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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Bharat Bhushan and Banwari Lal

India has a prominent place in scientific activity among the third world countries. This is evident from its high production of publications in different branches of…

Abstract

India has a prominent place in scientific activity among the third world countries. This is evident from its high production of publications in different branches of science and technology as well as from its accelerated growth of research and development work within the country. Almost all the papers, notes, reviews, corrections and correspondence published in scientific journals contain citations. These cite generally by title, author and where and when published, documents that support, provide precedent for illustration orelaborate on what the author has to say. Citations are the formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common. A citation index is built around these linkages. It lists publications that have been cited and identifies the sources of the citation. Anyone conducting a literature search can find from one to dozens of additional papers on a subject, just by knowing one that has been cited. This communication outlines the development of a citation index in India.

Details

Program, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Rabishankar Giri and Anup Kumar Das

With a sustainable knowledge economy in the backdrop, India has seen an exponential growth of academic and sponsored research programmes across all major disciplines…

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Abstract

Purpose

With a sustainable knowledge economy in the backdrop, India has seen an exponential growth of academic and sponsored research programmes across all major disciplines. There has been an exponential proliferation of Indian research journals to disseminate results of research carried out in India, by Indian researchers, from collaborative global research programmes. This paper aims to briefly describe a new initiative, the Indian Citation Index (ICI), which is a web‐based citation database of India‐based or India‐focused research journals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a glimpse of the new ICI initiative. It briefly describes its promises and coverage. This paper is based on data available in the ICI portal and its information brochure.

Findings

The ICI has made an attempt to create a web‐based citation database covering a whole range of disciplines, i.e. sciences, technologies, social sciences and humanities. This paper also identifies similar initiatives in the past, which failed due to the absence of web technologies and web‐based business models.

Research limitations/implications

This paper informs the availability of a web‐based ICI to a worldwide audience. Many in‐depth studies can now be undertaken to measure productivity of Indian research journals vis‐à‐vis Indian researchers using datasets of this citation database. Some studies can also be made to measure popularity of Indian journals amongst foreign researchers and foreign research collaborators.

Social implications

If this initiative is successful, other countries will be inspired to have their own country‐specific citation database to measure performance of home‐grown research periodicals.

Originality/value

This is an informative news article to keep abreast of latest development of a country‐specific citation database.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Shashi Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Rathore, Brishbhan Singh Panwar and Jamil Akhtar

This paper aims to describe the fabrication and characterization of current mirror-integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based pressure sensor.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the fabrication and characterization of current mirror-integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based pressure sensor.

Design/methodology/approach

The integrated pressure-sensing structure consists of three identical 100-µm long and 500-µm wide n-channel MOSFETs connected in a resistive loaded current mirror configuration. The input transistor of the mirror acts as a constant current source MOSFET and the output transistors are the stress sensing MOSFETs embedded near the fixed edge and at the center of a square silicon diaphragm to sense tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, developed under applied pressure. The current mirror circuit was fabricated using standard polysilicon gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology on the front side of the silicon wafer and the flexible pressure sensing square silicon diaphragm, with a length of 1,050 µm and width of 88 µm, was formed by bulk micromachining process using tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution on the backside of the wafer. The pressure is monitored by the acquisition of drain voltages of the pressure sensing MOSFETs placed near the fixed edge and at the center of the diaphragm.

Findings

The current mirror-integrated pressure sensor was successfully fabricated and tested using in-house developed pressure measurement system. The pressure sensitivity of the tested sensor was found to be approximately 0.3 mV/psi (or 44.6 mV/MPa) for pressure range of 0 to 100 psi. In addition, the pressure sensor was also simulated using Intellisuite MEMS Software and simulated pressure sensitivity of the sensor was found to be approximately 53.6 mV/MPa. The simulated and measured pressure sensitivities of the pressure sensor are in close agreement.

Originality/value

The work reported in this paper validates the use of MOSFETs connected in current mirror configuration for the measurement of tensile and compressive stresses developed in a silicon diaphragm under applied pressure. This current mirror readout circuitry integrated with MEMS pressure-sensing structure is new and fully compatible to standard CMOS processes and has a promising application in the development CMOS-MEMS-integrated smart sensors.

