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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Dicle Aydin and Gevher Sayar

The purpose of this paper is to assess using of balconies in apartment buildings. In the research, by questioning the use of balconies as to the coronavirus disease 2019…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess using of balconies in apartment buildings. In the research, by questioning the use of balconies as to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) process and before, the place and importance of the balcony in the apartment house were questioned.

Design/methodology/approach

Balcony performance dimensions and components, which were revealed based on the studies conducted, were analyzed with questions directed to the individuals living in the apartment (one person every flat). In the research in which behavioral and functional performance is questioned through users, the survey method was used and the data were analyzed in the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) program. Apart from the performance dimensions, data on the characteristics of the balconies were also obtained from the answers of the users.

Findings

The use of balconies has increased during the pandemic process and has become more important in apartments. The size of the balcony is related to the size of the house. The functional performance of the balcony is linked to the size of the balcony, behavioral and environmental values. The balcony should be large enough to accommodate equipment for daily activities, the proximity to the surrounding buildings, view, noise affect the performance of the balcony.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to the questionnaire applied to apartment users in Konya (Turkey) city center. Male and female users participated in the study, and the use of the balcony was questioned.

Practical implications

Apartment design includes results that contribute to architects regarding the location and use of the balcony. It also includes the results that can be evaluated by local governments in terms of binding rules on balconies in zoning regulations.

Social implications

The balcony is one of the rooms of the house, which is mainly designed in connection with the kitchen and living room / living room and shared by the household. The balcony is used as a socializing place for the common actions of the house users. This space that opens to the outside is valuable in terms of providing communication with people outside.

Originality/value

The fact that no study has been conducted to question the use of the balcony over the user makes this study valuable. In addition, questioning the use of the balcony during the pandemic process is important in terms of revealing the importance of the need for open space in an apartment. The results will contribute to architects and local administrations in terms of binding rules in design regarding the location of the balcony in the house.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2015

Jin-Ann Lin

The balcony, an integral element in modernist housing, can be found in almost every Taipei apartment building. Even so, in Taipei most balconies have been enclosed by…

Abstract

The balcony, an integral element in modernist housing, can be found in almost every Taipei apartment building. Even so, in Taipei most balconies have been enclosed by users of all social classes. This paper looks into the historical context of the enclosed balcony by arguing that the identity and origins of the Taipei balcony are inseparable from the 1960s birth of a modernist housing type—the Taipei walkup.

Balcony provision, governed by building codes inherited from a colonial past, has been incorporated into the system of speculative market housing. For builders, balconies are profitable floor areas that can be promoted as a symbol of modern living; for users, balconies are additional floor space that can be transformed into interior spaces. However, owing to the threefold combination of initial unfamiliarity of apartment buildings, underinvestment in the urban environment, and dire political circumstances, it is the balcony which has borne the brunt of the underdeveloped relationship between public and private life. In the context of this new housing type, the practice of enclosing balconies arose through the complicity of builders and users.

Details

Open House International, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2018

Yonca Hurol

There is an article in this issue about the contribution of balconies to thermal comfort in Indonesia. This article presents how the balconies have been used in very…

Abstract

There is an article in this issue about the contribution of balconies to thermal comfort in Indonesia. This article presents how the balconies have been used in very different ways in Indonesia. Finally, the authors suggest designing balconies for the sake of thermal comfort. This article was accepted by the founder and editor of Open House International-Nicholas Wilkinson-before he passed away, because he was very interested in the use of balconies in Cyprus. When I read this article about balconies in Indonesia, I remembered our conversations regarding balconies.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Terri Peters and Anna Halleran

The COVID-19 global health crisis is undeniably a global housing crisis. Our study focuses on quality of life in urban mid- and high-rise apartment housing, the fastest…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 global health crisis is undeniably a global housing crisis. Our study focuses on quality of life in urban mid- and high-rise apartment housing, the fastest growing housing types in many cities around the world. This housing typology presents unique challenges relating to connection to nature, daylight and fresh air.

Design/methodology/approach

This multi-disciplinary literature review analyzes more than 100 published papers from peer-reviewed sources from environmental psychology, building science and architecture relevant to quality of life in high-rise housing, as well as more than 40 recent newspaper and magazine articles about the possible impacts of COVID-19 on housing. We identify synergies between passive design strategies and health-promoting architecture or “restorative environmental design” principles.

Findings

Post-pandemic, health-promoting apartment housing design must prioritize (1) window placement and views that support stress recovery and restoration; (2) lighting levels based on spaces that can satisfy multiple uses and users; (3) bedrooms designed for restful sleep that contribute to circadian regulation; (4) living rooms with better indoor air quality, with a focus on natural ventilation; (5) access to nature, through the purposeful design of balconies and (6) unit sizes and layouts that enable physical distancing and prevent crowding.

