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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2017

Emily Keener, Clare M. Mehta and Kimberly E. Smirles

This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.

Methodology/approach

To highlight Sandra Bem’s contributions, we examined masculinity and femininity, broadly defined, from a socio-developmental theoretical perspective, conceptualizing gender development as embedded within a socio-historical context.

Findings

Our review of the literature illustrates that both age and social contextual features influence femininity and masculinity and more specifically that in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, femininity and masculinity vary depending on the sex (same- vs. other-sex) of those in the social context. Along with demonstrating the current utility and extensions of Sandra Bem’s research, we also emphasize the feminist and social justice applications of her body of work.

Research limitations

Weaknesses in the existing methodology where instruments are designed based on the assumption that masculinity and femininity are stable traits rather than characteristics that vary are discussed. Limitations to research focused on either social or developmental perspectives are highlighted and suggestions for a more integrative approach are provided.

Originality/value

Similar to how Sandra Bem’s work showed that sex and gender need not be linked, research and theory on the developmental and contextual specificity of gender also demonstrate that there is freedom in the expression of gender.

Details

Discourses on Gender and Sexual Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-197-3

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Mohammed Hamdan Alanazi

A comparative analysis of the validity of business excellence models (BEMs) has rarely been empirically pursued. In addition to their similarities, BEMs exhibit…

Abstract

Purpose

A comparative analysis of the validity of business excellence models (BEMs) has rarely been empirically pursued. In addition to their similarities, BEMs exhibit differences in terms of their criteria, relations and emphasis, and some researchers have claimed that it is because these models tend to represent underlying cultural, economic, or social dynamics, as well as global best practices. Based on three such BEMs (the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) model, the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model and the King Abdul Aziz Quality Award (KAQA) model), this paper introduces a four-phase study to analyse these models comparatively.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper: (1) conceptually delineates the distinctive natures of and differences between the three models; (2) develops a comprehensive measurement model based on the content of these models; (3) reviews the relevant literature on BEMs; (4) discusses the motivation behind this comparative approach and (5) introduces a four-phase study to comparatively analyse these models.

Findings

A comprehensive measurement model and three structural models are developed, but empirical tests have not been performed. This developed approach is introduced here as a first step in the advancement of our understanding of BEMs and their underlying theory.

Originality/value

The range of variability and complexity of BEMs—i.e. a holistic and comparative empirical view of BEMs—have not so far been fully considered, and findings in this domain tend to be inclusive, while some of the underlying relations of these models have not been investigated. This paper contributes to filling these research gaps.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

B. Auchmann, S. Kurz, O. Rain and S. Russenschuck

To introduce a Whitney‐element based coupling of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM); to discuss the algebraic properties of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

To introduce a Whitney‐element based coupling of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM); to discuss the algebraic properties of the resulting system and propose solver strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The FEM is interpreted in the framework of the theory of discrete electromagnetism (DEM). The BEM formulation is given in a DEM‐compatible notation. This allows for a physical interpretation of the algebraic properties of the resulting BEM‐FEM system matrix. To these ends we give a concise introduction to the mathematical concepts of DEM.

Findings

Although the BEM‐FEM system matrix is not symmetric, its kernel is equivalent to the kernel of its transpose. This surprising finding allows for the use of two solution techniques: regularization or an adapted GMRES solver.

Research limitations/implications

The programming of the proposed techniques is a work in progress. The numerical results to support the presented theory are limited to a small number of test cases.

Practical implications

The paper will help to improve the understanding of the topological and geometrical implications in the algebraic structure of the BEM‐FEM coupling.