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Pradeep Kumar Rathore, Brishbhan Singh Panwar and Jamil Akhtar

The present paper aims to propose a basic current mirror-sensing circuit as an alternative to the traditional Wheatstone bridge circuit for the design and development of…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to propose a basic current mirror-sensing circuit as an alternative to the traditional Wheatstone bridge circuit for the design and development of high-sensitivity complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)–microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-integrated pressure sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates a novel current mirror-sensing-based CMOS–MEMS-integrated pressure-sensing structure based on the piezoresistive effect in metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET). A resistive loaded n-channel MOSFET-based current mirror pressure-sensing circuitry has been designed using 5-μm CMOS technology. The pressure-sensing structure consists of three identical 10-μm-long and 50-μm-wide n-channel MOSFETs connected in current mirror configuration, with its input transistor as a reference MOSFET and output transistors are the pressure-sensing MOSFETs embedded at the centre and near the fixed edge of a silicon diaphragm measuring 100 × 100 × 2.5 μm. This arrangement of MOSFETs enables the sensor to sense tensile and compressive stresses, developed in the diaphragm under externally applied pressure, with respect to the input reference transistor of the mirror circuit. An analytical model describing the complete behaviour of the integrated pressure sensor has been described. The simulation results of the pressure sensor show high pressure sensitivity and a good agreement with the theoretical model has been observed. A five mask level process flow for the fabrication of the current mirror-sensing-based pressure sensor has also been described. An n-channel MOSFET with aluminium gate was fabricated to verify the fabrication process and obtain its electrical characteristics using process and device simulation software. In addition, an aluminium gate metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor was fabricated on a two-inch p-type silicon wafer and its CV characteristic curve was also measured experimentally. Finally, the paper presents a comparative study between the current mirror pressure-sensing circuit with the traditional Wheatstone bridge.

Findings

The simulated sensitivities of the pressure-sensing MOSFETs of the current mirror-integrated pressure sensor have been found to be approximately 375 and 410 mV/MPa with respect to the reference transistor, and approximately 785 mV/MPa with respect to each other. The highest pressure sensitivities of a quarter, half and full Wheatstone bridge circuits were found to be approximately 183, 366 and 738 mV/MPa, respectively. These results clearly show that the current mirror pressure-sensing circuit is comparable and better than the traditional Wheatstone bridge circuits.

Originality/value

The concept of using a basic current mirror circuit for sensing tensile and compressive stresses developed in micro-mechanical structures is new, fully compatible to standard CMOS processes and has a promising application in the development of miniaturized integrated micro-sensors and sensor arrays for automobile, medical and industrial applications.

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Matthew Chylinski and Anna Chu

By examining the behaviours of cynical consumers and the factors that give rise to them, the paper's aim is to highlight the potential impact of consumer cynicism on firms…

5522

Abstract

Purpose

By examining the behaviours of cynical consumers and the factors that give rise to them, the paper's aim is to highlight the potential impact of consumer cynicism on firms and to investigate the possibility of influencing the evolution of those behaviours over time.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method approach uses five focus groups, a survey, and a longitudinal experiment to explore the behaviour of cynical consumers experiencing different patterns of goal/value (in)congruence with the actions of a firm.

Findings

Progressive development in the frequency and severity of cynical behaviours results from repeated incongruence between consumers' goals or values and firm actions. Value incongruence has a greater effect on the severity of cynical behaviours. Recency effects remove cynical behaviours when the underlying drivers of cynicism are reversed.

Research limitations/implications

The results are based on consumers' behavioural intentions, requiring a degree of subjective interpretation to quantify the severity of consumer behaviours.

Practical implications

Because of the potentially severe nature of cynical consumer behaviours, the study helps managers to gain a better understanding of these behaviours, their source, and how to monitor their frequency, severity, and development over time.

Originality/value

Several facets of consumer cynicism are examined that have not been explored together previously, including drivers, cognitive/affective mechanisms, and the pattern of resulting behaviours. This approach provides managers with a tool to predict how consumers will react to a given situation and suggests actions to mitigate these reactions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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