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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Rahim Hussain, Ahmed Shahriar Ferdous and Gillian Sullivan Mort

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether advertising type (static or dynamic) and appeal (emotional or rational) moderate the relationship between web banner

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether advertising type (static or dynamic) and appeal (emotional or rational) moderate the relationship between web banner advertising frequency and consumer attitudinal response.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment involving 400 participants was conducted to test for the moderating effect. Factorial ANOVA is used to measure brand attitude.

Findings

The results identified that the web banner advertisement type acted as a moderator between frequency and brand attitude. However, the moderating effect of banner advertisement appeal was found to be insignificant at a single banner advertisement frequency (i.e. exposure) but significantly different at a higher frequency. The study findings provide better directives for online marketers.

Practical implications

The major limitation is the fact that the impact of banner advertisement frequency was manipulated from one to five exposures. Future research needs to determine what happens after the fifth exposure, perhaps ten exposures or more, to determine the wear-out effect and in turn, to decide on the optimal frequency level in an effort to design more appropriate web communication strategies.

Social implications

The result shows that pop-up banner advertisements are intrusive, and that high level of exposures to pop-up banner advertisement could annoy online users. Thus, online advertisers should avoid repeating the pop-up banner advertisements because this could adversely affect the attitude towards the online advertising in general, and could also negatively influence attitudes towards the brand and ultimately effect online purchase.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the theory by providing more insights into the repetition effect, and comprehensive conclusions can be drawn based on the manipulation of banner advertisement frequency on different frequency levels. The research identifies that if the communication objective is to generate brand attitude, different strategies can be adopted depending on the banner advertisement type (pop-up vs static) and banner advertisement appeal (emotional vs rational).

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Eric J. Newman, Donald E. Stem and David E. Sprott

Of the many approaches to building a brand’s image on the Internet, a Web site is one of the most important tools for managers. An important decision made by Web site…

Abstract

Of the many approaches to building a brand’s image on the Internet, a Web site is one of the most important tools for managers. An important decision made by Web site managers is whether to place banner advertisements on their brand’s Web site (e.g. The New Yorker Web site placing an ad for polo.com). While banner advertisements are widespread in the marketplace, it is unclear whether Web sites containing such advertisements may be harming themselves by such a practice. This study addresses this issue by investigating the impact of banner advertisement and Web site congruity on consumer attitudes toward a brand’s Web site. The results of an experiment indicate that if managers include such advertisements on their Web site, these advertisements should be consistent with the Web site brand and that certain consumer characteristics should be considered. Implications of the research for brand management and advertising on the Internet are provided.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 104 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2007

Hee-Sook Yoon and Doo-Hee Lee

Very low click-through rates (CTR) raise serious questions about the effectiveness of banner advertisements. However, we believe that the effect of a banner ad is not…

Abstract

Very low click-through rates (CTR) raise serious questions about the effectiveness of banner advertisements. However, we believe that the effect of a banner ad is not limited by clicks. Banner ad information itself can be processed by the audience.

We propose that the exposure effect of a banner ad exists even when the banner is not clicked. The results of our experiments strongly support this effect. Analyses also revealed that a non-clicked banner ad can create as strong of an exposure effect as clicked banner ads. Also, audiences that are able to recall the existence of the banner ad on a web page develop stronger implicit memory than those who cannot. Researchers are invited to re-test these interesting findings in various cultures with differing levels of Internet penetration and experience.

Details

Cross-Cultural Buyer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-485-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Woo-Young Lee, Youngjin Hur, Dae Yeon Kim and Christopher Brigham

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of congruity and endorsement on consumer attitudes toward sports website advertisements (Aad), the advertising brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of congruity and endorsement on consumer attitudes toward sports website advertisements (Aad), the advertising brand (Abr), and consumers’ future intentions (FI).