Originality/value

Several original concepts are presented: a new interpretation of the FEM boundary term leads to an intuitive understanding of the coupling of BEM and FEM. The adapted GMRES solver allows for an accurate solution of a singular, unsymetric system with a right‐hand side that is not in the image of the matrix. The issue of a grid‐transfer matrix is briefly mentioned.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

A. Kassab, E. Divo, J. Heidmann, E. Steinthorsson and F. Rodriguez

We report on the progress in the development and application of a coupled boundary element/finite volume method temperature‐forward/flux‐back algorithm developed to solve…

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2048

Abstract

We report on the progress in the development and application of a coupled boundary element/finite volume method temperature‐forward/flux‐back algorithm developed to solve conjugate heat transfer arising in 3D film‐cooled turbine blades. We adopt a loosely coupled strategy where each set of field equations is solved to provide boundary conditions for the other. Iteration is carried out until interfacial continuity of temperature and heat flux is enforced. The NASA‐Glenn explicit finite volume Navier‐Stokes code Glenn‐HT is coupled to a 3D BEM steady‐state heat conduction solver. Results from a CHT simulation of a 3D film‐cooled blade section are compared with those obtained from the standard two temperature model, revealing that a significant difference in the level and distribution of metal temperatures is found between the two. Finally, current developments of an iterative strategy accommodating large numbers of unknowns by a domain decomposition approach is presented. An iterative scheme is developed along with a physically‐based initial guess and a coarse grid solution to provide a good starting point for the iteration. Results from a 3D simulation show the process that converges efficiently and offers substantial computational and storage savings.

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International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Denis Leonard and Rodney McAdam

The aim of this paper is to explore the tactical role of the business excellence model (BEM) and the significance for quality training and development, in relation to…

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3417

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to explore the tactical role of the business excellence model (BEM) and the significance for quality training and development, in relation to strategy and operations within organisations. There are conflicting accounts in the literature and praxis in relation to the role of the BEM. Some consider it to be a strategic model while others consider it to be of use solely at an operational level. This paper explores this dichotomy by considering the tactical role of the BEM in organisations and the implications for quality training and development in organisations. A grounded theory research methodology is used. Based on the research a grounded model of the BEM application in organisations is presented and discussed, showing the current role of the BEM for managers in relation to operations and strategy. The need for a resultant shift in emphasis in quality training and development is shown.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Balvir Talwar

Quality research has paved the way for the evolution of several business excellence models/national quality awards (BEMs/NQAs). This paper aims to review the evolution of…

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4858

Abstract

Purpose

Quality research has paved the way for the evolution of several business excellence models/national quality awards (BEMs/NQAs). This paper aims to review the evolution of BEMs/NQAs and takes a comparative view on these models. It also throws some light on the emerging scenario.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on information gathered through an extensive literature review using print media and research databases like Emerald, EBSCO and Pro‐Quest. Discussions with experts helped in reviewing the effectiveness of BEMs and visualising the emerging scenario.

Findings

A paradigm shift has been witnessed in the understanding of quality. Although MBNQA, EFQM and the Deming Prize are the three globally accepted major BEMs, some unique models are also emerging. The paper identifies 100 BEMs/NQAs being used across the world. They are subject to changes according to the evolution of the external environment and are considered a contemporary way to attain excellence. The benefits and limitations of BEMs are identified. BEMs need to be fine‐tuned by incorporating lessons from ancient teachings to attain “sustained business results”.

Research limitations/implications

Although this paper identifies 100 BEMs/NQAs, the author has limited access to the details of these models. While details of some NQAs are available on the web in the native languages of their respective countries, many BEMs/NQAs have limited information in the public domain. Further to this, rapid changes in BEMs/NQAs in line with the evolution of the external environment makes this study even more difficult. Future research may attempt to overcome some of these limitations.

Practical implications

The study is expected to help in reviewing national business excellence strategies. The effectiveness of BEMs/NQAs needs to be examined empirically for sustained results. Ancient teachings provide the clues for sustainable growth.

Originality/value

This paper is based on literature review and interaction with experts. The paper provides a worldwide analysis of BEMs/NQAs and suggests a few emerging dimensions of excellence.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Linda M. Aguilar and Michael A. Singer

United States history is steeped in trade and trade debate, from the pivotal role of the Boston Tea Party in shaping the United States as a nation to the recent debate…

