach. This was reminiscent of my childhood days when my parents finally, but only, allowed me to wear trousers to school on Fridays. In 1990, my 5-year-old daughter told me, “Well, mom, everyone knows boys are smarter than girls” (of course she has since changed her mind!).
I am persistently struck by how easy it seems in academic discourse to polarize positions and people. Ming-chu Hsu, a graduate student at Indiana University, recently wrote an essay discussing western academic discourse and its propensity to pit people's positions against one another as if this were the sole way to have a legitimate intellectual claim. I have worries about being a participant in an interchange with those rules because I do not, in the end, believe in them. In my paper, I am trying to explore what it means to have partisan (feminist) concerns and commitments in the world when I do ethnography. I am sure there is fallibility in my perspective and I welcome the dialogue on non-polarized grounds. My paper was an opportunity to reflect using Hammersley's position as a mirror for my own. And the mirror talked back! It is in this context that I offer the following comments on Hammersley's response to my paper.
What counts as ethnography and what counts as good ethnographic methodology are both highly contested. This volume brings together chapters presenting a diversity of views on some of the current issues and practices in ethnographic methodology. It does not try to present a single coherent view but, through its heterogeneity, illustrates the strength and impact of debate.
Alexandra Allan is a doctoral research student based at Cardiff University, Wales. Her research interests mainly lie within studies of genders and sexualities, children and childhood and educational success and achievement. Her doctoral research is a qualitative investigation of how primary school girls manage their gender identities as ‘girls’ with their academic identities as ‘pupils’ in a single sex, selective, private school setting. This research is mainly based in the primary school, but extends to the early years of secondary education where it is concerned to explore the transition process and how identities are managed during this important period. Alexandra also has a strong interest in qualitative research methods and methodology. In particular, she is interested in using photographic methods in her research as a way of encouraging children to participate in research and to (re)present themselves visually.
This paper aims to respond to the call for empirical research on cluster internationalization to learn more about the mechanism of cluster internationalization and the…
This paper aims to respond to the call for empirical research on cluster internationalization to learn more about the mechanism of cluster internationalization and the intensity of this process in a Polish context, which is specific due to Poland.
The authors provide a conceptual model of cluster internationalization and show results of their own primary, empirical and quantitative research on cluster internationalization in Poland.
The study reveals that Polish clusters are at the beginning of the internationalization process, particularly of the outward internationalization. The most popular mode of internationalization is exports. The level of Polish cluster internationalization operations is relatively low.
Data were provided by cluster managers, but none of the cluster organizations had a reliable monitoring system for the international involvement of cluster members. These results are merely a snapshot; therefore, a longitudinal study should also be carried out.
The research demonstrates that cluster companies can take advantage of internationalization operations performed by cluster organizations. The attempts of Polish government should be directed to push the internationalization of micros and small and medium-sized enterprises via cluster initiatives on the one hand and on the other hand to develop some kind of incentives for large companies to participate in cluster organizations as in reality exports are dominated by large firms.
The main value added of this paper consists in developing the conceptual model of cluster internationalization and applying the model in empirical research on the internationalization of Polish clusters. The study bridges the theory of firm internationalization, especially the approaches to firm internationalization with the theory of clusters. It offers insight into internationalization of clusters in Poland.