Originality/value

We identify new social and environmental design priorities in the form of evidence-based design principles to inform and promote healthy and restorative living environments for residents in apartment housing.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1979

Robert T. Eckenrode

The subject of forecasting has continued to be a pre‐occupation of planners, particularly as the apparent reliability of forecasts in recent years has declined. The author…

Abstract

The subject of forecasting has continued to be a pre‐occupation of planners, particularly as the apparent reliability of forecasts in recent years has declined. The author of this article suggests that better forecasts can be made if certain precautions are observed. Readers seeking more information on forecasting methods may wish to consult a Planning Review series by Chambers and Mullick (March 1975, July 1975, September 1975, and January 1976).

Details

Planning Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2018

Rika Kisnarini, Johannes Krisdianto and Iwan Adi Indrawan

Dwelling, which is a basic human need (Maslow, 1970) should act as an object of technology that serves as a place for individuals or families to conduct all their daily…

Abstract

Dwelling, which is a basic human need (Maslow, 1970) should act as an object of technology that serves as a place for individuals or families to conduct all their daily activities in order to meet their needs in life. In case of sustainability, thermal comfort is one of the most important comfort conditions that must be achieved (Szokolay SV, 1980). Proper air movement control may lessen the demand for energy, thus reducing the expense of providing a comfortable home (Boutet, 1987). However, to ensure the acceleration of air movement, the availability of both inlet and outlet openings in the building or space become an absolute requirement (Olgyay Victor, 1973).

Rusunawa is a typical rental-apartment in Indonesia that served for low income families. The types of existing space generally include: a multi-functional space, a kitchen, and a bathroom/WC, and sometimes is furnished by a balcony. There is only one living space in rusunawa that is the multi-functional space which is often used for: living, sleeping, studying, watching TV, eating, storing, child-caring, and probably more other functions. Not to mention if the family has a home-based business. Among rusunawa unit types that existed in all fourteen locations in Surabaya, some of them were built without a really outdoor balcony, meaning that the balconies were provided indoor, instead of in the cantilever system. These indoor balconies accommodate the same household activities as those of outdoor balconies. However, the contribution to the internal thermal comfort may not be the same.

By using Ecotect analysis 2011 program, This research intends to investigate the comparison of thermal conditions of the inner space between rusunawa unit having a balcony (outdoor), and rusunawa unit without a balcony (indoor). The result of this comparison is meant to convince the contribution of unit having a balcony to the thermal comfort of inner space, to ensure whether the design of the future rusunawa units should be equipped with a balcony or not. To further reassure its contribution, this experiment is continued by comparing between unit having just a balcony and unit having a balcony that equipped with sun-devices.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Jeeva Sajan

This paper aims to highlight the pertinent design issues that could impact upon satisfaction with apartment living. Till date, the literature review identifies “design

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the pertinent design issues that could impact upon satisfaction with apartment living. Till date, the literature review identifies “design inadequacies”, along with a range of other factors, in embracing apartments as a permanent housing option.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents findings from a face-to-face household survey undertaken in a medium-density apartment housing in Fairfield, Sydney, using a mixed method.

Findings

First, the paper states the four predictors of overall living satisfaction derived through a logistic regression analysis. Second, the top five variables that commanded high dissatisfaction and the two most negative aspects of apartment living for the open-response question are identified. Further, it discusses the possible influence of dwelling floor on residential satisfaction. The coherent narratives of the residents substantiate the design inadequacies from the aforementioned empirical analysis.

Originality/value

The paper reflects upon ideal design suggestions from a face-to-face household survey, the first of its kind in more than 30 years in Sydney.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Inês Calor and Rachelle Alterman

This paper aims to present a comparative analysis of noncompliance with planning laws in advanced-economy countries. Most research to date has focused on the widespread…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a comparative analysis of noncompliance with planning laws in advanced-economy countries. Most research to date has focused on the widespread phenomenon of “informal” construction in developing countries. However, advanced-economy countries also encounter illegal development, though at different scales and attributes. Because planning law is at the foundation of land-use and urban policies, it is time that the “orphan” issue of noncompliance be adopted by more researchers to enable cross-national learning. The two OECD countries selected for in-depth analysis – Portugal and Israel – probably fall mid-way in the extent of noncompliance compared with the range among advanced-economy countries. Like most OECD countries, the selected countries have generally viable planning-law systems. Their experiences can thus offer lessons for many more countries. Recognizing the limitations of enforcement mechanisms as prevention, the paper focuses on how each of these countries responds to illegal development.

