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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Karen B. Blay, Martin Morgan Tuuli and Jojo France-Mensah

The purpose of this paper is to validate perceived benefits and challenges of managing change in Building Information Modelling (BIM) Level 2 projects and to further…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate perceived benefits and challenges of managing change in Building Information Modelling (BIM) Level 2 projects and to further explore the opportunities for enhancing the benefits and reducing the challenges. This research is timely because, hitherto, the benefits and challenges of managing change in BIM Level 2 remained largely unvalidated and the opportunities for enhancing the benefits and reducing challenges remained relatively unexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of a questionnaire survey and interviews with BIM Level 2 practitioners in the UK was employed in this study. In all, 41 responses were received from the questionnaire survey and ten subsequent interviews with BIM practitioners were carried out to explore opportunities for reducing challenges and increasing benefits of managing change in BIM Level 2 projects.

Findings

The study confirms benefits and challenges of managing change in BIM Level 2 projects identified and synthesised from literature, a much needed validation. Additional benefits and challenges were also identified in this study, such as cost saving and risk reduction (benefits) and social dimension issues in the BIM Level 2 processes (challenges). Opportunities identified to enhance benefits and reduce challenges were mainly socially driven, and were either reactive or proactive in nature.

Research limitations/implications

Opportunities for reducing challenges and increasing benefits identified from this research can inform the change management processes in BIM-Level 2.

Practical implications

The findings provide concrete basis for shaping BIM Level 2 change management processes and requirements.

Social implications

The identification of behaviours as shaping the social requirements for BIM-Level 2 confirms the need for a socio-technical approach to successful BIM implementation.

Originality/value

The identification of behaviours as shaping the social requirements for BIM Level 2 confirms the need for a socio-technical approach to successful BIM implementation.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Kudirat Olabisi Ayinla and Zulfikar Adamu

In the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, a “digital divide” exists in technology adoption because SMEs (who often form the bulk of AEC…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, a “digital divide” exists in technology adoption because SMEs (who often form the bulk of AEC organisations in most countries) are thought to be “Late Majority” and “Laggards” in the adoption of Building information modelling (BIM) technology. Larger organisations not saddled with financial and socio-technical constraints might be considered as being among the “Early Majority” or “Innovators”. It is crucial to understand how these organisations differ in their speed of BIM technology adoption and the rationale for this difference. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential causes of the digital divide and suggest solutions for bridging the gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Using mixed research method, data were collected through online questionnaire survey of over 240 global respondents as well as a semi-structured interview with nine experts for which statistical and thematic analyses were used, respectively.

Findings

Organisations can be zoned into “layers” and “levels” of BIM technology adoption and their size is not always significant in terms of the speed at which they adopt BIM. The digital divide is unequal across layers/levels and large organisations utilise technologies across the BIM maturity levels depending on project circumstances. A conceptual model for BIM technology was developed to aid identification of the “Laggards” and “Late Majority” from the “Innovators” through which change agents can customise adoption strategies for each group.

Originality/value

The developed model could serve as a tool for engagement and policy making and it contributes to the body of knowledge in the field of BIM technology adoption.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Benjamin Gbolahan Ekemode and Daramola Thompson Olapade

The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the adoption and use of building information modelling (BIM) for residential real estate development in Nigeria (using Lagos…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the adoption and use of building information modelling (BIM) for residential real estate development in Nigeria (using Lagos as a case study), with a view to providing information towards improving BIM uptake, which could enhance sustainable housing delivery in the country. A quantitative research methodology was adopted involving the use of questionnaire survey to collect primary data. The data were obtained from private real estate developers in Lagos State. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all the 72 active real estate developers in the study area, and the response rate was 62.5%. The collected data were analysed using statistical tools such as frequency and percentages, mean rating and chi-square. The results revealed a low level of awareness and usage of the transformative and contemporary BIM technology (6D BIM version) by real estate developers. It was established that the 2D and 3D BIM traditional versions were the most utilised across the phases of real estate development process. It was also found that the level of BIM utilisation has a significant relationship with the age and asset base of the real estate developers. The chapter concludes by advocating increase in the asset base and organisational profile of real estate developers to enhance BIM adoption, especially, the 6D BIM, which could facilitate sustainable real estate development.

Details

Sustainable Real Estate in the Developing World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-838-8

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Rui Jiang, Chengke Wu, Xiang Lei, Ammar Shemery, Keith D. Hampson and Peng Wu

The government plays a critical role in driving building information modeling (BIM) implementation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the government efforts for…

Abstract

Purpose

The government plays a critical role in driving building information modeling (BIM) implementation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the government efforts for driving BIM implementation in three benchmark countries, namely, Singapore, the UK and the US, so as to develop appropriate roadmaps for increasing BIM implementations in other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study performs a review on the government efforts and roles in BIM implementation in three benchmark countries, namely, Singapore, the UK and the US.

