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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Vanchinathan Kumarasamy, Valluvan KarumanchettyThottam Ramasamy and Gnanavel Chinnaraj

The puspose of this paper, a novel systematic design of fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller-based speed control of sensorless brushless DC…

Abstract

Purpose

The puspose of this paper, a novel systematic design of fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller-based speed control of sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor using multi-objective enhanced genetic algorithm (EGA). This scheme provides an excellent dynamic and static response, low computational burden, the robust speed control.

Design/methodology/approach

The EGA is a meta-heuristic-inspired algorithm for solving non-linearity problems such as sudden load disturbances, modeling errors, power fluctuations, poor stability, the maximum time of transient processes, static and dynamic errors. The conventional genetic algorithm (CGA) and modified genetic algorithm (MGA) are not very effective in solving the above-mentioned problems. Hence, a multi-objective EGA optimized FOPID (EGA-FOPID) controller is proposed for speed control of sensorless BLDC motor under various conditions such as constant load conditions, varying load conditions, varying set speed (Ns) conditions, integrated conditions and controller parameters uncertainty.

Findings

This systematic design of the multi-objective EGA-FOPID controller is implemented in MATLAB 2020a with Simulink models for optimal speed control of the BLDC motor. The overall performance of the EGA-FOPID controller is observed and evaluated for computational burden, time integral performance indexes, transient and steady-state characteristics. The hardware experiment results confirm that the proposed EGA-FOPID controller can precisely change the BLDC motor speed is desired range with minimal effort.

Research limitations/implications

The conventional real time issues such as nonlinearity characteristics, poor controllability and stability.

Practical implications

It is clearly evident that out of these three intelligent controllers, the EGA optimized FOPID controller gives enhanced performance by minimizing the time domain parameters, performance Indices error and convergence time. Also, the hardware experimental setup and the results of the proposed EGA-FOPID controller are presented.

Originality/value

It shows the effectiveness of the proposed controllers is completely verified by comparing the above three intelligent optimization algorithms. It is clearly evident that out of these three intelligent controllers, the EGA optimized FOPID controller gives enhanced performance by minimizing the time domain parameters, performance Indices error and convergence time. Also, the hardware experimental setup and the results of the proposed EGA-FOPID controller are presented.

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Murali Dasari, A. Srinivasula Reddy and M. Vijaya Kumar

The principal intention behind the activity is to regulate the speed, current and commutation of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor. Thereby, the authors can control the torque.

Abstract

Purpose

The principal intention behind the activity is to regulate the speed, current and commutation of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor. Thereby, the authors can control the torque.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to regulate the current and speed of the motor, the Multi-resolution PID (MRPID) controller is proposed. The altered Landsman converter is utilized in this proposed suppression circuit, and the obligation cycle is acclimated to acquire the ideal DC-bus voltage dependent on the speed of the BLDC motor. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-elephant herding optimization (ANFIS-EHO) calculation mirrors the conduct of the procreant framework in families.

Findings

Brushless DC motor's dynamic properties are created, noticed and examined by MATLAB/Simulink model. The performance will be compared with existing genetic algorithms.

Originality/value

The presented approach and performance will be compared with existing genetic algorithms and optimization of different structure of BLDC motor.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Krzysztof Krykowski, Janusz Hetmańczyk and Dawid Makieła

When phase windings of brushless DC motor are switched, additional voltage drops across inductances of main circuit appear. These drops lead to, among other effects…

Abstract

Purpose

When phase windings of brushless DC motor are switched, additional voltage drops across inductances of main circuit appear. These drops lead to, among other effects, increase of torque‐speed curve slope. The discussed research has been aimed at working out a simple and precise method of identifying torque‐speed characteristic of PM BLDC motor. The elaborated method takes into account the influence of windings switching and motor inductances on motor torque‐speed characteristic. In order to assess the results, extensive test simulations of models implemented in Matlab/Simulink software have been run. Results of analysis and test simulations have been compared with lab test results of two real PM BLDC motors.

Design/methodology/approach

Analytical calculations take into consideration phenomena occurring during windings switch‐overs and impact of inductance on emerging voltage and rotational speed drops. It has been pointed out that on account of main circuit inductance, the average value of source current is less than average value of equivalent current generating electromagnetic torque. For analysis sake it has been assumed when windings are being switched‐over the current is kept constant; the motor parameters have also been assumed to be constant.

