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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Raza Ali Zaidi, Muhammad Majid Khan, Rao Aamir Khan and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting startup development and the entrepreneurship ecosystem's contribution to it.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting startup development and the entrepreneurship ecosystem's contribution to it.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology is used for data collection from different startup owners working across Pakistan. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which investigates the causal effect of variables at a definite point in time. Non-probability convenient sampling was used for selecting available startups from the incubation centers. The sampling framework consists of the founders of the startups that have been previously incubated at any of the selected incubation centers.

Findings

Regression analysis results from 165 responses of entrepreneurs and incubation centers demonstrate that the most important factors affecting startup development were financial access, government support, marketing challenges, education, technology and managerial skills in order of occurrence. Entrepreneurship ecosystem also proved to have a very positive impact on the relationship of these factors with startup development.

Practical implications

In this paper, the factors that affect the development of startup are analyzed and recommendations are provided.

Originality/value

This research is comprehensive, as we have collected data from actual entrepreneurs and incubation centers to explain how entrepreneurs initiate their startup business by considering their managerial skills. As such, this study is unique in that the data comes from newly developed incubations centers in one of South Asia's fastest-growing economies.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Bahaudin G. Mujtaba, Hongmin Cai, Yunshan Lian and Han Ping

– The purpose of this research is to study the management approach of automotive industry managers and students in China.

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1085

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study the management approach of automotive industry managers and students in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focused on comparing the leadership orientation of respondents and compared 200 working managers with 181 graduate students in the automotive industry.

Findings

It appears that these Chinese respondents from the automotive industry have significantly higher scores on the relationship orientation than task orientation. Managers have significantly higher scores on both dimensions of leadership. Similarly, the female respondents in China had similar scores as their male colleagues.

Research limitations/implications

It appears that being socialized in a collectivistic or high context culture can lead to higher focus on relationship orientation. Based on the results, practical implications and application for future research are explored.

Originality/value

This paper is original and analyzes the leadership orientation of respondents.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of proper planning when negotiating with Chinese business professionals. The paper emphasizes face-to-face…

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2413

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of proper planning when negotiating with Chinese business professionals. The paper emphasizes face-to-face interaction more so than internet negotiations since relationship building is very important for Chinese negotiators.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used academic literature and book publications to glean the best practices for Chinese negotiation practices. Both face-to-face and cyberspace negotiation strategies are explored.

Findings

It appears that these Chinese professionals initially focus on relationship and trust building before making any major deals. As such, traditional means of negotiations are preferred. Also, it should be noted that renegotiations are fairly common, even after a contract has been signed. A four-step negotiation model is recommended for negotiating with Chinese professionals.

Research limitations/implications

Foreigners doing business in China must understand the local norms prior to undertaking any major negotiations. It is best to negotiate through face-to-face format with one's Chinese partners rather than relying on cyberspace technologies.

Social implications

This paper is a review of practical literature to help international managers when they are negotiating with their Chinese counterparts.

Originality/value

This is an original technical paper to help expatriates properly negotiate with Chinese negotiators.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

The purpose of this chapter is to create awareness and provide practical solution for the diversity conflicts and challenges facing people in Afghanistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to create awareness and provide practical solution for the diversity conflicts and challenges facing people in Afghanistan.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The content comes from the literature and personal observations of living in Afghanistan, while also meeting several ministers and the former president of the country.

Findings

While most people around the globe might perceive Afghanistan as a homogeneous society made up of people with similar beliefs and goal, the reality is far from it due to the heterogeneity of ethnicities, values, and languages spoken in the country. Of course, heterogeneity can make a society much more complex when diversity is not managed effectively, and this is certainly the case in Afghanistan’s divided population. When a heterogeneous society is not inclusive and not managed well, its consequences can be high levels of discrimination, distrust, violence, and animosity among diverse people groups. Afghanistan is an Asian collective culture, which has suffered from many negative consequences caused by mismanagement of diversity, low levels of education, and political acrimony among different people groups based on tribalism.

