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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Paul Konijnendijk and Jacob Wijngaard

In many situations suppliers and customers are looking for ways toimprove the co‐ordination of goods flow in both quantitative andqualitative ways. This is often called…

Abstract

In many situations suppliers and customers are looking for ways to improve the co‐ordination of goods flow in both quantitative and qualitative ways. This is often called co‐makership. This article describes a case study of two companies setting up a co‐makership relationship. The relationship is evaluated on criteria like possible improvements, organisational impact and risk of the (increasing) (inter) dependence between the two companies. Both the benefits and the organisational impact of the relationship can be large. The risks of co‐makership are not easy to evaluate.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Ayalapogu Ratna Raju, Suresh Pabboju and Ramisetty Rajeswara Rao

Brain tumor segmentation and classification is the interesting area for differentiating the tumorous and the non-tumorous cells in the brain and classifies the tumorous…

Abstract

Purpose

Brain tumor segmentation and classification is the interesting area for differentiating the tumorous and the non-tumorous cells in the brain and classifies the tumorous cells for identifying its level. The methods developed so far lack the automatic classification, consuming considerable time for the classification. In this work, a novel brain tumor classification approach, namely, harmony cuckoo search-based deep belief network (HCS-DBN) has been proposed. Here, the images present in the database are segmented based on the newly developed hybrid active contour (HAC) segmentation model, which is the integration of the Bayesian fuzzy clustering (BFC) and the active contour model. The proposed HCS-DBN algorithm is trained with the features obtained from the segmented images. Finally, the classifier provides the information about the tumor class in each slice available in the database. Experimentation of the proposed HAC and the HCS-DBN algorithm is done using the MRI image available in the BRATS database, and results are observed. The simulation results prove that the proposed HAC and the HCS-DBN algorithm have an overall better performance with the values of 0.945, 0.9695 and 0.99348 for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed HAC segmentation approach integrates the properties of the AC model and BFC. Initially, the brain image with different modalities is subjected to segmentation with the BFC and AC models. Then, the Laplacian correction is applied to fuse the segmented outputs from each model. Finally, the proposed HAC segmentation provides the error-free segments of the brain tumor regions prevailing in the MRI image. The next step is to extract the useful features, based on scattering transform, wavelet transform and local Gabor binary pattern, from the segmented brain image. Finally, the extracted features from each segment are provided to the DBN for the training, and the HCS algorithm chooses the optimal weights for DBN training.

Findings

The experimentation of the proposed HAC with the HCS-DBN algorithm is analyzed with the standard BRATS database, and its performance is evaluated based on metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The simulation results of the proposed HAC with the HCS-DBN algorithm are compared against existing works such as k-NN, NN, multi-SVM and multi-SVNN. The results achieved by the proposed HAC with the HCS-DBN algorithm are eventually higher than the existing works with the values of 0.945, 0.9695 and 0.99348 for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

Originality/value

This work presents the brain tumor segmentation and the classification scheme by introducing the HAC-based segmentation model. The proposed HAC model combines the BFC and the active contour model through a fusion process, using the Laplacian correction probability for segmenting the slices in the database.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

S.K. DASH and H. CHATTOPADHYAY

An attempt has been made to solve the heat conduction equation in a multiconnected domain using both boundary fitted coordinate system and finite element method. It has…

Abstract

An attempt has been made to solve the heat conduction equation in a multiconnected domain using both boundary fitted coordinate system and finite element method. It has been found that boundary fitted coordinate system takes significantly less time in setting up the grid lines or mesh points compared to the finite element method of ANSYS. It has also been established that the former method takes much less time in obtaining a grid independent solution of the temperature field compared to the later one.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Jaithen Alharbi, Hamid Gelaidan, Abdullah Al-Swidi and Abubakr Saeed

This study aims to investigated the control mechanisms of headquarters exercised over their subsidiaries and is conducted with the help of primary data.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigated the control mechanisms of headquarters exercised over their subsidiaries and is conducted with the help of primary data.

Design/methodology/approach

The headquarters–subsidiary model used in this study has four components of control in it: personal centralised control (PCC), bureaucratic formalised control (BFC), output control (OUT) and informal control (INFO). These controls (as an agency mechanism) provide a solid platform on which other mechanisms can be built. Using a data collected from 147 multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the influence of each of these factors on this selection is empirically tested with the help of primary data.

Findings

The study found that Anglo-Saxon countries heavily use impersonal types of control mechanisms, specifically bureaucratic formalised control and output control. Compared to the USA, the level of control in Oriental subsidiaries is less; or, put differently, the latter enjoy a greater degree of autonomy than US subsidiaries. The complementarities of these control mechanisms may be linked to earlier studies that show that successful organisations combine tight control with more open, informal and flexible information and communication exchanges. A focus that bends too much towards formal control or too much towards informal control may threaten a company’s existence. This research provides an empirical explanation on this premise.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology adopted for this study can be extended for similar studies in the Middle East or in Gulf Council Cooperation countries.

Practical implications

The study show that MNEs from different countries often have different dominant control mechanisms and organisational models. This is partly due to different industry distributions, but it is also related to cultural/societal differences between countries. These differences should be considered when searching for a partner in cross-national mergers and acquisitions. Failure to do so could hinder the successful operation of a merger that seems to be perfect from a financial and competitive point of view.

