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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2018

Lovejeet Kaur, Manju Puri, Kallur Nava Saraswathy, Shubha Sagar Trivedi and Mohinder Pal Sachdeva

Recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL), a major contributor of reproductive wastage, affect maternal health both physically and mentally. Folate and B12 (Vitamin B12) deficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

Recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL), a major contributor of reproductive wastage, affect maternal health both physically and mentally. Folate and B12 (Vitamin B12) deficiency anemia is common in the reproductive age group women in developing countries like India. And due to proven role of folate in various maternal and fetal anomalies, women are routinely prescribed folic acid under various national policies. However, B12 supplementation is rare, despite known deleterious effects of its deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to understand RPL through anemia with special reference to folate and B12 imbalance.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiparous women with normal obstetric outcomes (n=135) and women with Idiopathic RPL (n=105) were recruited in the study. All women were non-pregnant and belonged to North Indian population. Hb, serum folate and B12 and plasma homocysteine were measured in all the women. Anemia was classified according to WHO guidelines (Hemoglobin (Hb)<12g/dL).

Findings

The incidence of Anemia was more among normal multiparous women (73 percent) as compared to women with RPL (60 percent). However, unlike folate deficiency anemia among controls, B12 deficiency anemia was observed in women with RPL. Moreover, these women, despite being less anemic, with high B12 deficiency and folate sufficiency (presumably due to folate supplementation) had more imbalanced vitamin metabolism, as evident from homocysteine levels. The study suggests that anemic or non-anemic deficiencies of B12 and folate among women with RPL may be combated by screening for both vitamins, rather than supplementing folate indiscriminately to all.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations is that ferritin levels for iron deficiency anemia could not be measured in this study.

Originality/value

The present study is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, where we looked for the role of imbalance of folate and B12 in women with RPL.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Aseel Al-Ma’aitah and Reema Tayyem

Vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry and/or egg and dairy products, these diets are based on grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes and seeds. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry and/or egg and dairy products, these diets are based on grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes and seeds. The purpose of this study is to compare the nutritional status between lacto-ovo vegetarian and non-vegetarian Jordanian adults.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-control study was conducted during the period between (April–November 2019). In total, 200 Jordanians in early adulthood aged between 18 and 35 years participated in the present study; 100 subjects were non-vegetarians and 100 subjects were lacto-ovo vegetarians. The ratio was (1:1). Matching between the two groups was done in terms of age, sex and body mass index. A package that consisted of three structured questionnaires: Personal Information Sheet, Food Frequency Questionnaire and Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall were administered to all participants in this study.

Findings

The concentration of serum vitamin B12 was significantly higher (P = 0.011) in non-vegetarians than lacto-ovo vegetarians. The means of intake of calories (P = 0.003), calories from fat (P = 0.001), calories from saturated fat (P = 0.001), protein (P = 0.001), fat (P = 0.001), saturated fat (P = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (P = 0.022), polyunsaturated fat (P = 0.001), cholesterol (P = 0.001) and omega-6 (P = 0.039) were significantly higher in non-vegetarians. The intakes Mean of carbohydrates (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.001) and soluble fiber (P = 0.001) were significantly higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. The mean of beta-carotene intake was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in lacto-ovo vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians, although the intakes of vitamin A(RAE) and retinol were significantly higher (P = 0.029, P = 0.001, respectively) in non-vegetarians as compared to lacto-ovo vegetarians. The means of vitamins B2 (P = 0.018), B3 (P = 0.001), B3NE (P = 0.001), B6 (mg) (P = 0.001), B12 (P = 0.001), E-a-Tocopherol (P = 0.001) and D (P = 0.001) intake were significantly higher in non-vegetarians compared to lacto-ovo vegetarians. The mean intakes of vitamins C (P = 0.033), folate (P = 0.005) and K (P = 0.002) were significantly in lacto-ovo vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. Means intake of some minerals was significantly higher in non-vegetarians than lacto-ovo vegetarians.

Originality/value

The current study showed that lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower serum vitamin B12 levels. The consumption of fruits, vegetables and legumes was higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians than non-vegetarians. While lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided less fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat and cholesterol than non-vegetarians, it could be considered a rich source for fiber, folate, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin K.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

Ivan M. Sharman

Anaemia is a disease characterised by a reduction in the number of red cells in the blood, or in the amount of the iron‐containing red pigment, haemoglobin. Various types…

Abstract

Anaemia is a disease characterised by a reduction in the number of red cells in the blood, or in the amount of the iron‐containing red pigment, haemoglobin. Various types of anaemia are known, thus macrocytic anaemia is the name given to the condition when there is an increase in the average size of the red cells in the blood. It is now known that two vitamins, viz. folic acid and vitamin B12, are involved in the prevention of some anaemias.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

For generations, Britain has had a household delivery of fresh milk; from the days before the Great War when it was delivered by a horse‐drawn milk float, with the…

Abstract

For generations, Britain has had a household delivery of fresh milk; from the days before the Great War when it was delivered by a horse‐drawn milk float, with the roundsman often bringing the housewife to the door with his cries of “Milk‐O!”. The float had a churn and milk was delivered in a small can, served out by a dipper. This was the start of the distributive trade, organised between the Wars, from which the present industry has emerged. The trade gave universal acceptance to the glass bottle, returnable for household delivery, only the method of sealing has changed. There have been many demands for its abandonment in favour of the carton, of which recent years has seen a rise in its use in the increasing sales of milk by supermarkets and stores. Despite the problems with returnable vessels, the glass bottle has a number of advantages. The milk, including the cream line, is clearly visible, and short measure is most unlikely, which is a growing problem with carton‐filled milk. The number of prosecutions for short measure with cartons must be causing concern to trading standards departments. There is nothing to indicate the offence until the carton is opened.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 86 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Tarek Gallah, Badii Bouzidi and Ahmed Masmoudi

The purpose of this paper is to deal the adaptation of a direct torque control (DTC) strategy, originally dedicated to three level three leg inverter fed induction motor…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal the adaptation of a direct torque control (DTC) strategy, originally dedicated to three level three leg inverter fed induction motor (IM) drives, following a leg failure that required the reconfiguration of the inverter from three to two legs.

