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The purpose of this paper is to focus on adoption of certified management standards, specifically public standards. Such standards play an increasingly important role in…
The purpose of this paper is to focus on adoption of certified management standards, specifically public standards. Such standards play an increasingly important role in today’s business environment. However, to generate adoption benefits, they must be first widely accepted – a situation where they have become viewed as the de facto norms. For this state to occur early adopters play a critical role. Past research has argued that early adopters, in exchange for assuming more risk, are rewarded with higher economic returns. Yet, these findings are based on private, not public standards. With public standards, early adopters do not receive such benefits. There is evidence that public standards are becoming more important. This situation leads to a simple but important question addressed in this study – if early adopters assume the risks of embracing a new public standard without economic benefits, then what is their motivation? To resolve this question, this study draws on agency theory and prospect theory. The authors argue that early adopters embrace such standards because of their desire to minimize risk resulting from failure to support the goal at the heart of the public standards.
Data were obtained from the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) Partners Cost Benefit Survey and analyzed through structural equation modeling.
Early adopters of public standards are not driven by economic benefits but rather by the need to minimize their exposure to the risks associated with failing to satisfy the goals associated with a public standard. In other words, they were motivated by the need to minimize costs. In the case of C-TPAT, these costs are those of failing to provide or improve network security.
This study has shed new light on the standards adoption process by clarifying the specific motivations that drive early adoption of a public standard. In addition to identifying the loss aversion motives of early adopters and economic benefit motives of later adopters, the authors have also elaborated on the notion that standards have differing levels of precedence, particularly when comparing private with public standards.
In a world characterized by increasing demands for outcomes such as improved security and where governmental funding is falling, due to growing deficits and governments that are becoming more conservative, the authors expect the use of public standards to increase.
Different from prior research on private standard, the paper focuses on the organizations involved in the adoption and diffusion of a public standard, with special attention being devoted to the early adopters. The paper provides a theoretical explanation for the actions of early adopters of a public standard through the theoretical lens of prospect theory.
Using the combined theoretical umbrella of organizational legitimacy theory, service-dominant logic, fairness heuristic theory and two-factor theory, the purpose of this…
Using the combined theoretical umbrella of organizational legitimacy theory, service-dominant logic, fairness heuristic theory and two-factor theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of different food recall strategies (recall proactiveness and compensation) in terms of both how consumers react (perceived organizational legitimacy and purchase intention) and how recall norms would influence the effectiveness in three countries. In addition to the reporting of important results, this paper provides implications for food companies to handle effectively the recalls, especially when the recalls are cross-country.
A 2 compensation (high vs low) ×2 recall strategy (proactive vs passive) scenario experiment was conducted in Hong Kong, the USA and Mainland China. After checking the effectiveness of manipulation, the paper tested the main effect and interaction effect of recall proactiveness and compensation on perceived organizational legitimacy and purchase intention. In addition, the mediating effect of perceived organizational legitimacy between recall strategies and purchase intention was also tested.
Significant main effect, interaction and mediation effect were found across the three countries with a different pattern. For the USA and Mainland China which have strong recall norms, the interaction found followed the predictions of the two-factory theory. However, the pattern found in Hong Kong, which has weak recall norms, followed the predictions of the fairness heuristic theory. Full mediation effect of perceived organizational legitimacy between compensation and purchase intention was found in the USA and Mainland China, while it was only partial in Hong Kong. For the mediation between proactiveness and purchase intention, full mediation was found in Hong Kong and the USA, while it was only partial in Mainland China.
First, this study differentiated food recall strategy into two dimensions – recall proactiveness and compensation. Second, this study tested the applicability of two-factor theory and fairness heuristic theory in recalls by testing the competing hypotheses proposed according to the two theories. Finally, this study can further help our understanding of the recall effectiveness across different recall norms.
Research has found a subgroup of conservative white males have lower perceptions of risk across a variety of environmental and health hazards. Less research has looked at…
Research has found a subgroup of conservative white males have lower perceptions of risk across a variety of environmental and health hazards. Less research has looked at the views of these “low risk” individuals in group interactions. Through qualitative analysis of a technology deliberation, we note that white men expressing low risk views regarding technologies for energy and the environment also often express high social risks around potential loss of control. We argue these risk perceptions reflect identification with corporate concerns, usually framed in opposition to government and mirroring arguments made by conservative organizations. We situate these views within the broader cultural struggle over who has the power to name and address risks.
