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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2022

Yuchen Xiao, Huiyi Tang, Hehe Zhang, Xiaoling Yang, Ling Sun, Yong Xie, Baoan Wu, Baifeng Luan, Weidong Xie and Xinnan Cai

The purpose of this paper is to develop high-performance Au-coated Ag alloy wires (ACAA wires) and demonstrate the effect of Au coating layers on the bonding performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop high-performance Au-coated Ag alloy wires (ACAA wires) and demonstrate the effect of Au coating layers on the bonding performance and oxidation resistance for stable and reliable electronic packaging applications.

Design/methodology/approach

ACAA wire with a diameter of approximately 25 µm and Au layer thickness of approximately 100 nm were prepared by the continuous casting, plating and wire drawing method. The bonding performance of the ACAA wires were studied through bonding on 3,535 chips. The oxidation resistance of ACAA wires and Ag alloy wires (AA wires) were comparatively studied by means of chemical oxidation tests, accelerated life tests and electrochemical tests systematically.

Findings

ACAA wires could form axi-symmetrical spherical free air balls with controllable diameter of 1.5∼2.5 times of the wire diameter after electric flame-off process. The ball shear strength of ACAA wire was higher than that of AA wires. Most importantly, because of the surface Au coating layer, the oxidation resistance of ACAA wires was much enhanced.

Research limitations/implications

ACAA wires with different lengths of heat affected zone were not developed in this study, which limited their application with different loop height requirements.

Practical implications

With higher bonding strength and oxidation resistance, ACAA wires would be a better choice than previous reported AA wire in chip packaging which require high stability and reliability.

Originality/value

This paper provides a kind of novel ACAA wire, which possess the merits of high bonding strength and reliability, and show great potential in electronic packaging applications.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2010

XueHua Zhang, Hongwei Zhang, Baoan Zhang and Hongbo Liu

The purpose of this paper is to present a new plan approach for optimal allocation water resources in social‐economic‐environmental complex system in order to achieve…

231

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new plan approach for optimal allocation water resources in social‐economic‐environmental complex system in order to achieve human and nature coordinated development.

Design/methodology/approach

By integrating the system dynamics (SD) and multi‐objective programming (MOP), the new approach which is termed SD‐MOP model is proposed. The model is characterized by fully reflecting the initial trends of the system development, accurately explaining both of the structure and function of the system, objectively finding the sensible points of the system, and achieving the optimum solutions of the model, the according the solutions the optimal plan can be designed according practical situation.

Findings

By applying SD‐MOP integrated model, the designed planning proposal can be guaranteed operable, available, and optimal level.

Practical implications

SD‐MOP integrated model is a very useful support tool in optimal decision making.

Originality/value

The new planning approach of SD‐MOP integrated model can be used in regional resources planning, especially in formulating sustainable development strategies. In addition, the model can be used to estimate the trends of the system development when the planning program has been implemented.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Xudong He, GuangYi Yang, E. Yang, Moli Zhang, Dan Luo, Jingjian Liu, Chongnan Zhao, Qinhua Chen and Fengying Ran

Based on DNase I and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-magnetic silicon microspheres (MNPS), a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent probe for the detection of PD-L1 was developed.

Abstract

Purpose

Based on DNase I and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-magnetic silicon microspheres (MNPS), a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent probe for the detection of PD-L1 was developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Here °C we present a feasibility of biosensor to detection of PD-L1 in lung tumors plasma. In the absence of PD-L1°C the PD-L1 aptamer is absorbed on the surface of graphene oxide modified magnetic nanoparticles °8rGO-MNPS°9 and leading to effective fluorescence quenching. Upon adding PD-L1°C the aptamer sequences could be specifically recognized by PD-L1 and the aptamer/PD-L1 complex is formed°C resulting in the recovery of quenched fluorescence.

Findings

This sensor can detect PD-L1 with a linear range from 100 pg mL−1 to 100 ng mL−1, and a detection limit of 10 pg•m−1 was achieved.

Originality/value

This method provides an easy and sensitive method for the detection of PD-L1 and will be beneficial to the early diagnosis and prognosis of tumors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Fang Shuqiong, Yang Baoan and Yu Yin

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new mentality of constructing the evaluation index system on national energy security, in favor of analyzing its influencing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new mentality of constructing the evaluation index system on national energy security, in favor of analyzing its influencing factors and coupling relations thoroughly.

