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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Qiang Yang, Yuanjian Zhou, Yushi Jiang and Jiale Huo

This study aims to explore whether creativity can overcome banner blindness in the viewing of web pages and demonstrate how visual saliency and banner-page congruity…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether creativity can overcome banner blindness in the viewing of web pages and demonstrate how visual saliency and banner-page congruity constitute the boundary conditions for creativity to improve memory for banner ads.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted to understand the influence of advertising creativity and banner blindness on recognition of banner ads, which were assessed using questionnaires and bias adjustment. The roles of online user tasks (goal-directed vs free-viewing), visual saliency (high vs low) and banner-page congruity (congruent vs incongruent) were considered.

Findings

The findings suggest that creativity alone is not sufficient to overcome the banner blindness phenomenon. Specifically, in goal-directed tasks, the effect of creativity on recognition of banner ads is dependent on banner ads’ visual saliency and banner-page congruity. Creative banners are high on visual saliency, and banner-page congruity yields higher recognition rates.

Practical implications

Creativity matters for attracting consumer attention. And in a web page context, where banner blindness prevails, the design of banners becomes even more important in this respect. Given the prominence of banners in online marketing, it is also necessary to tap the potential of creativity of banner ads.

Originality/value

First, focusing on how creativity influences memory for banner ads across distinct online user tasks not just provides promising theoretical insight on the tackling of banner blindness but also enriches research on advertising creativity. Second, contrary to the popular belief of extant literature, the findings suggest that, in a web page context, improvement in memory for banner ads via creativity is subject to certain boundary conditions. Third, a computational neuroscience software program was used in this study to assess the visual saliency of banner ads, whereas signal detection theory was used for adjustment of recognition scores. This interdisciplinary examination combining the two perspectives sheds new light on online advertising research.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Ana Margarida Barreto

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether users of the online social network site, Facebook, actually look at the ads displayed (briefly, to test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether users of the online social network site, Facebook, actually look at the ads displayed (briefly, to test the existence of the phenomenon known as “banner blindness” in this website), thus ascertaining the effectiveness of paid advertising, and comparing it with the number of friends' recommendations seen.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to achieve this goal, an experiment using eye‐tracking technology was administered to a total of 20 participants from a major university in the USA, followed by a questionnaire.

Findings

Findings show that online ads attract less attention levels than friends' recommendations. A possible explanation for this phenomenon may be related to the fact that ads on Facebook are outside of the F‐shaped visual pattern range, causing a state of “banner blindness”. Results also show that statistically there is no difference in ads seen and clicked between women and men.

Research limitations/implications

The sample type (undergraduate and graduate students) and the sample size (20 participants) inhibit the generalization of the findings to other populations.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of an effective online advertising campaign, as well as some proposed conceptualizations of the terms social network site and advertising, which can be used as platforms for discussion or as standards for future definitions.

Originality/value

This study fulfils some identified needs to study advertising effectiveness based on empirical data and to assess banner blindness in other contexts, representative of current internet users' habits.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Luís Miguel Faísca, Célia M.Q. Ramos, Marisol B. Correia, Carlos M.R. Sousa and Marouan Bouhachi

This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of a static promotional banner located on a hotel reservation website in terms of capturing the visitor’s visual attention by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of a static promotional banner located on a hotel reservation website in terms of capturing the visitor’s visual attention by exploring how this impact depends on the user’s degree of internet experience.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted using the eye-tracking methodology, in addition to a self-administered questionnaire. Through eye-tracking technology, eye movements were recorded whilst participants explored a generic hotel website. The factors used in the analyses were the position of the banner on the website and participants’ experience as internet users.

Findings

The findings showed that positioning a banner at certain locations on the webpage may lead to a better recall, which, in part, seems to result from the visual attention that such locations attract. The mediation analysis showed that the bottom-right and bottom-left positions have a negative effect on banner recall due, in part, to the shorter attention times and the smaller number of fixations those positions induce. Although the visitor’s level of internet experience affected his/her visual attention towards the banner, its impact on banner recall was non-significant. Results are discussed considering which variables produce greater effectiveness in capturing the user’s attention.

Practical implications

The paper draws several implications for the marketing literature, hospitality management and society in general.

