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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Mejbel Al-Saidi and Bader Al-Shammari

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between ownership structure (ownership concentration and ownership composition) and firm performance in Kuwaiti…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between ownership structure (ownership concentration and ownership composition) and firm performance in Kuwaiti non-financial firms. To this end, it examines the relationship between firm performance and ownership concentration to determine whether the impact of this relationship is conditional on the nature of the large shareholders.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the relationship between ownership concentration and firm performance was tested using ordinary least squares regressions on 618 observations (103 listed firms) from 2005 to 2010; next, the ownership compositions were classified as institutional, government and individuals (families) and their impact on firm performance examined.

Findings

The overall concentration ownership by large shareholders showed no impact on firm performance. However, when the type of shareholders was introduced, only the government and individuals (families) ownership categories influenced firm performance. Therefore, certain types of shareholders are better at monitoring, and not all concentration by large shareholders is beneficial to Kuwaiti firms.

Research limitations/implications

This study examined only one important aspect of the corporate governance mechanisms, namely, ownership concentration. Thus, further study may include other mechanisms such as board variables, role of debt and shareholders rights in examining the firm performance. This study is limited to the Kuwaiti environment, and thus, next step can be very useful in case of comparing ownership concentration in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia) or across different Arab countries.

Practical implications

The results of this study have important implications for the regulators in Kuwait in their efforts to increase the efficiency of the rapidly developing capital markets and in protecting investors and keeping confidence in the economy. They may mandate a corporate governance code to protect minority shareholders. Investors may use the findings to understand Kuwaiti companies. Such findings may assist them to diversify their investment portfolios.

Originality/value

This paper extends literature review by investigating the role of large shareholders in the context of a developing country that is characterized by high level of ownership concentration and weak legal protection for investors as well as the absence of code that organized the corporate governance practices.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Mejbel Al‐Saidi and Bader Al‐Shammari

This study aims to examine the relationship between board composition (i.e. non‐executive directors, family directors, role duality and board size) and bank performance…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between board composition (i.e. non‐executive directors, family directors, role duality and board size) and bank performance, using a sample of nine listed Kuwait banks over the 2006 to 2010 period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses ordinary least squares (OLS) and two‐stage‐least squares (2SLS) to test such a relationship and to address endogeneity in explanatory variables.

Findings

The results provide some evidence that board composition of banks relates to their performance. According to the OLS regression results, only board size and proportion of non‐executive directors negatively affect bank performance. Meanwhile, the 2SLS results indicate that role duality positively affects a bank's performance while board size affects a bank's performance negatively.

Research limitations/implications

Although the model has explained a significant part of the variation in performance, still unexplained is a material part that represents the “noise” of the model. Data availability limited the ability to study other aspects of corporate governance mechanisms such as number of audit committee members on board. The sample size is small; thus, in future research, the sample size could be increased by including a longer period of time or different countries such as members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia).

Practical implications

Given the importance of effective boards in monitoring bank values, more actions and rules need to take place in Kuwait to improve the efficacy of boards in protecting shareholders and their interests in Kuwaiti banks. Regulators may mandate a corporate governance code or adopt the OECD corporate governance principles as a starting point in Kuwait. Kuwaiti companies may use the findings to make appropriate choices about board appointments and best governance to improve performance. Investors also may use the findings to understand Kuwaiti companies. Such findings may assist them to diversify their investment portfolios.

Originality/value

This study asserts to provide insights on the relationship between bank performance and board composition in Kuwait. The study extends prior research and investigates the roles of board of directors in banks in the context of an emerging market characterized by weak shareholder protection and highly concentrated ownership.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Bader Al‐Shammari

The purpose of this study is to measure the extent of voluntary disclosure in the 2009 annual reports of 108 Shariah‐compliant companies listed on the Kuwait Stock…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the extent of voluntary disclosure in the 2009 annual reports of 108 Shariah‐compliant companies listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange. The study aims to investigate three categories of voluntary disclosure: overall, conventional and Islamic disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

Voluntary disclosure was measured using a self‐constructed index consisting of 132 items overall, 86 for conventional and 46 for Islamic information items. Annual reports were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t‐tests.