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230

Abstract

United States history is steeped in trade and trade debate, from the pivotal role of the Boston Tea Party in shaping the United States as a nation to the recent debate over the merits of U.S. ratification of the present version of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. It is no surprise, then, that the U.S. Department of Commerce is actively involved in promoting exports. In 1993, President Clinton announced a national export strategy for the United States, described as “a comprehensive plan [that] upgrades and coordinates the government's export promotion and export finance programs to help American firms compete in the global marketplace” (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994). In particular, the strategy identifies past problems with U.S. trade promotion efforts and recommends improvements upon current ones. This includes enhancing existing trade finance programs such as the Exim Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and creating the Tied Aid Fund to help U.S. firms compete on a level playing field. As an outcrop of this initiative, the Commerce Department identified 10 foreign nations as the big emerging markets (BEMs) of the upcoming century, markets where the potential for trade growth is the greatest.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Nam Mai‐Duy and Thanh Tran‐Cong

This paper is concerned with the application of radial basis function networks (RBFNs) as interpolation functions for all boundary values in the boundary element method …

Abstract

This paper is concerned with the application of radial basis function networks (RBFNs) as interpolation functions for all boundary values in the boundary element method (BEM) for the numerical solution of heat transfer problems. The quality of the estimate of boundary integrals is greatly affected by the type of functions used to interpolate the temperature, its normal derivative and the geometry along the boundary from the nodal values. In this paper, instead of conventional Lagrange polynomials, interpolation functions representing these variables are based on the “universal approximator” RBFNs, resulting in much better estimates. The proposed method is verified on problems with different variations of temperature on the boundary from linear level to higher orders. Numerical results obtained show that the BEM with indirect RBFN (IRBFN) interpolation performs much better than the one with linear or quadratic elements in terms of accuracy and convergence rate. For example, for the solution of Laplace's equation in 2D, the BEM can achieve the norm of error of the boundary solution of O(10−5) by using IRBFN interpolation while quadratic BEM can achieve a norm only of O(10−2) with the same boundary points employed. The IRBFN‐BEM also appears to have achieved a higher efficiency. Furthermore, the convergence rates are of O(h1.38) and O(h4.78) for the quadratic BEM and the IRBFN‐based BEM, respectively, where h is the nodal spacing.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

J. Lim, C.L. Chan and A. Chandra

A boundary element method (BEM) formulation for the solutionof transient conduction‐convection problems is developed in thispaper. A time‐dependent fundamental solution…

Abstract

A boundary element method (BEM) formulation for the solution of transient conduction‐convection problems is developed in this paper. A time‐dependent fundamental solution for moving heat source problems is utilized for this purpose. This reduces the governing parabolic partial differential equations to a boundary‐only form and obviates the need for any internal discretization. Such a formulation is also expected to be stable at high Peclet numbers. Numerical examples are included to establish the validity of the approach and to demonstrate the salient features of the BEM algorithm.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Michael M. Grigor’ev

The paper gives the description of boundary element method(BEM) with subdomains for the solution ofconvection—diffusion equations with variable coefficients and…

Abstract

The paper gives the description of boundary element method (BEM) with subdomains for the solution of convection—diffusion equations with variable coefficients and Burgers’ equations. At first, the whole domain is discretized into K subdomains, in which linearization of equations by representing convective velocity by the sum of constant and variable parts is carried out. Then using fundamental solutions for convection—diffusion linear equations for each subdomain the boundary integral equation (in which the part of the convective term with the constant convective velocity is not included into the pseudo‐body force) is formulated. Only part of the convective term with the variable velocity, which is, as a rule, more than one order less than convective velocity constant part contribution, is left as the pseudo‐source. On the one hand, this does not disturb the numerical BEM—algorithm stability and, on the other hand, this leads to significant improvement in the accuracy of solution. The global matrix, similar to the case of finite element method, has block band structure whereas its width depends only on the numeration order of nodes and subdomains. It is noted, that in comparison with the direct boundary element method the number of global matrix non‐zero elements is not proportional to the square of the number of nodes, but only to the total number of nodal points. This allows us to use the BEM for the solution of problems with very fine space discretization. The proposed BEM with subdomains technique has been used for the numerical solution of one‐dimensional linear steady‐state convective—diffusion problem with variable coefficients and one‐dimensional non‐linear Burgers’ equation for which exact analytical solutions are available. It made it possible to find out the BEM correctness according to both time and space. High precision of the numerical method is noted. The good point of the BEM is the high iteration convergence, which is disturbed neither by high Reynolds numbers nor by the presence of negative velocity zones.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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