Research Limitations

There was no funding to conduct primary research. As such, the literature and conclusions are based on personal experiences of the author, interviews with the current and former political leaders, and previously published materials.

Practical Implications

This chapter suggests that inclusion, education and diversity management are especially crucial for Afghanistan. A review of the Afghan cultural diversity is provided along with suggestions for creating a more inclusive country for all citizens.

Originality/Value

The chapter is an original writing based on the author’s socialization, education and interaction with the Afghan culture. As an expert trainer and researcher, the author provides practical content for education, application, and policy development in Afghanistan.

Details

Diversity within Diversity Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-821-3

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

Afghanistan is an ethnically diverse country which has suffered from many negative consequences caused by mismanagement of diversity, low levels of education, and…

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2230

Abstract

Purpose

Afghanistan is an ethnically diverse country which has suffered from many negative consequences caused by mismanagement of diversity, low levels of education, and political acrimony among different groups. The paper seeks to discuss how cultural and ethnic diversity can lead to civil unrest and make management of a country more complex. When diversity is not managed well, its consequences can be high levels of conflict, animosity, discrimination, corruption, and distrust among different ethnic groups.

Design/methodology

This is a conceptual paper. It covers the realities of ethnic, religious and language diversity in Afghanistan based on first hand observations and experience along with findings from the literature.

Findings

The paper suggests that diversity education along with an ethical climate is especially crucial for Afghanistan if the aim is to create an inclusive culture where everyone's voice is heard, understood and integrated for implementation. A diversity continuum model for inclusivity is created for managers, expatriates, diversity officers, government officials, and educators so they can use it for their training and development programs in their efforts to create a fair work climate in Afghanistan.

Research limitations

This paper is limited to personal observations and experiences along with a review of literature from experts who write about diversity and corruption.

Practical implications

Managers, employers, and employees can use this material for training to create diversity awareness, provide diversity management skills, and to reduce unfair, discriminatory, and corrupt practices.

Social implications

Employees of all ethnicities should know their rights and work toward the creation of an inclusive culture in Afghanistan.

Originality

This is an original paper and the inclusivity model is created by the author for this study.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Frank J. Cavico, Stephen C. Muffler and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

The article aims to provide a discussion of societal norms concerning “attractiveness,” the existence of appearance discrimination in employment, the presence of…

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23977

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to provide a discussion of societal norms concerning “attractiveness,” the existence of appearance discrimination in employment, the presence of “preferring the pretty”, and then the authors examine important civil rights laws that relate to such forms of discrimination. Finally, the authors apply ethical theories to determine whether such discrimination can be seen as moral or immoral.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a legal paper which covers all the laws related to discrimination based on look. Court cases and Americans laws related to this concept are reviewed and critically discussed.

Findings

The paper finds that appearance‐based discrimination is not illegal in the USA so long as it does not violate civil rights laws.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to Federal and State laws in the USA and may not be relevant in other countries as the local laws might vary.

Practical implications

Managers and employees can protect themselves in the workplace from illegal discriminatory practices.

Social implications

Employees know their rights and enhance their understanding of laws related to appearance, attractiveness, and why companies look to hire those who are considered “handsome”, “pretty” and “beautiful”.

Originality/value

This is an original and comprehensive paper by the authors.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Bahaudin G. Mujtaba and Kazuhito Isomura

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the leadership tendencies of Japanese people and relevant changes over time while exploring their task and relationship…

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3041

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the leadership tendencies of Japanese people and relevant changes over time while exploring their task and relationship orientations on the basis of culture.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to explore the behavioural tendencies of working adults in the Japanese workplace, the paper focused on comparing the leadership orientations of 231 respondents on the basis of age, gender and public/private sector work experience. To deepen the understanding of Japanese leadership orientation, the authors precisely examine Japanese culture, organisation and management practices.