Findings

Results suggest that the mean overall voluntary disclosure by Shariah‐compliant companies is 15 percent, but 17 percent and 13 percent for the conventional and Islamic items, respectively. Voluntary disclosure of conventional items is comparable to extant studies, and higher than Islamic items.

Research limitation/implications

The study uses annual reports from 2009 because they were the most recent data available on the listed companies at the beginning of the study. Since this study was undertaken before the Shariah Advisory Council of the Capital Market Authority was established on January 1, 2012, this imposes a limitation. Future study should replicate this study to assess differences with the existence of the Council.

Practical implications

The findings provide evidence that Shariah‐complaint companies lack voluntary disclosure, especially Islamic disclosure information. As a result, the findings should be useful to lawmakers in Kuwait for improving overall disclosure practices by Shariah‐compliant companies. Preparers may use the findings to match the amount of information in their annual reports with other companies to ensure capital sourcing. Investors may use the findings for understanding disclosure behavior of Shariah‐compliant companies in Kuwait. Such findings may assist them to diversify investment portfolios.

Originality/value

This study contributes to extending the Kuwaiti literature on disclosure, and fills a gap in empirical studies on Shariah‐compliant disclosure practices.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Halima Begum, A.S.A. Ferdous Alam, Md Aslam Mia, Faruk Bhuiyan and Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani

Though microfinance has been working for many years as a tool to eradicate poverty from its root, most of the least developed and developing countries are yet to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Though microfinance has been working for many years as a tool to eradicate poverty from its root, most of the least developed and developing countries are yet to significantly alleviate it from the society. The purpose of this paper is to focus on Shariah-based microfinance products in the context of sustainable poverty alleviation approach and provide them financial benefits to enhance their livelihoods.

Design/methodology/approach

Here, this qualitative study critically analyzes the basics of the sustainable Islamic microfinance to exterminate the level of poverty.

Findings

Islamic microfinance is a more ethical practice than the traditional motives of profit maximization, and it encourages extending the time of repayment if the debtors are in hardship. In some case, it suggests to give charity if the creditor has capability.

Research limitations/implications

Most importantly, research scholars and experts have already criticized the concept of conventional microfinance on the basis of various points, especially for its high rate of interest.

Social implications

Islamic microfinance is provided with a view to fulfill two tools simultaneously, i.e., social and financial inclusion. In this case, credits and Zakah can be given to the extreme poor people for satisfying basic needs. In terms of social responsibility, Islam encourages the people to be soft in case of collecting the lending money.

Originality/value

The study discoursed that sustainable Islamic Microfinance (IM) may be a promising future option to draw the attention of the religiously sensitive people toward the Shariah-based microfinance which can, in turn, mitigate the poverty level.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Amal Yamani, Khaled Hussainey and Khaldoon Albitar

This study aims to investigate the impact of financial instrument disclosures under the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 7 on the cost of equity capital (COEC).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of financial instrument disclosures under the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 7 on the cost of equity capital (COEC).

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 56 banks listed in the Gulf cooperation council (GCC) stock markets over 7 years from 2011 to 2017. A self-constructed index is used to measure the compliance level in addition to quantitative methods and panel data regression adopted to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The authors find that the compliance level with IFRS 7 does not improve from 2011 until 2017 in the GCC banks. The authors also find that compliance with IFRS 7 disclosures reduces the COEC.

Originality/value

The authors also provide new empirical evidence that the level of mandatory financial instruments disclosures under IFRS 7 reduces the COEC. The findings offer policy implications. It shows that compliance with IFRS 7 disclosure requirements leads to desirable economic consequences.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Taufiq Hassan, Shamsher Mohamad and Mohammed Khaled I. Bader

This paper aims to investigate the differences in mean cost, revenue and profit efficiency scores of conventional versus Islamic banks. It also aims to examine the effect…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the differences in mean cost, revenue and profit efficiency scores of conventional versus Islamic banks. It also aims to examine the effect of size and age on cost, revenue and profit efficiency of the sampled banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study evaluates a cross‐country level data compiled from the financial statements of 40 banks in 11 Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) countries over the period 1990‐2005. The data were collected for each year available from the BankScope database. The DEA nonparametric efficiency approach originally developed by Farrell was applied to analyse the data.

