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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

A.I. ADAMSONE and B.S. POLSKY

A half‐implicit absolutely stable method for 3D simulation of the transient processes in semiconductor devices is proposed. The calculations of transient processes in…

Abstract

A half‐implicit absolutely stable method for 3D simulation of the transient processes in semiconductor devices is proposed. The calculations of transient processes in bipolar transistor were carried out and were compared with the results of 2D simulation.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

E.D. LYUMKIS, B.S. POLSKY, A.I. SHUR and P. VISOCKY

An efficient numerical method for the solution of hot‐carrier transport equations describing transient processes in submicrometer semiconductor devices is proposed. The…

Abstract

An efficient numerical method for the solution of hot‐carrier transport equations describing transient processes in submicrometer semiconductor devices is proposed. The calculations of transient processes in submicrometer MOS transistor were carried out and compared with the results obtained by conventional drift‐diffusion model.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

W. JÜNGLING, E. GUERRERO and S. SELBERHERR

We discuss three models describing the carrier densities in highly doped silicon, which have been used for process and device simulation. We calculate nie for each of the…

Abstract

We discuss three models describing the carrier densities in highly doped silicon, which have been used for process and device simulation. We calculate nie for each of the models for various doping concentrations within temperature ranges interesting for the device and process simulation. We try to explain the behaviour of nie for high compensation and compare our calculated results to measured values of nie. We offer simple formulae for the calculated nie and show how far the relations between the carrier densities and the Fermi levels can be described by the simple formulae of Boltzmann statistics when we use a doping dependent effective intrinsic number.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Sasa Sokolić, Slavko Amon, Franc Smole and Dejan Krizaj

A general algorithm for analysis of semiconductors with arbitrary models for heavy doping phenomena is presented. Different models, theoretical as well as empirical, were…

Abstract

A general algorithm for analysis of semiconductors with arbitrary models for heavy doping phenomena is presented. Different models, theoretical as well as empirical, were applied, and minority carrier concentration in the uncompensated n‐type silicon was analyzed. Recalculated into the term of apparent BGN, the results were compared with experimental data. Further analysis of apparent BGN indicated the weakness of empirical formulae for apparent BGN. Assumption of total ionization of impurities considered in the analysis is discussed and justified.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

M.S. OBRECHT and M.I. ELMASRY

Enhanced efficiency of the proposed modification of the Gummel decoupled method enables significant reduction of memory requirements in comparison to the conventionally…

Abstract

Enhanced efficiency of the proposed modification of the Gummel decoupled method enables significant reduction of memory requirements in comparison to the conventionally used Newton‐like methods with approximately equal CPU time expense. For 10,000 mesh nodes it only requires 4.4 Mbytes of virtual memory (compare to 62 Mbytes for PISCES‐2B). The method exhibits good stability and convergence rate and has significant advantages compared to the other often used half‐implicit scheme. Low memory requirements and efficiency make the method attractive for future 3‐D applications.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1978

D.G. Rhys

Rapid inflation, the severe reduction in demand for cars and the resultant over‐capacity, reestablished the importance of price as a competitive weapon in the car market…

Abstract

Rapid inflation, the severe reduction in demand for cars and the resultant over‐capacity, reestablished the importance of price as a competitive weapon in the car market between late 1973 and 1977. In times of steady economic growth the over‐whelming influence of changes in per capita income on car demand tends to relegate the price variable to a secondary position, and often it is almost totally discounted as a major causative variable. However, in a number of ways the state of the market in the mid 1970s has shown the continuing importance of relative prices: the pricing of imports, exports and price competition by domestic manufacturers all being geared to improving a manufacturer's market penetration. Consequently, the pricing decision remains as one of the most important features of competitive strategy and as a major factor in managerial decision making.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Tessa Avermaete, Fabio Bartolini, Natalia Brzezina, Terry Marsden, Erik Mathijs, Ana Moragues-Faus and Roberta Sonnino

This chapter focusses on food systems' vulnerability. In a rapidly and unpredictably changing world, vulnerability of farming and food systems becomes a key issue. The…