Originality/value

The study is the first to analyse the impact of the position of a static ad on users’ visual attention and memory, considering the user’s degree of internet experience.

Propósito

Este estudio analiza la eficacia de un banner promocional estático ubicado en un sitio web de reservas de un hotel en términos de captación de la atención visual del visitante examinando cómo este efecto depende del grado de experiencia del usuario en Internet.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se llevó a cabo un experimento utilizando la metodología de seguimiento ocular (eye tracking), junto con un cuestionario autoadministrado. A través de la tecnología de eye tracking, se registraron los movimientos oculares mientras los participantes exploraban el sitio web genérico de un hotel. Los factores considerados en los análisis fueron la posición del banner en el sitio web y la experiencia de los participantes como usuarios de Internet.

Hallazgos

Los hallazgos mostraron que colocar un banner en ciertas ubicaciones de la página web puede conducir a un mayor recuerdo, lo que, en parte, parece ser el resultado de la atención visual que atraen tales posiciones. El análisis de mediación mostró que las posiciones inferior-derecha e inferior-izquierda tienen un efecto negativo en el recuerdo del banner debido, en parte, a los tiempos de atención más cortos y al menor número de fijaciones que provocan esas posiciones. Aunque el nivel de experiencia de Internet del visitante afectó su atención visual hacia el banner, su impacto en el recuerdo del banner no fue significativo. Los resultados son discutidos considerando qué variables producen mayor efectividad a la hora de captar la atención del usuario.

Implicaciones prácticas

El artículo presenta una serie de implicaciones para la literatura de marketing, la gestión hotelera y la sociedad en general.

Originalidad/valor

Nuestro estudio es el primero en analizar el impacto de la posición de un anuncio estático en la atención visual y la memoria de los usuarios, considerando el nivel de experiencia del usuario en Internet.

目的

本研究分析了位于酒店预订网站上的静态促销横幅在吸引访问者视觉注意力方面的效果, 并探索了这种效果如何受到用户的互联网体验程度的影响。

研究方法

本文除了采用自填问卷的方式, 还使用眼动追踪方法进行了实验。通过眼动追踪技术, 记录了参与者在浏览一般酒店网站时的眼动情况。分析中使用的因素是网站上横幅的位置和参与者作为互联网用户的体验。

研究结果

调查结果显示, 将横幅定位在网页上的某些位置可能会导致更佳的记忆, 这种效果在一定程度上是由于横幅的位置吸引了视觉注意力。调解分析表明, 横幅在右下角和左下角的位置对的回忆有负面影响, 部分原因是这些位置引起的注意时间较短、固定次数较少。虽然访问者的互联网体验水平影响了他/她对横幅的视觉注意力, 但其对横幅记忆的影响并不显著。讨论结果时考虑到了某些变量在吸引用户的注意力方面具有更明显的效果。

实践意义

本文对市场营销文献、酒店管理和社会都具有一定的借鉴意义。

原创性/价值

本次研究是第一个分析静态广告的位置对用户视觉注意力和记忆的影响的研究, 考虑到用户的互联网体验程度。

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

A-Reum Jung and Jun Heo

The purpose of this study is to figure out the factors (i.e. ad type and ad personalization) that diminish the detrimental advertising clutter effects in terms of ad…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to figure out the factors (i.e. ad type and ad personalization) that diminish the detrimental advertising clutter effects in terms of ad attention and ad clicks.

Design/methodology/approach

To fulfill the purpose, an eye-tracking study using real-time Facebook accounts of the participants was conducted.

Findings

The findings suggest that not all types of ad format face attentional competition. Consumers have a tendency to selectively care of native advertising area, where clutter becomes a significant issue. Additionally, personalized advertising is beneficial for attracting consumer attention regardless of the clutter level.

Originality/value

This less-artificial study setting with an eye-tracker makes up for the findings from previous ad clutter studies based on self-reported data; this study was able to observe real-life interaction between consumers and social media. The personalized native format may benefit advertisers in grabbing more attention. However, the careful use of native ads is recommended, because excessive ads could increase the attentional competition among native ads.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

William F. Humphrey Jr, Debra A. Laverie and Shannon B. Rinaldo

The paper seeks to establish the effectiveness of social media advertising and participation by brands through incidental exposure. Using experimental design, in a social…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to establish the effectiveness of social media advertising and participation by brands through incidental exposure. Using experimental design, in a social media environment, this paper aims to extend incidental exposure research in the context of social media.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses an experimental design with controlled image durations using MediaLab and DirectRT, allowing for precise image display times and randomization of screens. Participants were split between high-involvement and low-involvement product categories, and the brand choice exercise was administered in an on-screen experiment.

