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With regard to the effect of growth on the balance of payments of a country, the conclusion of the Keynesian theory of income determination sharply differs from that of…
With regard to the effect of growth on the balance of payments of a country, the conclusion of the Keynesian theory of income determination sharply differs from that of the monetary theory. This article suggests an integrated approach towards the derivation of the import function and the balance of payments equation for a money‐using economy from the utility‐maximising behaviour of individuals. Thereby, it shows that the difference between the conclusions of the two theories results from an incorrect specification of the balance of payments equation in the Keynesian theory.
The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual…
The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual realities and the future, potential, best possible conditions of general stable equilibrium which both pure and practical reason, exhaustive in the Kantian sense, show as being within the realm of potential realities beyond any doubt. The first classical revolution in economic thinking, included in factor “P” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of a model of ideal conditions of stable equilibrium but neglected the full consideration of the existing, actual conditions. That is the main reason why, in the end, it failed. The second modern revolution, included in factor “A” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of the existing, actual conditions, usually in disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium (in case of stagnation) and neglected the sense of right direction expressed in factor “P” or the realization of general, stable equilibrium. That is the main reason why the modern revolution failed in the past and is failing in front of our eyes in the present. The equation of unified knowledge, perceived as a sui generis synthesis between classical and modern thinking has been applied rigorously and systematically in writing the enclosed American‐British economic, monetary, financial and social stabilization plans. In the final analysis, a new economic philosophy, based on a synthesis between classical and modern thinking, called here the new economics of unified knowledge, is applied to solve the malaise of the twentieth century which resulted from a confusion between thinking in terms of stable equilibrium on the one hand and disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium on the other.
The main aims of this paper include a revision of the essentials of the monetary approach to the balance of payments by constructing a monetary model, an extension of the…
The main aims of this paper include a revision of the essentials of the monetary approach to the balance of payments by constructing a monetary model, an extension of the model to explain the importation of inflation in an open economy and an application of the formulated model to the two small open economies, the Netherlands and Singapore. The most important contribution of the monetary approach to the balance of payments is its focus on the role of money as opposed to the focus of traditional approaches on the real variables and on the current account of the balance of payments. Influenced originally by Johnson (1972), there have been several theoretical as well as empirical analyses supporting the major contentions of the monetary approach to the balance of payments. Notable among these are Mussa, Frenkel and Johnson (1975), Kemp (1975), Whitman (1975), and Kreinin and Officer (1978). On the basis of common elements enclosed in the writings of these authors, it is possible to construct such a model and then solve it, first, for foreign reserves inflow, and second, for the domestic inflation rate as a dependent variable. This formulation is similar to the ones found in Bhatia (1982) and Salvatore (1983), but is broader in its implications. A check of the validity of the relationships of the monetary model is also attempted by using the annual data of the Netherlands and Singapore.
Social scientists have increasingly turned to constructivist models to explain when, and how, international and world-level social forces constrain the policy-making…
Social scientists have increasingly turned to constructivist models to explain when, and how, international and world-level social forces constrain the policy-making autonomy of national states. While constructivists have shown that international ideational processes matter for domestic policy making, they have had a harder time explaining why some ideas gain prominence in policy discussions while others do not. This chapter develops an institutionally centered materialist model of idea selection, arguing that international relations of dependency give actors who control vital financial resources a greater capacity to shape the ideational agenda. This model is explored through a case study of the international sources of American monetary policy in the early 1960s. A detailed examination of archival materials shows that European officials at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development were able to advance their own ideas for American monetary policy because the United States was dependent on European cooperation to help resolve its mounting balance of payments problems.
The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:
Analyses how the status of balance of payments follows se\ill\fulfilling expectations of currency devaluation. It is found that beforea currency devaluation, whether the…
Analyses how the status of balance of payments follows se\ill\ fulfilling expectations of currency devaluation. It is found that before a currency devaluation, whether the economy w\ill\ experience a balance‐of‐payments surplus or deficit crucial depends on the degree of capital mobility.
We develop the concept of the slave-trade balance of payments and generate its table for the United States for 1790–1860. In the process, we construct new data for the…
We develop the concept of the slave-trade balance of payments and generate its table for the United States for 1790–1860. In the process, we construct new data for the slave trade, including both the physical movement and revenue figures, and we analyze these numbers. The balance of payments includes slave imports, carrying trade in slaves, purchases of slaves that fail to be imported, outfitting and provisioning slave ships, and slave-ship sales. The slave-trade balance is integrated into the standard balance of payments. Among the findings are the following: slave imports were dominated by natural growth except for one decade; US ships had the greater role than foreign ships in the import trade, but were of small—and eventually nil—consequence in the carrying trade; federal and state laws to prohibit the slave trade in all its aspects were generally effective; and the slave-trade balance of payments was a small component of the overall balance.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on demand-driven Keynesian growth in open economies by developing a formal model that combines Dixon and…
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on demand-driven Keynesian growth in open economies by developing a formal model that combines Dixon and Thirlwall’s (1975) export-led growth model and Thirlwall’s (1979) balance-of-payments constrained growth model into a more general specification. Then, based on the model developed in this paper, the authors analyse more broadly some important issues concerning the net impact of currency depreciation on the short-run growth.
The authors build upon Dixon and Thirlwall’s (1975) export-led growth model and Thirlwall’s (1979) balance-of-payments constrained growth model in order to develop the theoretical framework. The authors also run numerical simulations to illustrate the net impact of devaluation on the short-run growth rate in different scenarios.
The authors demonstrate that the net impact of currency devaluation on growth can go either way, depending on some structural conditions such as the average share of imported intermediate inputs in prime costs of domestic firms and the institutional capacity of trade unions to set nominal wages through the bargaining process. The model also shows that the effectiveness of a competitive real exchange rate to promote growth is higher in countries where the share of labour in domestic income is also higher.
This paper provides a coherent formal starting-point for further theoretical developments on the interrelatedness between currency devaluation, income distribution and growth. These findings provide empirically testable hypothesis for future research.
The present study proposes an alternative formal solution for the theoretical problem of imposing a balance-of-payments constraint on the process of cumulative causation often incorporated in Kaldorian growth models. In terms of policy, the framework sheds further light on the relevance of income distribution and the labour market institutional framework for the dynamics of the exchange rate pass-through mechanism and allows us to map out related conditions under which currency devaluation can promote growth.
This paper seeks to draw together the various essential elements of the conflict inflation approach within the context of an open economy and to highlight the importance of global external factors in explaining inflation.
A theoretical framework is proposed based on a model with a few simple building‐blocks. A supply side relationship that determines the trade‐off between a stable distribution of income and the external balance is first derived. As a second step the model combines the supply side relationship with James Meade's analysis of the relation between internal and external balance.
The study first shows, in the context of an small open economy, relevant trade‐offs among three crucial macroeconomics targets – external balance, internal balance, and workers/firms' aspiration balance. It then disentangles the adjustment mechanism that explains how an adverse balance of payments shocks may lead eventually to the breakdown of the conflicting claims equilibrium and inflation. Finally, it provides analytical reasons for believing that the focus of globalization (sustained and higher world demand and strong global competitiveness) is the main cause of global disinflation.
The present study provides a starting‐point for further theoretical developments within the conflict inflation approach and requires empirical testing.
The open economy conflict inflation framework could prove to be useful in improving the understanding of the relationship between global external forces and domestic inflation.