Findings

The findings suggest no significant differences between the overall efficiency of conventional and Islamic banks. However, it was noted that, on average, banks are more efficient in using their resources compared to their ability to generate revenues and profits. The average bank lost an opportunity to receive 27.9 percent more revenue, given the same amount of resources. Similarly, the average bank lost the opportunity to make 20.9 percent more profits utilising the same level of inputs. Clearly there is substantial room for improvement in cost minimisation and revenue and profit maximisation in both banking systems. The size and age factor did not significantly influence the efficiency scores in both banking streams.

Originality/value

This research is substantially different from the prior work in this area in three main ways. First, it investigates cost, revenue, and profit efficiency, whereas previous studies focus on cost, profit, or cost and profit efficiency. Also, no previous studies have compared conventional and Islamic banks. Second, this study distinguishes differences among big versus small, and old versus new banks, which allows more detailed insights on the efficiency issue. Third, the age issue in Islamic banks has been addressed, so far undocumented.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Ezzeddine Ben Mohamed, Neama Meshabet and Bilel Jarraya

This study aims to discuss the determinants of Islamic banks’ efficiency. It tries to explore the source of Islamic banks’ inefficiencies to propose solutions to guarantee…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss the determinants of Islamic banks’ efficiency. It tries to explore the source of Islamic banks’ inefficiencies to propose solutions to guarantee an acceptable level of technical efficiency of such banks in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this objective, the authors use a parametric approach, especially, the stochastic frontier approach, using production function and panel data analysis. The authors apply a package Frontier 4.1 for the estimation process, which is composed of two principal steps. In the first step, the authors estimate Islamic banks’ efficiency scores in different GCC countries based on an output distance function. In the second step, the analysis highlights the impact of managerial-specific education on Islamic accounting and finance, scarcity of Sharīʿah scholars, the board independence and chief executive officers’ (CEOs) duality on GCC Islamic banks’ efficiency.

Findings

This study’s results document that managerial-specific education on Islamic accounting and finance and the board of directors’ composition, especially, the board’s independence, can largely explain the technical efficiency scores of Islamic banks in GCC countries. Especially, the authors find evidence that managerial-specific education is negatively associated with the inefficiency term. The coefficient of the Sharīʿah scholar’s variable has a positive sign indicating that the more there are Sharīʿah experts, the more the bank is efficient. In addition, CEOs’ duality seems to have no significant effect on GCC Islamic banks’ efficiency.

Practical implications

GCC Islamic banks need to improve the presence of independent members on the board of directors. In addition, these banks are invited to count more on Sharīʿah auditors and educated staff characterized by a high level of competency in the domain of Islamic banking and finance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that highlights the effect of managerial-specific education in Islamic accounting and finance and scarcity of Sharīʿah scholars on Islamic banks’ efficiency.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Malek Hamed Alshirah, Azhar Abdul Rahman and Ifa Rizad Mustapa

This study aims at examining the level of risk of disclosure practices and the effect of four board of directors' characteristics (board size, board meetings, CEO duality…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at examining the level of risk of disclosure practices and the effect of four board of directors' characteristics (board size, board meetings, CEO duality and board expertise) on these practices in the Jordanian context. This study also adds to the body of literature by examining the moderating effect of family ownership on the relationship between the board of directors' characteristics and the corporate risk disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this study contains the non-financial Jordanian firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). 376 annual reports of the sampled firms over four years from 2014 to 2017 were used. The content analysis approach was used to collect data and to determine the level of risk disclosure by computing the number of risk-related sentences in the annual reporting. To test the study's hypothesis, the random effect model was employed.

Findings

The empirical results show that the total of the risk disclosure sentences for each firm ranges from a minimum value of 2 sentences to a maximum value of 61 sentences, and the mean of CRD is 28 sentences. The results also indicate that the board expertise is positively related with the level of risk disclosure. Conversely, CEO duality has a negative impact on the risk disclosure practices. However, the results failed to support that the board size and the board meetings have a significant effect on the level of risk disclosure. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that the family ownership moderates the relationship between the board of directors and the corporate risk disclosure.