Abstract

This chapter focusses on food systems' vulnerability. In a rapidly and unpredictably changing world, vulnerability of farming and food systems becomes a key issue. The conceptual bases for food vulnerability analysis and food vulnerability assessment are discussed in a systemic perspective with an eye to the transition approach (Geels, 2004) as a perspective capable to analyze how novelties can develop and influence the system capability to fulfil societal functions, and food and nutrition security in particular. A framework for assessing people's food vulnerability is presented together with a simple vulnerability model based on the three dimensions of exposure (the degree to which a system is likely to experience environmental or sociopolitical stress), sensitivity (the degree to which a system is modified or affected by perturbations) and adaptive capacity (the ability to evolve in order to accommodate environmental hazards or change) (Adger, 2006). Then, other sections are dedicated to discuss the general questions that should be answered by a vulnerability assessment exercise, and the specific challenges emerging when the assessment concerns a food system. These elements are then used in the Annex to this chapter as a base for the development of a detailed method based on seven distinct steps for conducting participatory assessments of the vulnerability of food systems.

Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Walter S. DeKeseredy

The key purpose of this chapter is to identify some ways of enhancing feminist conceptual, empirical, and theoretical work on violence against women. Much attention is…

Abstract

The key purpose of this chapter is to identify some ways of enhancing feminist conceptual, empirical, and theoretical work on violence against women. Much attention is given to addressing the harms caused by new electronic forms of woman abuse, including the role of adult Internet pornography and sex robots. This chapter also emphasises the importance of revisiting some major feminist contributions from the past.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2004

Martyn Hammersley

There is a huge amount of social and educational research concerned with various kinds of inequality. Much of this research assumes that inequalities are a bad thing, even…

Abstract

There is a huge amount of social and educational research concerned with various kinds of inequality. Much of this research assumes that inequalities are a bad thing, even when it is solely concerned with providing information about the level and causes of inequalities of some particular kind.1 Sometimes, however, this use of crude egalitarianism spills over into presentation of what can be read as practical value judgements. Ambiguity between factual conclusion and practical evaluation is frequently exploited, or at least allowed to prevail. As a result, evaluations seem to be expressed, and/or prescriptions for action proposed, with the implication that they are justified by research evidence. Yet, on its own, research evidence can rarely provide a sufficient justification for value conclusions (see Foster et al., 2000; Hammersley, 2003a). While on some occasions research evidence may be treated as pointing directly to value conclusions, there are always value premisses involved, as well as factual ones, and these will often be open to reasonable doubt and disagreement.

Details

Ethnographies of Educational and Cultural Conflicts: Strategies and Resolutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-275-7

Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2022

Roland Azibo Balgah

Surging global natural disasters provide incentive for risk-reducing policies and strategies. In this light, the African Union (AU) engaged a multi-stakeholder policy…

Abstract

Surging global natural disasters provide incentive for risk-reducing policies and strategies. In this light, the African Union (AU) engaged a multi-stakeholder policy formulation process between 2002 and 2006, to develop a continent-wide disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategy. Drawing from secondary data, this chapter assesses the process and applies qualitative analysis instruments to critically assess the AU’s disaster policy. Linkages to the 2005 international Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) are also highlighted. The analysis reveals that Africa’s policy formulation process was belated for over a decade, with respect to international expectations. The formulation process was however largely African owned and led, culminating in a strategy document that reflected African contextual reality at the time, and aligned well with HFA fundamental goals. The applied multi-stakeholder approach enhanced a spirit of participation across levels and was central to the largely successful policy formulation process. However, targeted policy outcomes were not explicit, and poorly formulated indicators marred short- and long-term policy evaluation. Based on these results, we conclude that the African-wide DRR policy formulation processes were belated but participatory, systematic and very successful. Belated policy formulation reflects an initial inertia on the African continent, justified by past negative policy experiences and the desire to succeed. A replication of this policy formulation approach in Africa is recommended, albeit exercising more caution on policy timing, the elaboration of better monitoring and evaluation instruments and criteria. Participation should further embrace modern, risk-free (anti-COVID-19-friendly) information and communication technologies.

Details

Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies, Institutions and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-817-3

Keywords

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