Design/methodology/approach

The complex adaptive system (CAS) theory has provided one kind analysis method on modeling and simulation for question of the social economic system, which based on the adaptive agent and mutual interaction. In view of this, the authors' expect to use this kind of new research paradigm for reference, and construct the evaluation index systems on national energy security using the integration of CAS theory and pressure‐state‐response (PSR) conceptual model.

Findings

Constructs a set of compound index system of “six parallel layers, gradually converge, six layers three dimensions three degrees.”

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation index system on national energy security is in the discussion stage at present, and the comparatively systematic or accepted index system has not been established. So the further study on influencing factors and measurement indicator system based on multi‐dimension of national energy security, is the emphasis of the continued further research.

Practical implications

Constructing the evaluation index system on national energy security integrating PSR conceptual model from the perspective CAS.

Originality/value

Divides the carrier of energy security problem's happening into three energy domains (non‐renewable energy), and introduces the theory and method of CAS to construct the agent layer to carry on the multi‐agent gambling analysis. Simultaneously separately analyses the coal security, the petroleum security as well as the natural gas security using the concept framework of PSR.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 37 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Grace O.M. Lee and Malcolm Warner

This article focuses on and provides an updated version of our analysis of labour‐market policies in Greater China over the last decade, specifically in Shanghai and the…

2105

Abstract

This article focuses on and provides an updated version of our analysis of labour‐market policies in Greater China over the last decade, specifically in Shanghai and the Hong Kong SAR. The role of the “one country, two systems” model is re‐evaluated vis‐à‐vis both their labour‐market policies. We present a statistical comparison of employment and unemployment in the two settings using the latest data at hand in 2002. Then, we suggest a labour‐market schema to take into account likenesses and dissimilarities. Taking into account the divergent histories, the distinct role of the state as well as the evolving economic structures, we may hypothesize that although there will be different labour markets emerging in the two city contexts, a degree of relative convergence may now be envisaged.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Hongming Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of illegal insider trading enforcement in China by focusing, among other things, on the Chinese Securities…

1666

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of illegal insider trading enforcement in China by focusing, among other things, on the Chinese Securities Regulatory Commission's (CSRC) enforcement actions in the period 1993‐2006.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the CSRC's enforcement policies and practices of insider trading regulation, based upon administrative and judicial cases, face‐to‐face interviews with regulators, and policy documents.

Findings

A major finding of the study is the paucity of insider trading cases and the lack of convictions for insider trading offences in China. The campaign against securities offences did not actually come with the stricter enforcement of insider trading laws. A primary challenge in the insider trading regulation comes from the fact that most insider trading cases involve high‐ranking government and party officials. The CSRC lacks the power to directly administer discipline and penalties on government officials and party cadres for insider trading offences.

Research limitations/implications

It is recommended that the CSRC be given more power, more resources and more trained regulators to detect and address insider trading activities. It is also recommended that the CSRC improve its surveillance capabilities by fully utilizing sophisticated computer surveillance software systems, by improving inter‐agency and inter‐market information‐sharing, and by cooperating with other countries' regulators and participating in the ISG's database to detect possible international insider trading.

Originality/value

The paper will be of interest to researchers in the field of financial crime and securities regulation. Regulators, the private sector and government departments will also benefit from an analysis of Chinese insider trading enforcement cases. This paper also suggests better strategies for dealing with insider trading offences in China. A fair and orderly market is crucial for investors in the Chinese market.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Asli Özdemir and Güzin Özdagoglu

Prediction problems raised in uncertain environments require different solution approaches such as grey prediction models, which consider uncertainty in information and…

Abstract

Purpose

Prediction problems raised in uncertain environments require different solution approaches such as grey prediction models, which consider uncertainty in information and also enable the use of small data sets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the comparative performances of grey prediction models (GM) and Markov chain integrated grey models in a demand prediction problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The modeling process of grey models is initially described, and then an integrated model called the Grey-Markov model is presented for the convenience of applications. The analyses are conducted on a monthly demand prediction problem to demonstrate the modeling accuracies of the GM (1,1), GM (2,1), GM (1,1)-Markov, and GM (2,1)-Markov models.

Findings

Numerical results reveal that the Grey-Markov model based on GM (2,1) achieves better prediction performance than the other models.

Practical implications

It is thought that the methodology and the findings of the study will be a significant reference for both academics and executives who struggle with similar demand prediction problems in their fields of interest.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study comes from the fact that the GM (2,1)-Markov model has been first used for demand prediction. Furthermore, the GM (2,1)-Markov model represents a relatively new approach, and this is the second paper that addresses the GM (2,1)-Markov model in any area.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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