Findings

The paper provides support that incidental exposure influences brand choice. Further, it indicates that for low-involvement product categories, the type of social media exposure does not influence brand choice significantly between types. For high-involvement product categories, ads perform better than sponsored story executions; consumer-generated brand messages perform better than brand-generated messages; and the influence of reference group affects brand choice.

Research limitations/implications

This paper tests one social media environment using a desktop Web environment. Additional studies would be needed to test other social media environments and mobile technology.

Practical implications

The paper provides evidence that brands benefit by simply participating and advertising in social media, but the execution style matters to a greater extent for high-involvement product categories in influencing brand choice.

Social implications

Mere exposure to a brand message may influence consumers unknowingly. Repeated exposure as short as 5 s per viewing is related to increases in brand choice.

Originality/value

This paper extends research on incidental exposure and establishes a key positive brand outcome for practice and research, and it provides the first exploration on the outcome of incident exposure to brand messages in social media. The results suggest that social media and advertising by brands have positive impacts beyond traditional measures of success online.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Jing Luan, Zhong Yao, Yongchao Shen and Jie Xiao

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the context congruity effects of online product recommendations (PRs) by recommendation agents (RAs) influence consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the context congruity effects of online product recommendations (PRs) by recommendation agents (RAs) influence consumers’ attention to and memory of recommended products in an online shopping environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focuses on the context congruity effects of online PRs by examining consumers’ browsing patterns and attention characteristics (fixation counts and fixation duration) using an eye-tracking device and by measuring memory performance with an aided memory test. Three types of PRs (highly congruent, lowly congruent and incongruent PRs) and two degrees of involvement (high and low involvement) are considered.

Findings

The results of the gaze data show that context congruity effects can influence consumers’ PR attention, but this effect is not moderated by involvements. The results of the memory data show that PR recognition is influenced not only by context congruity effects but also by involvement. Another significant finding is that attention to a PR does not necessarily guarantee better memory performance.

Practical implications

The study significantly contributes to deepening the understanding of how context congruity can influence consumers’ attention to and memory of PRs. The findings also have important managerial and practical implications, such that selecting and presenting PRs should be based on context congruity effects.

Originality/value

First, introducing context congruity effects to investigate the effectiveness of online PRs by RAs not only provides an important theoretical contribution to research on recommendation effectiveness but also enriches its application. Second, the findings suggest that the relationship between visual attention and memory is not definitely positive. Third, to interpret the complex translation process from attention to memory, the authors propose a methodology that considers stimulus attributes, issue involvement, cognitive capacity and cognitive interference.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Marco Porta, Alice Ravarelli and Francesco Spaghi

The purpose of this paper is to study the possible influence of congruity on the way ad banners are watched and remembered in online newspapers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the possible influence of congruity on the way ad banners are watched and remembered in online newspapers.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of the thematic connection between banner subject and article content are examined at the level of gaze behaviour using eye tracking technology, while questionnaires are exploited to assess both free and helped recall. Two “kinds of reading” are also considered, namely “imposed” (where the tester has to read a specific article) and “free” (where the tester can choose the article's topic from a set).

Findings

Results indicate that congruity matters for the way banners are looked at, although it seems to have a limited influence on memory. Moreover, the kind of reading is significant in a few cases.

Practical implications

The design of ad banners for web content is very critical, due to the so‐called “banner blindness” phenomenon. At the same time, ad banners are crucial for online newspapers, which rely on them as the main source of revenues. Understanding the potential of congruity is therefore an essential point.