Design/methodology/approach

The method relies on two main sources: analysis of official documents – laws, policies and court decisions in both countries – and field interviews about practice. In both Portugal and Israel, the authors held face-to-face open interviews with lawyers and other professional staff at various government levels. The interviews focused on four issues: the effectiveness of the existing enforcement instruments, the urban consequences of illegal development, the law and policy regarding legalization and the existence of additional deterrent measures.

Findings

In both countries, there is a significant phenomenon of illegal development though it is somewhat less in Israel than in Portugal. In both countries, efforts to reduce the phenomenon have been partially effective even though in both, extensive demolition is not exercised. Neither country has adopted a general amnesty policy for existing noncompliance, so both resort to reliance on ex-post revision of statutory plans of granting of variances as a way of legalization. The shared tension between local authorities and national bodies indicates that not enough thought has gone into designing the compliance and enforcement systems. In Israel, a recent legislative amendment enables planning authorities, for the first time, to set their own priorities for enforcement and to distinguish between minor and major infringements. This approach is preferable to the Portuguese law, where there is still no distinction between minor and major infringements. By contrast, Portuguese law and policy are more effective in adopting financial or real-estate based deterrence measures which restrict sale or mortgaging of illegal properties.

Originality/value

There is very little research on noncompliance with planning controls in advanced-economy countries. There is even less research on the legal and institutional responses to this phenomenon. This paper pioneers in creating a framework for looking at alternative types of government responses to illegal construction. The paper is, to the authors’ best knowledge, the first to present a systematic cross-national comparative analysis and critique of such responses. The authors thus hope to expand the view of the possible legal and policy response strategies available to planning authorities in other advanced-economy countries. The comparative perspective will hopefully encourage, expansion of the research to more countries and contribute to the exchange of experiences between jurisdictions.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Edwin Chan, Chung Yim Yiu, Andrew Baldwin and Grace Lee

After the outbreak of the disease of “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)” in Asia in 2003, a healthy living environment is a major concern. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

After the outbreak of the disease of “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)” in Asia in 2003, a healthy living environment is a major concern. The purpose of this paper is to study the value of healthy building parameters by the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which gives a direct appraisal of the occupants' value.

Design/methodology/approach

Healthy building parameters were identified in previous studies. Questionnaires are distributed to residents of a large‐scale high‐rise private housing estate in Hong Kong to find out their willingness to pay (WTP) for individual healthy building parameters.

Findings

The results suggest that most residents are willing to pay for healthy building parameters, each with a different value.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to studying the eight identified building parameters for healthy buildings. The sample of the study is confined in a private housing estate only and all the occupants are middle class citizens of Hong Kong. The results of the study can be further validated by carrying out similar research with the support of the government or quasi‐government bodies to cover a larger sample size for a better return rate.

Practical implications

The findings have practical implications on cost‐and‐benefit analysis of housing design.

Originality/value

Housing price is commonly regarded as the total value of a bundle of housing quality and environmental characteristics. The implicit price of individual quality and characteristic is often identified by the hedonic pricing model. However, its validity depends on a lot of econometric assumptions. The study is the first to be conducted after the outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong to gauge the opinions of residents on health/economy issues

Details

Facilities, vol. 27 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2015

LI Shanshan

Under the concept that housing was an act instead of a product, John Habraken launched a campaign against mass housing in the 1960s. His counterattack was architecturally…

Abstract

Under the concept that housing was an act instead of a product, John Habraken launched a campaign against mass housing in the 1960s. His counterattack was architecturally and institutionally developed afterwards, and fully expressed by the so-called Open Building, in which users could make decision regarding their dwellings and easily re-arrange them. A number of experimental projects were subsequently constructed worldwide.

After years, the actual situation of use of these projects is, to a certain extent, unknown. Their facades may have faded, their pipelines may be ageing, and the design may be out of fashion. Correspondingly, various changes are expected. Could these changes be controlled in the original design? Were these projects enhanced after the changes? Did the users have a positive response? These questions are far from being answered.

This article is based on the post-occupancy investigation of two Open Building projects, the “Molenvliet Project” in the Netherlands and the “Wuxi Experimental Project” in China, which played an exemplary role, especially in the early years. In this study, the users’ assessment of their living environment was highly emphasised, and the changes to the both exterior and interior were specifically recorded. The purpose of the investigation is to determine how the architects’ intention was practised, and to learn from them.

Details

Open House International, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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