Findings

A novel and accurate method of determining torque‐speed characteristics of PM BLDC motor has been worked out. This method has been investigated with the help of motor computer models implemented in Matlab/Simulink software and the obtained results have been subsequently compared with results of laboratory tests of two commercially available PM BLDC motors.

Research limitations/implications

The object of the research was brushless DC motor with permanent magnet excitation. The impact of windings switch‐overs on torque‐speed curves of the motor has been analysed. Analytical method which makes it possible to determine torque‐speed curve of this motor very easily has been elaborated. Computer model of PM BLDC motor for Matlab/Simulink software has also been worked out. Extensive simulations helping to verify the proposed method have been run. Results of analysis and simulation tests have been verified by means of laboratory tests of two commercially available PM BLDC motors.

Practical implications

PM BLDC motors are used more and more widely. The new method of determining PM BLDC motors torque‐speed curves will facilitate analysis and design of drive systems utilizing these motors and will also speed up calculations.

Originality/value

The presented method of determining torque‐speed curves of PM BLDC motor is novel and much more precise than methods commonly used nowadays. Recognized methods usually neglect impact of inductance on motor properties.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Damijan Miljavec and Bogomir Zidarič

This study aims to calculate eddy current losses in permanent magnets of BLDC machine in the generator mode of operation with no‐load.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to calculate eddy current losses in permanent magnets of BLDC machine in the generator mode of operation with no‐load.

Design/methodology/approach

Stator slot openings and special design of the stator poles cause changes in the magnetic flux density changes in permanent magnets. The stator windings are not connected to an outer source and no currents flow in them. The induced eddy currents in permanent magnets are dependent solely on the stator geometry. Analytical approach to calculate the eddy current density distribution in permanent magnets is based on known distribution of magnetic flux density in the air‐gap of BLDC. The magnetic flux density distribution is obtained from magneto‐static finite element model of BLDC. For verification of analytical approach the eddy current density distribution in permanent magnets is also calculated by magneto‐transient finite element model of BLDC.

Findings

The eddy current losses in PM obtained with the FEM indicate additional heating of the BLDC machine at high rotational speeds even when it operates at no load. When some special stator designs (the side of the air gap) are needed, the losses in PMs and their heating increase.

Research limitations/implications

To get more precise results, the proposed analytical method for eddy current losses calculation in PM should be further analyzed. More geometric parameters of the BLDC design should be introduced to analytical formulations, especially those which affect variations in reluctance.

Practical implications

When some special stator designs (the side of the air gap) are needed, the losses in PMs should be observed. This is particularly recommended at higher rotation velocities. Any kind of magnetic flux density change induces eddy currents and together with them also power losses. These losses give rise to additional heating of PM. With this, the temperature‐dependent working characteristic of PM (second quadrant of the B‐H curve) moves toward the coordinate origin point. The overall machine performance is reduced. The presented work gives the view about happenings in permanent magnets regarding induced eddy current losses. It is a useful tool for fast estimation and reduction of eddy current losses in PM due to stator geometry.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is the closed view about happenings in permanent magnets regarding induced eddy currents and the calculation of eddy current losses in rotor permanent magnets of BLDC due to stator design. The originality is in the analytical approach to calculate the eddy current losses based only on known magneto‐static flux density distribution in air‐gap of BLDC.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Sikander Hans and Smarajit Ghosh

The efficient speed controller is found to be an important requirement to run the motor for the brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. This requirement is considered as…

Abstract

Purpose

The efficient speed controller is found to be an important requirement to run the motor for the brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. This requirement is considered as superior, as it may increase the operating speed and system efficiency. In the existing methods, proportional plus integral (PI) controller has been included because of its simple architecture. But the PI controller produces load disturbance, control complexity and some parametric (Proportional plus integral) variations. The purpose of this proposed controller is to overcome the problems produced by PI controller in BLDC motor.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed BLDC motor is developed with fixed order H-infinity controller. In this architecture, both the weight functions and transfer functions were included to design the controller. This controller has been included in this BLDC to detect the rotor position. The optimal position of rotor is identified by introducing particle swarm optimization algorithm.

