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Publication date: 10 December 2018

Karl Aschenbrücker and Tobias Kretschmer

The authors examine how firms can achieve organizational ambidexterity, that is, how they can successfully engage in concurrent exploitation of existing competencies and…

Abstract

The authors examine how firms can achieve organizational ambidexterity, that is, how they can successfully engage in concurrent exploitation of existing competencies and exploration of new competencies in their search for new products. Existing research has identified three enablers to manage these fundamentally different activities: temporal separation, structural separation, and the creation of context. Studying the strategic orientation, organization design, and performance of a unique sample of mid-sized German manufacturing firms, the authors find that the controlled interplay of decentralized decision making and formalized processes and goals is another effective means to manage the challenges of pursuing an innovation strategy balancing both exploitative and exploratory activities. The findings of this study suggest that this balanced control constitutes a fourth enabler of ambidexterity.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Matthew J. Hickman, Alex R. Piquero, Brian A. Lawton and Jack R. Greene

The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle…

Abstract

The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle advanced a general theory of deviance that may help to fill this gap. The central premise of Tittle’s control balance theory is that the amount of control to which one is subject relative to the amount of control one can exercise (the control ratio) affects both the probability of deviance as well as the specific form of deviance. Examines the utility of control balance as a new theoretical orientation in police deviance research. Presents a framework for conceptualizing control balance within the special context of police deviance and, using data collected specifically for the purpose of operationalizing the control ratio, provides an empirical test. The data are drawn from a survey administered to 499 Philadelphia police officers. Scenario methodology was used to investigate the effects of officer control ratios on the probability of reporting a fellow officer who covers up an incident in which another officer was discovered driving while intoxicated (off duty), and second physically abuses a suspect in custody. Consistent with predictions derived from Tittle’s theory, results indicated that officers with control deficits are more likely to report fellow officers who engage in the behaviors portrayed in the scenarios. Future research directions are discussed.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Maxwell Fordjour Antwi-Afari, Heng Li, David John Edwards, Erika Anneli Pärn, JoonOh Seo and Arnold Wong

Repetitive lifting tasks have detrimental effects upon balance control and may contribute toward fall injuries, yet despite this causal linkage, risk factors involved…

Abstract

Purpose

Repetitive lifting tasks have detrimental effects upon balance control and may contribute toward fall injuries, yet despite this causal linkage, risk factors involved remain elusive. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of different weights and lifting postures on balance control using simulated repetitive lifting tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 healthy male participants underwent balance control assessments before and immediately after a fatiguing repetitive lifting tasks using three different weights in a stoop (ten participants) or a squat (ten participants) lifting posture. Balance control assessments required participants to stand still on a force plate with or without a foam (which simulated an unstable surface) while center of pressure (CoP) displacement parameters on the force plate was measured.

Findings

Results reveal that: increased weight (but not lifting posture) significantly increases CoP parameters; stoop and squat lifting postures performed until subjective fatigue induce a similar increase in CoP parameters; and fatigue adversely effected the participant’s balance control on an unstable surface vis-à-vis a stable surface. Findings suggest that repetitive lifting of heavier weights would significantly jeopardize individuals’ balance control on unstable supporting surfaces, which may heighten the risk of falls.

Originality/value

This research offers an entirely new and novel approach to measuring the impact that different lifting weights and postures may have upon worker stability and consequential fall incidents that may arise.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1954

E.G. Broadbent

WE concluded Part II of this series with the remark that a different outlook is needed for problems of control surface flutter than for those of wing flutter. There are…

Abstract

WE concluded Part II of this series with the remark that a different outlook is needed for problems of control surface flutter than for those of wing flutter. There are two reasons for this. Wing flutter must be investigated carefully early on in the design of an aircraft so as to provide a safe aircraft without a severe weight penalty, whereas the weight penalty of avoiding control surface flutter is usually small, although not negligible, and modifications can often be made at short notice, so it is important to make a full investigation as late as possible before flight when all the data are available in a reliable form. The second reason is that with wing flutter, as with aileron reversal and divergence, it is usual to think of safety margins in terms of forward speed or possibly wing torsional stiffness; with control surface flutter, on the other hand, quite different types of safety factor become the rule.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Bing Hua, Lin Chen, Yunhua Wu and Zhiming Chen

The three-axis simulator relies on the air film between the air bearing and the bearing seat to achieve weightlessness and the frictionless motion condition, which is…

Abstract

Purpose

The three-axis simulator relies on the air film between the air bearing and the bearing seat to achieve weightlessness and the frictionless motion condition, which is essential for simulating the micro-disturbance torque of a satellite in outer space. However, at the beginning of the experiment, the disturbance torque caused by the misalignment between the center of gravity of the simulator and the center of rotation of the bearing is the most important factor restricting the use of the space three-axis simulator. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to set the balance adjustment system on the simulator to compensate the disturbance torque caused by the eccentricity. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a study of L1 adaptive automatic balancing control method for micro satellite with motor without other actuators is proposed. L1 adaptive control algorithm adds the low-pass filter to the control law, which in a certain sense to reduce the high-frequency signal and speed up the response time of the controlled system. At the same time, by estimating the adaptive parameter uncertainty in object, the output error of the state predictor and the controlled object can be stabilized under Lyapunov condition, and the robustness of the system is also improved. The automatic balancing method of PID is also studied in this paper.