Originality/value

The study explored variations in the extent of control mechanisms, according to country of origin and organisational characteristics, in a challenging country of domicile. This empirical work not only replicates earlier studies, retesting propositions encountered in the existing literature, but also sheds new light on the challenges of doing business in the Gulf region, and the consequences of the large scale usage of expatriates.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Donald R. Davis and David E. Weinstein

The dominant paradigm of world trade patterns posits two principal features. Trade between North and South arises due to traditional comparative advantage. Trade within…

Abstract

The dominant paradigm of world trade patterns posits two principal features. Trade between North and South arises due to traditional comparative advantage. Trade within the North, largely intra-industry trade, is based on economies of scale and product differentiation. The paradigm specifically denies an important role for endowment differences in determining North–North trade. We demonstrate that trade in factor services among countries of the North is systematically related to endowment differences and large in economic magnitude. Intra-industry trade, rather than being a puzzle for a factor endowments theory, is instead the conduit for a great deal of this factor service trade.

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Rosângela Delgado and Paula Foschia

Outlines the legislative structure surrounding advertising to children in Brazil, which is aimed at protecting children because of their lack of experience and…

Abstract

Outlines the legislative structure surrounding advertising to children in Brazil, which is aimed at protecting children because of their lack of experience and vulnerability; it is based on the Brazilian Federal Constitution (BFC). Moves on to CONAR, the National Counsel [sic] of Advertising Self‐Regulation, which was set up by media associations in the 1980s and has a set of rules for ensuring that advertisers obey national regulations; and to the Brazilian Consumer Defence Code (CDC) enacted in 1990, which represents an increase in control by legislators and the judiciary. Indicates types of advertising prohibited: simulated, misleading and abusive, plus product placement. Concludes with provisions for participation of children in advertisements, and over the advertising of tobacco, alcoholic beverages, pesticides, medicine and guns.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2010

Chikako Oka

Given the continued growth in the globalization of production, working conditions in global supply chains have come under increased scrutiny. Although there has been much…

Abstract

Given the continued growth in the globalization of production, working conditions in global supply chains have come under increased scrutiny. Although there has been much debate about corporate codes of conduct and monitoring procedures, the question of how buyers influence their suppliers’ working conditions at the factory level remains poorly understood. Using a unique data set based on monitoring by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and original survey data collected in Cambodia's garment sector, this study shows that the main channel linking buyers and supplier compliance performance is the nature of their relationships. Market-based relationships mediated through sourcing agents are systematically associated with poorer compliance performance. In particular, when a reputation-conscious buyer is sourcing from a factory, it has a positive effect on compliance, and their presence appears to condition relationship variables. Deterrence and learning channels are not supported by the evidence. The findings signal the need to pay more attention to the nature of buyer–supplier relationships if we seek to improve labor standard compliance. Market-based relationships motivate neither buyers nor suppliers to invest their time and resources to tackle the root causes of poor working conditions. Rather, the results here indicate the need to develop collaborative relationships marked by open dialogue, trust, and commitment, which in turn help to foster an environment supportive of continuous improvement in working conditions.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-932-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Sathickbasha K., Selvakumar A.S., Surya Rajan Balachandran and Hariharasakthisudhan P.

The purpose of this study is the influence of various combinations of metal sulfides on the tribological performance of brake pads.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the influence of various combinations of metal sulfides on the tribological performance of brake pads.

Design/methodology/approach

Three brake pads were prepared using the possible combination of any two of the solid lubricants from Bismuth trisulfide (Bi2S3); Tin disulfide (SnS2) and Antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) are chosen and blended with molybdenum disulfide and graphite. The tribological performance was compared with the brake pad containing aftermarket sulfide mixture. The tribological performance parameters such as performance coefficient of friction, fade percent, recovery percent, wear thickness loss, time is taken to reach the maximum temperature and fluctuation of friction were investigated using Chase tribometer adopting IS 2742 Part-4 (1994) test procedure.

Findings

The friction stability of the brake pad with 4Wt% of MoS2, Bi2S3 and SnS2 was observed to be better, but it showed poor wear performance and aggressive towards the rotor, whereas the brake pad contained 4Wt% of MoS2, Bi2S3 and Sb2S3 exhibited improved wear performance.

Originality/value

This paper explains the influence of the combination of multiple metal sulfide in the tribological performance of the copper-free brake friction composite.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-07-2020-0249/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

SCIENCE Systems is an independent software and systems house offering the following consultancy services:

Abstract

SCIENCE Systems is an independent software and systems house offering the following consultancy services:

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Jaithen Alharbi and Satwinder Singh

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions of knowledge‐sharing in subsidiaries of multinational

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions of knowledge‐sharing in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs) located within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the impact of knowledge flows on the performance of such subsidiaries.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional survey research design, involving the use of a questionnaire to acquire the primary data, is adopted. The analysis is based on 147 completed questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis are used in the analysis of the data.

Findings

Formal control mechanisms are widely used as opposed to informal channels of control. Knowledge flows are associated with personalised or bureaucratic controls. Both mechanisms are negatively associated with performance, whilst output control and informal coordination are positively associated. Increased local presence and subsidiary R&D is positively associated with performance.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology adopted for this study can be extended for similar studies in the Middle East or in GCC countries. Policy makers in host countries in which MNE subsidiaries operate may find the results an important leverage for negotiating with MNEs for R&D to be conducted in their countries. Possible spill‐overs and diffusion effects of such R&D could then also benefit domestic firms.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies of this nature conducted in the Middle East, and the only one in the context of KSA, which has explicitly investigated the connection between knowledge flows, controls, and performance.

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