Practical implications

The finding of this study is more likely be useful for many concerned parties, researchers, authorities, investors and financial analysts alike in understanding the current practices of the risk disclosure in Jordan, thus helping them in reconsidering and reviewing the accounting standards and improving the credibility and transparency of the financial reports in the Jordanian capital market.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the literature of risk disclosure because the previous research has paid little attention to this topic in Jordan. To the best knowledge of the researcher, this study is the first Jordanian study that focuses on examining the relationship between the board of directors' characteristics and the corporate risk disclosure in the non-financial sector. Furthermore, it is the first study that examines the moderating role of family ownership on such relationships. Consequently, the results of the current study draw attention to the CRD practices and the monitoring role of board of directors in Jordan.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Achraf Haddad

The purpose of this research is to compare the board quality's (BQ) impacts on the financial performance (FP) of conventional and Islamic banks (IBs) after the Subprime…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to compare the board quality's (BQ) impacts on the financial performance (FP) of conventional and Islamic banks (IBs) after the Subprime financial crisis. The main reason is to help financial stakeholders choose the best performing and most appropriate bank type with its engagement based on the BQ index.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the existing gap in previous researches and by using the GLS method (Generalized Least Squares method), the author compared the BQ's impacts on the FP of conventional and IBs. Settings of the FP and BQ were collected from 30 countries located on 4 continents. Two equal samples were tested; each of them is composed of 112 banks. The author concentrated only on the banks that have published regularly the banks' annual reports over the period 2010–2018.

Findings

Cylindrical panel results revealed that in conventional banks (CBs), the BQ has negatively affected banks' FP, while in IBs the BQ's impacts on the banks’' FP is ambiguous. Nevertheless, the positive impacts are more significant on the IBs' FP than the negative impacts on the IBs' FP.

Practical implications

The main practical contribution is the identification and distinction between the impacts of board determinants' quality on the shareholders' profits in the case of conventional and IBs. Hence, conventional or IBs which have a bad BQ will generate less FP and will be classified as a lender of bankruptcy danger for the bank customer. Besides, whatever the bank type, in a financial stable period, good BQ positively influences FP and provides a good impression to stakeholders. Otherwise, FP indicates that the banks suffer from the weaknesses of the board quality determinants.

Originality/value

Returning to the finance and banking governance literature, the author's article provides the first conditional and demonstrative analysis that detailed a logical comparative process to analyze the correlation between the board determinants' quality and the financial performance of conventional and IBs. However, previous research has always discussed the main role of the board as an internal governance mechanism on the FP separately in each bank type.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Malek Hamed Alshirah, Ahmad Farhan Alshira’h and Abdalwali Lutfi

This study aims to empirically examine whether the political connection is related to risk disclosure practices. The study also seeks to contribute to the existent risk…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically examine whether the political connection is related to risk disclosure practices. The study also seeks to contribute to the existent risk disclosure literature by investigating the moderator effect of family ownership on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The content analysis approach was used to collect data and determine the level of risk disclosure over the non-financial Jordanian firms listed on 1Amman Stock Exchange. The sample of this study contains 376 annual reports over four years from 2014 to 2017. It used the random effect regressions to examine the hypothesis of the study.

Findings

The results show that politically connected companies disclose less risk information than the unconnected ones in Jordan. The results also refer that family ownership contributes in mitigating the negative effect of the political connection on the level of corporate risk.

Practical implications

The results have implications for regulatory institutions such as the Jordan Securities Commission to take the negative effect of political connection in their consideration and impose further regulations to monitor this board’s attribute and control politicians’ domination on the board decisions.

Originality/value

The current study also contributes to the body of literature by investigating the effects of the political connections on the level of risk disclosure in the financial reports. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current study is the first to examine the effect of the political connection on the risk disclosure practices. Moreover, the study is among the first studies that examine the moderating role of family ownership on such relationship.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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