Findings

Through this automatic balancing mechanism, the gravity disturbance torque can be effectively reduced down to 10−6 Nm, and the automatic balancing time can be controlled within 7 s.

Originality/value

This paper introduces an automatic balancing mechanism. The experimental results show that the mechanism can greatly improve the convergence speed while guaranteeing the control accuracy, and ensuring the feasibility of the large angle maneuver of spacecraft three-axis simulator.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

Søren Jagd

The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust and control in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations.

Findings

The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts.

Practical implications

While the static perspective on trust and control made the problem of finding a balance between trust and control a once and for all decision the process perspective introduced here implies that balancing trust and control is an ongoing process of balancing and rebalancing. The implication for management is that the problem of balancing trust and control becomes an issue that deserve ongoing attention.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the discussion on the relation between trust and control by showing that the process perspective reframes the problem of balancing trust and control. More generally, by demonstrating the importance of the process perspective on the trust and control interrelation, the paper calls for the wider use of a process perspective for researching the trust‐control nexus.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1940

P.B. Walker

THE importance of control surface mass balancing does not need to be emphasized, and it is well known that the faster aeroplanes fly, the greater is the care and attention…

Abstract

THE importance of control surface mass balancing does not need to be emphasized, and it is well known that the faster aeroplanes fly, the greater is the care and attention which the designer must give to this question.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 12 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Nicholas John Wake

– The purpose of this paper is to question whether the balanced scorecard provides an appropriate control mechanism for management control of knowledge workers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to question whether the balanced scorecard provides an appropriate control mechanism for management control of knowledge workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is taken to explore the way in which management control of employees engaged in research and development is undertaken.

Findings

The key finding of this work is that the balanced scorecard is not in itself a useful approach to management control of knowledge workers but provides an important mechanism for ensuring that there is alignment between the strategic objectives of an organisation and the work being undertaken.

Research limitations/implications

The inductive approach taken in a single-company case study has provided a rich data set for exploratory research, however, this research design limits the generalisability of the findings.

Practical implications

The work provides insights into how the balanced scorecard can be used in knowledge-worker environments.

Originality/value

The balanced scorecard is often reported as a tool that allows organisations to cascade strategic priorities down to the level of the individual though the use of measures. This research provides an alternative explanation of how the balanced scorecard can support knowledge worker control.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Yeoun-Jae Kim, Joon-Yong Lee and Ju-Jang Lee

This paper aims to present a step-exchange strategy for balance control of a walking biped robot when a lateral impact acts suddenly. A step-out strategy has been recently…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a step-exchange strategy for balance control of a walking biped robot when a lateral impact acts suddenly. A step-out strategy has been recently proposed for balance control when an unknown lateral force acts to a biped robot during walking. This step-out strategy causes a robot to absorb the impact kinetic energy and efficiently maintain balance without falling down. Nevertheless, it was found that the previous strategies have drawbacks that the two foots should always be on the ground (double-support mode) after being balanced and the authors think it is difficult to continue walking after being balanced. Unlike the existing balance strategies, the proposed step-exchange strategy is to not only maintain balance but also to lift one leg in the air (single-support mode) after being balanced so that it is easy for a biped robot to keep walking after being balanced.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed step-exchange strategy, forward Newton–Euler equation, angular momentum and energy conservation equation were derived. Hill-climbing algorithm is utilized for numerically finding a solution. To verify the proposed strategy, a biped robot by Open Dynamics Engine was stimulated, and experiments with a real biped robot (LRH-1) were also conducted.

Findings

The proposed step-exchange strategy enables a walking biped robot under a lateral impact to keep balance and to keep a single-support mode after exchanging a leg. It is helpful for a biped robot to continue walking without any stop. It is found that the proposed step-exchange strategy can be applicable for maintaining balance even if a biped robot is moving. Even though this proposal seems immature yet, it is the first attempt to exchange the supporting foot itself. This strategy is very straightforward and intuitive because humans are also likely to exchange their supporting foot onto the opposite side when an unexpected force is acting.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed step-exchange strategy described in this paper can be applicable in the situation when the external force is applied in the +Y direction, the left leg is the swing leg and the right leg is the stance leg, or it can also be applicable in the situation when the external force is applied in −Y direction, the right leg is the swing leg and the left leg is the stance leg (Figure 2 for ±Y force direction). If an impact force acts to the side of the swing leg, the other step-exchange strategy is needed. The authors are studying this issue as a future work.

Originality/value

The authors have originated the proposed step-exchange strategy for balance control of a walking biped robot under lateral impact. The strategy is genuine and superior in comparison with the state-of-the-art strategy because not only can a biped robot be balanced but it can also easily continue walking by using the step-exchange strategy.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Wei Guo, Shiyin Qiu, Fusheng Zha, Jing Deng, Xin Wang and Fei Chen

This paper aims to propose a novel balance-assistive control strategy for hip exoskeleton robot.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a novel balance-assistive control strategy for hip exoskeleton robot.

Design/methodology/approach

A hierarchical balance assistive controller based on the virtual stiffness model of extrapolated center of mass (XCoM) is proposed and tested by exoskeleton balance assistive control experiments.

Findings

Experiment results show that the proposed controller can accelerate the swing foot chasing XCoM and enlarge the margin of stability.

Originality/value

As a proof of concept, this paper shows the potential for exoskeleton to actively assist human regain balance in sagittal plane when human suffers from a forward or backward disturbing force.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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