Findings

The torque that obtained in the motor is highly reduced by this proposed controller and also enhances the speed. The BLDC motor is modelled in a MATLAB environment.

Practical implications

The performance of the torque, speed and back electro-motive force is analysed and compared with the existing controllers such as fuzzy proportional plus integral plus derivative, sensing algorithm and fuzzy proportional plus derivative controller.

Originality/value

Simulation results show that the proposed technique gives better results than the other existing controllers.

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Marian Łukaniszyn and Adrian Młot

This paper deals with magnetic field calculations and model‐based prediction of electromagnetic torque pulsations in a brushless DC (BLDC) motor.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper deals with magnetic field calculations and model‐based prediction of electromagnetic torque pulsations in a brushless DC (BLDC) motor.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of a Halbach‐like magnetization and a multipolar excitation of permanent magnets are analysed. The measurement results from the prototype motors are well‐compared with those obtained from the model calculations. It is shown that the cogging torque in the motor with the multipolar excitation of permanent magnets is reduced six times as compared with the conventional BLDC motor.

Findings

The proposed method provides high accuracy of the analysis of coupled electromagnetic phenomena. The comparison between measured and calculated values of electromagnetic torque, cogging torque and EMF shows a very good agreement.

Practical implications

Reduction of the machine cogging torque is essential for practical applications of DC motors, in particular in the robotics industry.

Originality/value

This paper shows that multipolar excitation contributes to essential reduction of the cogging torque in a BLDC motor. This is confirmed by high‐quality numerical models of the motor, positively verified in experiments with motor prototypes.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Umadevi Nagalingam, Balaji Mahadevan, Kamaraj Vijayarajan and Ananda Padmanaban Loganathan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm based design optimization of Brushless DC (BLDC) motor with a view…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm based design optimization of Brushless DC (BLDC) motor with a view to mitigate cogging torque and enhance the efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The suitability of MOPSO algorithm is tested on a 120 W BLDC motor considering magnet axial length, stator slot opening and air gap length as the design variables. It avails the use of MagNet 7.5.1, a Finite Element Analysis tool, to account for the geometry and the non-linearity of material for assuaging an improved design framework and operates through the boundaries of generalized regression neural network (GRNN) to advocate the optimum design. The results of MOPSO are compared with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II based formulations for claiming its place in real world applications.

Findings

A MOPSO design optimization procedure has been enlivened to escalate the performance of the BLDC motor. The optimality in design has been out reached through minimizing the cogging torque, maximizing the average torque and reducing the total losses to claim an increase in the efficiency. The results have been fortified in well-distributed Pareto-optimal planes to arrive at trade-off solutions between different objectives.

Research limitations/implications

The rhetoric theory of multi objective formulations has been reinforced to provide a decisive solution with regard to the choice of the design obtained from Pareto-optimal planes.

Practical implications

The incorporation of a larger number of design variables together with an orientation to thermal and vibration analysis will still go a long way in bringing on board new dimensions to the fold of optimality in the design of BLDC motors.

Originality/value

The proposal offers a new perspective to the design of BLDC motor in the sense it be-hives the facility of a swarm based approach to optimize the parameters in order that it serves to improve its performance. The results of a 120 W motor in terms of lowering the losses, minimizing the cogging torque and maximizing the average torque emphasize the benefits of the GRNN based multi-objective formulation and establish its viability for use in practical applications.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Jian‐Xin Shen, He Hao, Meng‐Jia Jin and Wei‐Zhong Fei

The purpose is to present a sensorless control method by which high‐resolution rotor position information is estimated and used for phase‐advancing operation of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to present a sensorless control method by which high‐resolution rotor position information is estimated and used for phase‐advancing operation of a high‐speed permanent magnet (PM) brushless DC (BLDC) motor.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed sensorless control approach uses hardware to observe the flux vector which is excited by rotor magnets. It can provide the rotor position which is the same as the phase angle of the observed flux vector.