Findings

Through cross comparison with existing literature, it is found that Singapore and the UK adopt a government-driven approach and a phase-by-phase development pattern is observed. The first phase focuses on the building sector to rapidly increase the use of BIM and the government generally plays the role of an initiator. In the second phase, BIM is expanded to other implementation areas, e.g. smart city. The importance of the initiator role decreases and more attention is paid to supporting roles such as researcher, educator and regulator. In contrast, an industry-driven approach is adopted in the US. The main role of the government is that of a regulator, with research institutions actively supporting the BIM implementation.

Research limitations/implications

General roadmaps of the two mandating approaches are presented. The results can provide a useful reference for countries and regions that intend to develop roadmaps to increase their BIM maturity level and enhance readiness to accept and implement BIM.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first studies that investigate the step-by-step roadmaps for implementing BIM from the perspective of changing government roles.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Yingli Wang, Jonathan Gosling and Mohamed M. Naim

A number of governments are making building information modeling (BIM) a mandatory requirement for all public works construction projects. While main contractors may be…

Abstract

Purpose

A number of governments are making building information modeling (BIM) a mandatory requirement for all public works construction projects. While main contractors may be ready to comply with such requirements, the supply chain as whole may be vulnerable as lower-tier suppliers may not be able to adopt BIM. There is currently no objective approach to assessing BIM maturity; hence, this paper aims to develop a new approach to determine suppliers’ current vision and execution-based capabilities to exploit BIM and their capacity to reach a higher maturity level.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on UK Government BIM maturity levels, the authors exploit a unique data set made available by a main contractor, to determine a data-driven approach, using K-means, to assess the capabilities and vision of its supply base.

Findings

The authors find a direct comparison between our suggested K-means clusters and the UK Government’s BIM maturity levels. However, in interrogating specific cases, the authors find that using a subjective approach would have wrongly categorized certain companies. The authors also determine what capability and strategic developments are required for companies to move to a higher level.

Research limitations/implications

The method aligns with the existing UK BIM maturity model and enhances the model by determining the likelihood of a supplier in progressing to a higher level of maturity. The research was with a single case company, exploiting their existing survey instrument and data. A more comprehensive study could be adopted with a generic survey questionnaire.

Practical implications

The research may be exploited by companies to take a strategic approach to assess suppliers in BIM adoption and to establish supplier development mechanisms.

Originality/value

The data-driven approach avoids ambiguity of categories and mis-categorizing suppliers.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Margarida Jerónimo Barbosa, Pieter Pauwels, Victor Ferreira and Luís Mateus

Building information modeling (BIM) is most often used for the construction of new buildings. By using BIM in such projects, collaboration among stakeholders in an…

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3094

Abstract

Purpose

Building information modeling (BIM) is most often used for the construction of new buildings. By using BIM in such projects, collaboration among stakeholders in an architecture, engineering and construction project is improved. To even further improve collaboration, there is a move toward the production and usage of BIM standards in various countries. These are typically national documents, including guides, protocols, and mandatory regulations, that introduce guidelines about what information should be exchanged at what time between which partners and in what formats. If a nation or a construction team agrees on these guidelines, improved collaboration can come about on top of the collaboration benefits induced by the mere usage of BIM. This scenario might also be targeted for interventions in existing buildings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors investigate the general content and usage of existing BIM standards for new constructions, describing specifications about BIM deliverable documents, modeling, and collaboration procedures. The authors suggest to what extent the content in the BIM standards can also be used for interventions in existing buildings. These suggestions rely heavily on literature study, supported by on-site use case experiences.

Findings

From this research, the authors can conclude that the existing standards give a solid basis for BIM collaboration in existing building interventions, but that they need to be extended in order to be of better use in any intervention project in an existing building. This extension should happen at: data modeling level: other kinds of data formats need to be considered, coming from terrestrial laser scanning and automatic digital photogrammetry tools; at data exchange level: exchange requirements should take explicit statements about modeling tolerances and levels of (un)certainty; and at process modeling level: business process models should include information exchange processes from the very start of the building survey (BIM→facility management→BIM or regular audit).

Originality/value

BIM environments are not often used to document existing buildings or interventions in existing buildings. The authors propose to improve the situation by using BIM standards and/or guidelines, and the authors give an initial overview of components that should be included in such a standard and/or guideline.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Katie Graham, Lara Chow and Stephen Fai

Over the past decade, national and international organisations concerned with regulating the architecture, engineering, construction and operations industry have been…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade, national and international organisations concerned with regulating the architecture, engineering, construction and operations industry have been working to create guidelines for the integration of building information modelling (BIM) through the establishment of benchmarks to measure the quality and quantity of information in a given model. Until recently, these benchmarks – and BIM guidelines in general – have been developed for the design and construction of new projects, providing very little guidance for using BIM in the context of conservation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new benchmark specific to existing and heritage buildings developed by Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS).

Design/methodology/approach

To create the new benchmark, CIMS conducted a critical evaluation of established and emerging BIM guidelines including: Level of Development Specification 2016 (BIMFORUM), architecture, engineering and construction (Can) BIM Protocol (CanBIM), PAS 1102-2: Specification for Information Management for the Capital Delivery Phase of Construction Projects Using BIM (British Standards Institution) and Level of Accuracy Specification Guide (US Institute of Building Documentation).