Findings

Japanese respondents have a significantly higher score on the relationship orientation. Their task score is also in the moderately high range. Japanese males were found to be more task‐oriented. No differences were found based on public/private sector work experience. However, older Japanese have a significantly higher focus on task orientation compared to their younger colleagues.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations is the small number of responses. One specific limitation is the fact that this study was conducted with a convenient sample population. Future studies can compare specific populations in different parts of the country with similar working backgrounds and demographic variables.

Practical implications

The findings that Japanese employees are more focused on their relationship but that they also have a moderately high task orientation score are useful for managers and expatriates working in Japan to understand the behavioural tendencies of Japanese people and the relevant changes over time.

Originality/value

Japan is a high‐context culture; therefore Japanese people are traditionally regarded to be relationship‐oriented, and this was confirmed academically in the findings of this research. However, the paper showed that the Japanese also have a moderately high task orientation.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Lam D. Nguyen, Bahaudin G Mujtaba and Frank J. Cavico

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain if age, gender, management experience and government work experience actually make a difference in the ethical development of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain if age, gender, management experience and government work experience actually make a difference in the ethical development of respondents in Vietnam, an emerging economy in Southeast Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative self-administered survey was conducted with a convenience sample of Vietnamese working adults obtained through educational institutions, businesses and entrepreneurs and private and public sector organizations. This study used Clark and Clark’s (1966) Personal Business Ethics Scores measure. The Vietnamese version questionnaire was distributed, and a total of 704 surveys were fully completed and analyzed.

Findings

Statistically significant differences were found in the variables of age, gender and government work experience. Management experience did not lead to any significant differences. Consequently, Kohlberg’s moral development theory regarding ethical development is partially supported.

Research limitations/implications

This study used a convenience sample population. Future studies can compare specific populations in different parts of the country with similar working backgrounds and demographic variables. The small sample size is not necessarily representative of an entire country or the culture in Vietnam. Furthermore, it would be meaningful to investigate the relationship between ethical development and the demographic variables among other Asian countries near Vietnam. Finally, longitudinal studies can be implemented by future researchers to investigate the effects of changes in demographic variables on moral development.

Practical implications

Females should be studied more to determine the factors that they consider when making decisions that impact others. Having longer time “socializing” with organizational values might be a stronger influence on ethical behaviors of a person. Vietnamese people are less tolerant for unethical behaviors when they are much younger and when they are much older.

Social implications

The importance of ethics education programs at the national and organizational levels is underscored as a key element to combat corruption. Several specific recommendations on how to enhance the fight against corruption and bribery were provided.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the moral development theory research and sheds light on the impact of age, gender, government work experience and management experience gained through the development process on ethical decision-making of Vietnamese people. Academicians, managers, practitioners, government leaders and the like can benefit from the findings of this paper.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Shawn M. Carraher

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1011

Abstract

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jason L. Huang, Ann Marie Ryan and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which perceptions of one’s colleague’s fair treatment by an authority, termed vicarious justice, can affect an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which perceptions of one’s colleague’s fair treatment by an authority, termed vicarious justice, can affect an individual’s satisfaction with and cooperation toward the authority, after controlling one’s personal justice experience from the same authority figure.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1,172 employees filled out a survey about personal and vicarious justice experience at work. In Study 2,208 undergraduate students participated in an online scenario experiment that manipulated vicarious justice experience.

Findings

Across both studies, results indicated that, controlling for personal justice perceptions, vicarious justice perceptions positively influenced individuals’ satisfaction with the authority; the effect on satisfaction was stronger for individuals who saw themselves as more similar to the colleague. Results of the experiment also suggested that vicarious justice led to higher cooperation intentions, and such effect was moderated by similarity as well.

Research limitations/implications

The current studies demonstrate that vicarious justice perceptions can influence individuals beyond the effects of their own treatment, and such influence depends on perceived similarity between the focal individual and the colleague.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the importance of managers’ treatment of other employees, especially when managing employees that are homogeneous in various characteristics.

Originality/value

The studies extend the current understanding on vicarious justice effects and underscore the role of similarity in moderating such effects. The combination of field survey and online experiment provides evidence for causal inference for the findings.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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