Design/methodology/approach

In case of troubles with one leg of a three level inverter, it is interesting in some applications to keep operating using the two remaining legs. So, after the detection and isolation of the faulty leg, the drive connection should be rearranged with the connection of the motor phase, previously linked to the faulty leg, to the mid point of the DC-bus voltage, leading to a three level two leg inverter topology (also called bridge B8-inverter).

Findings

It has been found that the IM drive exhibits better performances under the proposed DTC strategy dedicated to the reconfigured inverter than those yielded by the DTC of the IM drive under healthy operation of the inverter. It has been noticed that the only drawback affecting the reconfigured inverter fed IM drive is the speed range limitation.

Research limitations/implications

This work should be extended by an experimental validation of the proposed DTC strategies.

Originality/value

The power factor of the reconfigured three level inverter fed IM drive is higher than the one yielded by the three level three leg inverter fed one. This represents a crucial cost benefit.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1988

Joan R. Rodgers

It seems to be well understood that the simultaneous import and export of goods which have different production functions, but which are aggregated into the same industry…

Abstract

It seems to be well understood that the simultaneous import and export of goods which have different production functions, but which are aggregated into the same industry in classification schemes such as the SITC, is quite consistent with the standard trade theory of the Heckscher‐Ohlin‐Samuelson (HOS) model. For example, Grubel and Lloyd (1975, p.87) admit that two‐way trade in products such as wood and metal furniture, or nylon and wool yarn, which have similar end uses but different input requirements, can be explained readily by the HOS model (1979, p. 88). Gray explicitly distinguishes between “categorical aggregation” which occurs when there is two‐way trade in goods with different production functions and is consistent with the HOS model, and “true intra‐industry trade” which occurs when a country imports and exports “goods with virtually identical production functions”.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Juliana Chini, Eduardo Eugênio Spers, Hermes Moretti Ribeiro da Silva and Mirella Cais Jejcic de Oliveira

This study aims to identify the marginal impact of introducing a signal attribute of pasture-raised beef on consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for other independent attributes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the marginal impact of introducing a signal attribute of pasture-raised beef on consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for other independent attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is divided into two steps. The first, qualitative, consisted of investigating the values consumers have regarding beef production. To this end, 52 interviews with Brazilian and US consumers were conducted using laddering. In the second, quantitative, six experiments, (face to face and online) with 267 consumers of beef were performed.

Findings

As a result, the main value found for the Brazilians was security, while for the Americans was self-direction. For consumers, the WTP for animal welfare was the most important in the choice experiments where this information was present.

Originality/value

These findings offer an alternate beef differentiation, enabling it to be sold with higher added value by integrating these.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 55 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Jill Davies

Anaemia is much more serious and of greater social significance than is generally realised. According to WHO ‘… a great deal of ill‐health, sapping energy and…

Abstract

Anaemia is much more serious and of greater social significance than is generally realised. According to WHO ‘… a great deal of ill‐health, sapping energy and productiveness in many countries and causing tragedies in childbirth, is due to anaemia’.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 90 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Stephen A. Kane and Mark L. Muzere

Our paper presents an extension of the Diamond-Dybvig (1983) model of bank runs to an open market economy. We examine domestic banks that are subject to potential runs by…

Abstract

Our paper presents an extension of the Diamond-Dybvig (1983) model of bank runs to an open market economy. We examine domestic banks that are subject to potential runs by domestic depositors who worry that they will not be able to be repaid in full, because the domestic banks may not be able to refinance in the international financial markets. A loss in confidence in the banking system might precipitate a bank run. A bank run might be costly to safety net guarantors, for example, the central bank. Further, a bank run might lead to a breaking of the fixed exchange rate. Our model shows that adding central bank and International Monetary Fund guarantees, increasing long term debt as well as more equity financing reduces financial fragility, but consistent with economic intuition, these policy levers cannot eliminate the possibility of a bank run or a banking crisis leading to a currency crisis.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-251-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Michael S. Donaldson

Reports the results of a survey of followers of the mostly raw, pure vegetarian, Hallelujah diet, which is promoted by the Hallelujah Acres Foundation in the USA…

Abstract

Reports the results of a survey of followers of the mostly raw, pure vegetarian, Hallelujah diet, which is promoted by the Hallelujah Acres Foundation in the USA. Seven‐day semi‐quantitative dietary records kept by 141 followers of the diet were collected and analyzed for nutrient intake. Claims self‐reported improvements in health and quality of life after adoption of the diet were significant (p < 1E‐07). Mean daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was 6.6 servings and 11.4 servings, respectively. Salads, fruits, carrot juice and grain products provided 60‐88 per cent of most nutrients. The mean energy intake was 1,460kcal/day for women and 1,830kcal/day for men. Claims that, with some modifications, this diet pattern allows people to adopt a low calorie diet sufficient in most nutrients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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