Design/methodology/approach

The current study followed a 2×3 between-subjects experimental design. Sports celebrity (or the presence or absence of a sports celebrity in a banner ad) and the level of congruity between the website and banner ad (high congruity – soccer, medium congruity – snowboard, and low congruity – computer) were the primary independent variables. Data were collected in two stages. An initial pilot study (n=40) established the reliability and validity of the scaled measures guiding this test. The second phase of data collection, the main study, was conducted over a five-day period. A random assignment of treatment conditions (i.e. exposure to one of six banner ad manipulations) was followed by a series of short surveys designed to measure the dependent variables of subjects’ cognitive ad responses (i.e. Aad, Abr, and FI).

Findings

The results indicated that participants who viewed the ad with the endorsement showed a more positive Aad than those who viewed the ad without it. The participants with a high congruity condition reported a more positive Abr and higher FI than those with low or medium congruity.

Originality/value

This study extends the application of congruity theory to banner advertisements, thereby aiding our understanding of consumers’ perceptions of advertising.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Eric Van Steenburg

The paper aims to determine the effectiveness of specific online advertisements, comparing banner ads that are brand‐reinforcing versus ones that are product‐reinforcing.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to determine the effectiveness of specific online advertisements, comparing banner ads that are brand‐reinforcing versus ones that are product‐reinforcing.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses three experimental design studies to empirically test the hypotheses based on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) by manipulating type of online banner advertisement (brand‐type versus product‐type) and measuring individual need for cognition (NFC).

Findings

Consumers high in NFC recall product‐type banner ads more readily than those low in NFC, while brand‐type banner ads are more likely to be recalled by low‐NFC consumers. However, high‐NFC consumers recall brand‐type ads under all situational influences tested. And while consumers low in NFC recall product‐type banner ads featuring a directive better than their high‐NFC counterparts, they do not recall directive ads at a greater rate than high‐NFC consumers recall brand‐type ads.

Research limitations/implications

While previous research has found that variations in ad size, color, interactivity, and web site location affect recall, this research only measured static banner ads that appear at the top of the page. However, because it is the first to examine involvement in terms of NFC in combination with brand‐ and product‐type ads, the research sheds new light on consumer awareness of two types of banner ad strategies adopted by marketing managers today.

Practical implications

In an online context, the type of banner ads used by marketing managers should be paired with the web site based on how much time consumers spend at the site and how many pages they click through at the site. All things being equal, however, managers should favor brand‐type banner ads over product‐type banner ads.

Originality/value

The research extends understanding of ELM as it relates to type of banner ad while establishing a potential research stream for better understanding of how consumers process various types of online ads. At the same time, it provides new evidence that can help marketing managers make better strategic decisions regarding their online marketing mix.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Charles F. Hofacker and Jamie Murphy

Explores one of the many exciting advertising research possibilities spawned by the Web, namely the efficacy of banner advertisements designed to lure the browser to an…

Abstract

Explores one of the many exciting advertising research possibilities spawned by the Web, namely the efficacy of banner advertisements designed to lure the browser to an external Web page. Traditional advertising research usually relies on self‐report or memory. With Web advertisement banners, on the other hand, we can track actual behavior. In our pilot study, we demonstrate conclusively that click‐through rate, the percentage of visitors to a Web page clicking on an advertisement banner, can vary according to the advertisement copy. We also find that the imperative call for behavior, “Click here”, has a positive effect. These findings, using a new research method with a new medium, open the door to further advertising and communication research on Web advertisement banners.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Ana Margarida Barreto

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether users of the online social network site, Facebook, actually look at the ads displayed (briefly, to test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether users of the online social network site, Facebook, actually look at the ads displayed (briefly, to test the existence of the phenomenon known as “banner blindness” in this website), thus ascertaining the effectiveness of paid advertising, and comparing it with the number of friends' recommendations seen.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to achieve this goal, an experiment using eye‐tracking technology was administered to a total of 20 participants from a major university in the USA, followed by a questionnaire.

Findings

Findings show that online ads attract less attention levels than friends' recommendations. A possible explanation for this phenomenon may be related to the fact that ads on Facebook are outside of the F‐shaped visual pattern range, causing a state of “banner blindness”. Results also show that statistically there is no difference in ads seen and clicked between women and men.