Findings

High‐resolution rotor position signal of the BLDC motor for dynamic phase‐advancing control cannot be directly obtained from the conventional Hall‐effect sensors, or via the traditional back‐EMF‐based sensorless control strategies in which the back‐EMF may be even undetectable at high‐speed. The proposed rotor‐flux‐observer (RFO)‐based sensorless control method overcomes these problems, and meanwhile provides high‐resolution rotor position information for the phase‐advancing purpose.

Originality/value

The RFO‐based sensorless control is traditionally applied to PM brushless ac (BLAC) operations, where the motor voltage vector can be calculated from the inverter switching status. However, this is not readily applicable to a BLDC motor since the voltage of the floating phase cannot be calculated. Moreover, during high‐speed operation, the microprocessor may not be sufficiently fast to calculate the high‐resolution rotor position. Therefore, in this paper, it is proposed to use hardware to observe the rotor‐flux‐vector. The microprocessor only samples the vector's α‐ and β‐components and calculates the phase angle, hence, its burden is low. The proposed method is validated with a 1.8 kW 85,000 rpm BLDC motor system.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Prathibanandhi Kanagaraj, Ramesh Ramadoss, Yaashuwanth Calpakkam and Adam Raja Basha

The brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) is widely accepted and adopted by many industries instead of direct current motors due to high reliability during operation…

Abstract

Purpose

The brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) is widely accepted and adopted by many industries instead of direct current motors due to high reliability during operation. Brushless direct current (BLDC) has outstanding efficiency as losses that arise out of voltage drops at brushes and friction losses are eliminated. The main factor that affects the performance is temperature introduced in the internal copper core windings. The control of motor speed generates high temperature in BLDC operation. The high temperature is due to presence of ripples in the operational current. The purpose is to present an effective controlling mechanism for speed management and to improve the performance of BLDCM to activate effective management of speed.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose is to present an optimal algorithm based on modified moth-flame optimization algorithm over recurrent neural network (MMFO-RNN) for speed management to improve the performance. The core objective of the presented work is to achieve improvement in performance without affecting the design of the system with no additional circuitry. The management of speed in BLDCM has been achieved through reduction or minimization of ripples encircled with torque of the motor. The implementation ends in two stages, namely, controlling the loop of torque and controlling the loop of speed. The MMFO-RNN starts with error optimization, which arises from both the loops, and most effective values have been achieved through MMFO-RNN protocol.

Findings

The parameters are enriched with Multi Resolution Proportional Integral and Derivative (MRPID) controller operation to achieve minimal ripples for the torque of BLDC and manage the speed of the motor. The performance is increased by adopting this technique approximately 12% in comparison with the existing methodology, which is the main contributions of the presented work. The outcomes are analyzed with the existing methodologies through MATLAB Simulink tool, and the comparative analyses suggest that better performance of the proposed system produces over existing techniques, and proto type model is developed and cross verifies the proposed system.

Originality/value

The MMFO-RNN starts with error optimization, which arises from both the loops, and most effective values have been achieved through MMFO-RNN protocol. The parameters are enriched with MRPID controller operation to achieve nil or minimal ripples and to encircle the torque of Brushless Direct Current and manage the speed.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Bojan Štumberger, Gorazd Štumberger, Miralem Hadžiselimović, Ivan Zagradišnik, Anton Hamler and Mladen Trlep

The paper aims to present the comparison between the performances of the exterior‐rotor permanent magnet synchronous motors with distributed windings and the performances…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present the comparison between the performances of the exterior‐rotor permanent magnet synchronous motors with distributed windings and the performances of the exterior‐rotor permanent magnet synchronous motors with concentrated windings.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method is used for motors performance determination. The BLDC operation mode for the motors with different slot and pole number combination and concentrated windings was accounted for in the comparison.

Findings

In the BLDC operation mode motor structures with concentrated windings with similar slot and pole numbers exhibit at the same current density similar or even higher torque capability and lower electromagnetic torque ripple in comparison to the motor structure with distributed windings. Motor structures with 9‐slot/8‐pole, 9‐slot/10‐pole, 12‐slot/10‐pole slot and pole number combinations are the most appropriate for the BLDC operation.

Originality/value

The paper shows which motor structures with distributed or concentrated windings in the BLDC operation mode produce lower torque ripple and higher average torque per ampere.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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