Using the matching/difference perspective, the purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction fit between a set of managerial practices from manufacturing strategy…
Using the matching/difference perspective, the purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction fit between a set of managerial practices from manufacturing strategy (MS) and another set from technology management (TM) and the link of this fit to operational performance.
The paper applies multiple statistical methods to a database of an international sample of plants in the auto supplier sector to explore (deviation score analysis/multiple linear regression) and confirm (correlation and variance subgroup analysis) whether a matching model presents organisational disequilibrium, where states of fit are related to effectively higher performance than states of misfit.
Results from regression show that there were no states of misfit between the levels of both manufacturing practice sets/areas. This means that there are no significant differences in performance that may be tested for matching interaction. However, subgroup analysis provides greater detail on why there might not be any misfits (i.e. state of fit), by illustrating that when grouping by plant type (high/world class performer, HP, and standard performer, SP), the slight lack of significant difference in the correlation between MS and TM was in favour of HP. The implementation levels of MS‐TM found were not significantly different, showing for HP slightly higher levels for both practices (+&+) than for SP, with slightly lower values in both cases (− & −). Therefore, it seems that both groups might perform equally well, due not to interaction but to the presence of a state of MS‐TM fit alone. A state of fit such as this, known as selection or congruency, would be the reason for there being no significant matching interaction originally.
Most of the interaction fit bibliography is from the accounting perspective. Therefore, the impact of the matching interaction fit between MS and TM (as well as its impact on performance) has not been well documented theoretically, and much less, empirically, in production and operations management.
A number of authors have used terms such as “world‐class manufacturing”, “high performance manufacturing” and others to describe comprehensive approaches to manufacturing…
A number of authors have used terms such as “world‐class manufacturing”, “high performance manufacturing” and others to describe comprehensive approaches to manufacturing performance improvement. They have broken new ground by introducing the notion of broad, organization‐wide improvement approaches, involving many complex interrelationships. However, testing the associated relationships is just beginning. The WCM Project seeks to articulate the practices which are associated with world‐class manufacturing and their interrelationships. In this attempt, a number of studies have been conducted, using the comprehensive database developed for the project. Provides a detailed examination of the development and verification of the database, which contains perceptual and objective information about quality, JIT, technology, strategy, organization characteristics and human resource management practices of 42 plants in the machinery, electronics and transportation components industries. It also provides a brief overview of three of the studies conducted as part of this project, dealing with: manufacturing process innovation; the relationship between quality practices and performance; and the relationship between TQM and JIT. Each of these highlights specific practices which are related to performance, as well as relevant infrastructure characteristics.
An extensive literature search was conducted to better understand and to dispel the current stereotypes in the workplace regarding Generation X and Baby Boomers. For the…
An extensive literature search was conducted to better understand and to dispel the current stereotypes in the workplace regarding Generation X and Baby Boomers. For the purpose of the article Generation X consisted of those born between 1961 and 1981, while Baby Boomers consisted of those born between 1943 and 1960. The purpose of this article was to use an exhaustive review of eclectic/multidisciplinary literature to address six commonly held myths presented by Paul and Townsend (1993). Furthermore, it was intended to examine empirical research gathered by a literature review of the stereotypes in the workplace, to better understand the profiles and factors that motivate the Baby Boomers and Generation X, in conjunction with the following independent variables: age, productivity, motivation, training, and mentoring and job satisfaction. Selected hypotheses were tested suggesting Generation Xers are more productive, more motivated, easily trainable and exhibit higher job satisfaction levels as compared to Baby Boomers. Results were convergent and divergent in several cases worth noting. It is important for organizations to recognize the limitations that stereotypes create in the workplace. As was demonstrated by the varied research, Baby Boomers and Generation Xers are not dissimilar as employees; they possess more similarities than differences. Organizations need to engineer/design an environment of respect for both groups to create synergies between them to build and maintain a productive workforce.
This study empirically examines the impact of quality effort orientation on the financial performance of certified Portuguese firms. The results of factor analysis…
This study empirically examines the impact of quality effort orientation on the financial performance of certified Portuguese firms. The results of factor analysis revealed four quality efforts orientation factors. The results of cluster analysis revealed the existence of three distinct groups of firms with regard to quality efforts orientation and performance. The analysis of variance results revealed that firms with a quality efforts orientation focusing on the customer tends to outperform firms utilising other quality efforts orientation with regard to net profit after taxes.