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This paper aims to explore the research and development (R&D) structure and the effect which R&D may have on economic growth in Hebei Province, PRC. Through the comparison…
This paper aims to explore the research and development (R&D) structure and the effect which R&D may have on economic growth in Hebei Province, PRC. Through the comparison of R&D efficiency in Hebei and that of seven other regions (with top economic performance in China), it tries to find out the right ways of improving R&D performance, in order to increase its contribution to economic growth. It concludes with practical suggestions for future R&D management in Hebei, and it also offers a useful evaluation framework for other regions.
Based on the analysis of R&D census in 2000 in China and an investigation of 532 large and medium enterprises in Hebei Province, this paper presents a data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework to measure the effects of R&D on economic growth in China. Regional comparisons of R&D efficiencies are also carried out.
Applying the DEA model, this paper finds out the shortcomings of R&D structure in Hebei Province as well as problems in R&D efficiency compared to some other regions. The R&D scale of Hebei is still at the stage of increasing returns to scale, and its ratio of basic research: applied research: development should be adjusted to 2.9:10.4:86.7 instead of 5.7:2.6:67.6. Through the investigation of 532 large and medium enterprises between 1998 and 2000 in Hebei, it was also found that the indigenous innovation is currently the main pattern of Hebei's enterprises.
With the DEA model, this paper presents a useful evaluation model on R&D structure and contribution to economic growth in Hebei Province, PRC. A comparison of regional R&D efficiencies provides an important guideline for local governments with respect to future policy making. The framework used in Hebei Province in this paper offers a good reference for some other regions as well.
This work was focused upon the main factors that influence the formation of a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) supramolecular complex with octadecylamine (ODA) and…
This work was focused upon the main factors that influence the formation of a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) supramolecular complex with octadecylamine (ODA) and their optimal processing conditions. The anti-corrosion properties of the products in the simulated boiler water condensate of power plants also needed to be tested. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
A grinding method was applied to synthesize the supramolecular structures. Using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), the specific structures of the complex were clarified. The anti-corrosion properties were obtained from gravimetric results, potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.
The results reveal the highly soluble supramolecular complex could be formed between two HP-β-CD molecules and one ODA molecule at 85°C with a processing period of 15 minutes. In the condensate, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the complex was over 95 percent, much higher than the inhibition efficiency of the hydrophobic ODA compound.
The supramolecular corrosion inhibitor could be used as an anti-corrosion method for industrial boiler condensate to reduce the content of corrosive ions. In this way, it is easier to reuse the condensate without re-polishing.
The research introduces supramolecular chemistry into corrosion science for the first time. The results provide a new option to modify the traditional corrosion inhibitors.