Findings

Using the authors’ on-going work at the Parliament Hill National Historic Site in Ottawa, Canada, the CIMS created and applied a three-category system that evaluated the level of detail, information and accuracy within the building information model independently.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors discuss the CIMS’ work to date and propose next steps.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman and Fatma Othman Alamoudy

This paper aims to develop a framework for optimising building performance through the integration between risk management (RM) and building information modelling (BIM

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a framework for optimising building performance through the integration between risk management (RM) and building information modelling (BIM) during the design process.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this aim, a research strategy consisting of literature review, case studies and survey questionnaire is designed to accomplish four objectives. First, to examine the concepts of design process, building performance, RM and BIM; second, to present three case studies to explain the role of using RM and BIM capabilities towards optimising building performance; third, to investigate the perception and application of architectural design firms in Egypt towards the role of RM and BIM for enhancing building performance during the design process; and finally, to develop a framework integrating RM and BIM during the design process as an approach for optimising building performance.

Findings

Through literature review, the research identified 18 risks that hamper optimising building performance during the design process. In addition, 11 building performance values and 20 BIM technologies were defined. Results of data analysis showed that “Design budget overrun”, “Lack of considering life cycle cost” and “Inefficient use of the design time” were ranked the highest risks that affect the optimisation of building performance. Respondents ranked “Risk avoid” or “Risk transfer” as the most risk responses adopted in the Egyptian context. In addition, “BIM As Built” was ranked the highest BIM technology used for overcoming risks during the design process. These findings necessitated taking action towards developing a framework to optimising building performance.

Originality/value

The research identified the risks that affect optimising building performance during the design process. It focuses on improving the design process through using the capabilities of BIM technologies towards overcoming these risks during the design process. The proposed framework which integrates RM and BIM represents a synthesis that is novel and creative in thought and adds value to the knowledge in a manner that has not previously occurred.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Oluseye Olugboyega, David J. Edwards, Abimbola Olukemi Windapo, Emmanuel Dele Omopariola and Igor Martek

Research into project success (PS) has a long pedigree as has research into the impact of building information modelling (BIM) on projects. Yet, despite the many revealed…

Abstract

Purpose

Research into project success (PS) has a long pedigree as has research into the impact of building information modelling (BIM) on projects. Yet, despite the many revealed advantages BIM is known to deliver to projects, the relationship between the level of BIM application within a project, BIM's ability to impact a project at that level and the consequent effectiveness and range of success factors BIM is able to bestow across levels remains unmapped. Given the importance of evaluating the success of BIM-based construction projects (BBCPs) and the necessity to ensure the continual improvement of the BIM process, there is a need to identify the relationship between the level of BIM employed on a project and the specific PS factors that BIM is able to impact at that level.

Design/methodology/approach

This study puts forward a conceptual model for evaluating the success of BBCPs. A thematic synthesis approach is taken, using Scopus and other databases, and retrieving relevant articles from some 50 journals.

Findings

Eight success criteria for BBCPs were extracted and categorised according to BIM's ability to impact them across four levels of project application. Mapping BIM's variable impact at these four levels against the eight success factors produces a model for evaluating the PS of BBCPs. The model posits that the success of a BBCP is a function of the extent to which BIM is applied to the project. Moreover, the findings indicate that an increase in the number of PS criteria (PSC) for a BBCP is a derivative of BIM effectiveness, and not BIM impact.

Originality/value

This work constitutes seminal research to examine the concept of PS and PSC for BBCPs with the view to developing a model for evaluating the PS of BBCPs.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Robert Eadie, Mike Browne, Henry Odeyinka, Clare McKeown and Sean McNiff

Construction organisations are mandated to use Building Information Modelling (BIM) for Government projects from 2016. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the…

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2641

Abstract

Purpose

Construction organisations are mandated to use Building Information Modelling (BIM) for Government projects from 2016. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current status of the management aspects of BIM.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a telephone sift, a web-based questionnaire was conducted with UK construction BIM experts with 92 responses.

Findings

This research demonstrates a paradigm shift in construction as operations were deemed more important than the technical aspects of BIM Adoption. Respondents agree with enforced Level 2 BIM, demonstrating client demand is a significant driver on uptake. BIM use will substantially increase in the next five years. Ranking of the importance of current BIM standards indicated BS1192 was most used but almost a third adopted individual standards producing fragmentation. BIM’s effect on consultant fees indicated the need for structural change.

Practical implications

Front end design via BIM models and clash detection outweighed the use for facilities management indicating industry were meeting the target but not exploiting BIM to its full potential. Design and build and framework arrangements were the most common BIM procurement routes. Fragmentation of standards use creates a future interoperability problem between BIM systems.

Social implications

Design team structure changes are supported with the adoption of a separate BIM manager being popular. Analysis of industry-wide model hosting characteristics indicated individual disciplines managed their own models meaning without an additional target for Level 3 BIM the single model environment is unlikely to be widely adopted.

Originality/value

BIM fee structure and procurement are investigated for the first time

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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