Originality/value

Results to date obtained from previous research about congruity between online content and ad banners are contrasting, and further investigations are thus necessary. Moreover, in the context of online newspapers, congruity has been considered in extremely few cases and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, without using eye tracking technology. The outcomes of this study can be exploited to drive further research in the field.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Enrique Murillo

The purpose of this study is to conduct a survey of Mexican millennials to measure the extent of negative bias and perceived advertising value they experienced toward the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to conduct a survey of Mexican millennials to measure the extent of negative bias and perceived advertising value they experienced toward the ads they encountered while performing a search for local products and services from their smartphones.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a paper survey with a scenario question, responses were collected from 1,215 millennial smartphone owners about the strategies they used for scanning mobile search organic and sponsored results and quickly reaching the information they needed when performing a mobile search. The 315 participants who reported clicking on ads were further surveyed on their perceptions of ad informativeness, entertainment, irritation and credibility. These constructs were used as the predictors of advertising value in a structural equations model which was estimated with partial least squares.

Findings

A substantial bias against sponsored results was found, with two-thirds of respondents skipping the ads when performing a mobile search from their smartphones. However, 28.2 per cent reported clicking on the most relevant result without regard to it being organic or sponsored, and an additional 5.6 per cent reported clicking on an ad as their first strategy. In the structural model, all four hypothesized antecedents of advertising value were significant, and some gender differences were detected.

Practical implications

With the increasing penetration of smartphones, and rapid growth of mobile search, these results are particularly relevant for local merchants, who can use mobile search ads to leverage their location and communicate with searching consumers at the precise moment when they are most receptive to timely and relevant advertising.

Originality/value

This study is the first to measure the extent of consumer bias against sponsored results in a mobile search, and the first empirical estimation of the advertising value of mobile-sponsored results.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas and Janet Hernández-Méndez

This paper aims to analyze advertising effectiveness in terms of self-reported memory (recall) by measuring customers’ visual attention, including consumer engagement with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze advertising effectiveness in terms of self-reported memory (recall) by measuring customers’ visual attention, including consumer engagement with e-tourism 2.0 tools and the banner type used as moderating variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a within-subject, between-groups experimental design based on eye-tracking methodology, followed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were instructed to visit three e-tourism tools, namely, a hotel’s blog, a social network (i.e. Facebook) page and a virtual community (i.e. TripAdvisor) page.

Findings

This research uncovers the main determinants of consumers’ self-reported recall of banner ads. The study offers empirical insight regarding the positive impact of fixation counts and visit duration on consumer recall. The findings also reveal that the impact of these measurements on consumer recall is moderated by the level of animation of the advertisement, while the number of fixations is moderated by the level of consumer engagement. Overall, the results suggest the usefulness of eye-tracking methodology in assessing the advertising effectiveness of e-tourism tools.

Research limitations/implications

The practical implications identified in this research, along with its limitations and future research opportunities, are of interest both for further theoretical development and practical applications. Scholars are therefore encouraged to further test the research propositions, including in longitudinal or mobile/smartphone-based research.

Originality/value

The authors offer a pioneering attempt in the application of eye-tracking methodology to online, e-tourism-based service innovations and examine the possible impact of visual marketing stimuli and their effects on user social network-related behavior.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Jarosław Jankowski, Juho Hamari and Jarosław Wątróbski

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a method that can gradually find a sweet spot between user experience and visual intensity of website elements to maximise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a method that can gradually find a sweet spot between user experience and visual intensity of website elements to maximise user conversion with minimal adverse effect.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first phase of the study, the authors develop the method. In the second stage, the authors test and evaluate the method via an empirical study; also, an experiment was conducted within web interface with the gradual intensity of visual elements.

Findings

The findings reveal that the negative response grows faster than conversion when the visual intensity of the web interface is increased. However, a saturation point, where there is coexistence between maximum conversion and minimum negative response, can be found.

Practical implications

The findings imply that efforts to attract user attention should be pursued with increased caution and that a gradual approach presented in this study helps in finding a site-specific sweet spot for a level of visual intensity by incrementally adjusting the elements of the interface and tracking the changes in user behaviour.

Originality/value

Web marketing and advertising professionals often face the dilemma of determining the optimal level of visual intensity of interface element. Excessive use of marketing component and attention-grabbing visual elements can lead to an inferior user experience and consequent user churn due to growing intrusiveness. At the same time, too little visual intensity can fail to steer users. The present study provides a gradual approach which aids in finding a balance between user experience and visual intensity, maximising user conversion and, thus, providing a practical solution for the problem.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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