Research limitations/implications

The sample type (undergraduate and graduate students) and the sample size (20 participants) inhibit the generalization of the findings to other populations.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of an effective online advertising campaign, as well as some proposed conceptualizations of the terms social network site and advertising, which can be used as platforms for discussion or as standards for future definitions.

Originality/value

This study fulfils some identified needs to study advertising effectiveness based on empirical data and to assess banner blindness in other contexts, representative of current internet users' habits.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Anca C. Micu and Iryna Pentina

The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of the economics of information-driven product categorization – search vs experience products – when…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of the economics of information-driven product categorization – search vs experience products – when investigating online brand advertising and news synergies.

Design/methodology/approach

Randomized controlled post-test experiment with over 400 participants in three treatment groups involving exposures to paid advertising (banner ad-plus-banner ad) and publicity (news article-plus-banner ad and banner ad-plus-news article) for four products. Questionnaire upon web site exit tested differences in brand attitudes among treatment groups and product categories.

Findings

Findings indicate that including news about the brand in the online brand communication mix – either before or after ads – generates higher brand attitude scores for experience products. For search products sequence matters and brand attitudes are more positive when consumers are exposed to news articles first followed by advertisements.

Research limitations/implications

Findings limited to the four product categories and student participants.

Practical implications

When promoting search goods online, brand managers should include publicity only before display advertising efforts. For experience goods, publicity generates higher brand attitude scores when included either before or while running display advertising.

Originality/value

First study examining online publicity and advertising synergies from an economics of information theory perspective separating search from experience goods when promoting new/unknown brands online. In the online environment, the line between journalistic/news and promotional/advertising text-based content has become increasingly blurred. Compared to paid online advertising, using third-party attributed communications sources like publicity increases message credibility. Adding product-related news and blog articles to banner advertisements may benefit from synergistic effects and have consumers process the brand message more extensively. The order of exposure to the different brand messages matters when promoting search as opposed to experience products online.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Josefa D. Martín‐Santana and Asunción Beerli‐Palacio

The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between click‐through rate (CTR) and the traditional measurements of advertising effectiveness and to measure the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between click‐through rate (CTR) and the traditional measurements of advertising effectiveness and to measure the advertising effectiveness of two less common formats of online advertising in blogs: rectangle and contextual, as well as to explore which factors influence that effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was used to gather data. Advertising effectiveness was determined using the traditional measurements employed for conventional media at cognitive, affective and conative levels and analysing the CTR.

Findings

The results reflect a direct relation between measurements of effectiveness and CTR, differences in the effectiveness of the two advertising formats, and that the factors influencing that effectiveness are attitude toward the web site, involvement with the product and duration of web site visit.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the study is that the experimental design is focused on two types of formats inserted into two types of blog and about only one product. A further limitation is the need to analyse other factors that may influence the effectiveness.

Practical implications

The principal conclusion of the study is that managers should not evaluate the effectiveness of their online campaigns by using only the CTR.

Originality/value

Despite the increase in their use, blogs have not received attention in the field of advertising research.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Doyeop Kim, Matthew Walker, Jun Heo and Gi-Yong Koo

Although high-profile sport league website sponsorships have increased in popularity over the last decade, academic research on the topic has not kept pace, resulting in…

Abstract

Purpose

Although high-profile sport league website sponsorships have increased in popularity over the last decade, academic research on the topic has not kept pace, resulting in little knowledge of ways to improve the effectiveness of this sponsorship type. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examined the influence of three website-related variables (i.e. website interactivity, website fit, and website credibility), while controlling for a sponsor-related variable (i.e. sponsor familiarity), on consumer attitude toward the sponsor ad and willingness to click on its banner ad. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated three main effects. Practical implications are discussed with limitations and suggestions for future research.

Findings

This study found three important things. First, website interactivity played an important role in attitude toward the ad and willingness to click on the banner ad. Second, website fit influenced attitude toward the ad and willingness to click on the banner ad. Third, website credibility influenced attitude toward the ad.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that in order to maximize online sports sponsorship outcomes, companies must keep in mind that the interactivity between the web users and the site should be regarded as the most pragmatic result which could come from the online sports sponsorship territory.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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