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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

A.I. ADAMSONE and B.S. POLSKY

A half‐implicit absolutely stable method for 3D simulation of the transient processes in semiconductor devices is proposed. The calculations of transient processes in…

Abstract

A half‐implicit absolutely stable method for 3D simulation of the transient processes in semiconductor devices is proposed. The calculations of transient processes in bipolar transistor were carried out and were compared with the results of 2D simulation.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

E.D. LYUMKIS, B.S. POLSKY, A.I. SHUR and P. VISOCKY

An efficient numerical method for the solution of hot‐carrier transport equations describing transient processes in submicrometer semiconductor devices is proposed. The…

Abstract

An efficient numerical method for the solution of hot‐carrier transport equations describing transient processes in submicrometer semiconductor devices is proposed. The calculations of transient processes in submicrometer MOS transistor were carried out and compared with the results obtained by conventional drift‐diffusion model.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

W. JÜNGLING, E. GUERRERO and S. SELBERHERR

We discuss three models describing the carrier densities in highly doped silicon, which have been used for process and device simulation. We calculate nie for each of the…

Abstract

We discuss three models describing the carrier densities in highly doped silicon, which have been used for process and device simulation. We calculate nie for each of the models for various doping concentrations within temperature ranges interesting for the device and process simulation. We try to explain the behaviour of nie for high compensation and compare our calculated results to measured values of nie. We offer simple formulae for the calculated nie and show how far the relations between the carrier densities and the Fermi levels can be described by the simple formulae of Boltzmann statistics when we use a doping dependent effective intrinsic number.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Sasa Sokolić, Slavko Amon, Franc Smole and Dejan Krizaj

A general algorithm for analysis of semiconductors with arbitrary models for heavy doping phenomena is presented. Different models, theoretical as well as empirical, were…

Abstract

A general algorithm for analysis of semiconductors with arbitrary models for heavy doping phenomena is presented. Different models, theoretical as well as empirical, were applied, and minority carrier concentration in the uncompensated n‐type silicon was analyzed. Recalculated into the term of apparent BGN, the results were compared with experimental data. Further analysis of apparent BGN indicated the weakness of empirical formulae for apparent BGN. Assumption of total ionization of impurities considered in the analysis is discussed and justified.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

M.S. OBRECHT and M.I. ELMASRY

Enhanced efficiency of the proposed modification of the Gummel decoupled method enables significant reduction of memory requirements in comparison to the conventionally…

Abstract

Enhanced efficiency of the proposed modification of the Gummel decoupled method enables significant reduction of memory requirements in comparison to the conventionally used Newton‐like methods with approximately equal CPU time expense. For 10,000 mesh nodes it only requires 4.4 Mbytes of virtual memory (compare to 62 Mbytes for PISCES‐2B). The method exhibits good stability and convergence rate and has significant advantages compared to the other often used half‐implicit scheme. Low memory requirements and efficiency make the method attractive for future 3‐D applications.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1978

D.G. Rhys

Rapid inflation, the severe reduction in demand for cars and the resultant over‐capacity, reestablished the importance of price as a competitive weapon in the car market…

Abstract

Rapid inflation, the severe reduction in demand for cars and the resultant over‐capacity, reestablished the importance of price as a competitive weapon in the car market between late 1973 and 1977. In times of steady economic growth the over‐whelming influence of changes in per capita income on car demand tends to relegate the price variable to a secondary position, and often it is almost totally discounted as a major causative variable. However, in a number of ways the state of the market in the mid 1970s has shown the continuing importance of relative prices: the pricing of imports, exports and price competition by domestic manufacturers all being geared to improving a manufacturer's market penetration. Consequently, the pricing decision remains as one of the most important features of competitive strategy and as a major factor in managerial decision making.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Tessa Avermaete, Fabio Bartolini, Natalia Brzezina, Terry Marsden, Erik Mathijs, Ana Moragues-Faus and Roberta Sonnino

This chapter focusses on food systems' vulnerability. In a rapidly and unpredictably changing world, vulnerability of farming and food systems becomes a key issue. The…

Abstract

This chapter focusses on food systems' vulnerability. In a rapidly and unpredictably changing world, vulnerability of farming and food systems becomes a key issue. The conceptual bases for food vulnerability analysis and food vulnerability assessment are discussed in a systemic perspective with an eye to the transition approach (Geels, 2004) as a perspective capable to analyze how novelties can develop and influence the system capability to fulfil societal functions, and food and nutrition security in particular. A framework for assessing people's food vulnerability is presented together with a simple vulnerability model based on the three dimensions of exposure (the degree to which a system is likely to experience environmental or sociopolitical stress), sensitivity (the degree to which a system is modified or affected by perturbations) and adaptive capacity (the ability to evolve in order to accommodate environmental hazards or change) (Adger, 2006). Then, other sections are dedicated to discuss the general questions that should be answered by a vulnerability assessment exercise, and the specific challenges emerging when the assessment concerns a food system. These elements are then used in the Annex to this chapter as a base for the development of a detailed method based on seven distinct steps for conducting participatory assessments of the vulnerability of food systems.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Walter S. DeKeseredy

The key purpose of this chapter is to identify some ways of enhancing feminist conceptual, empirical, and theoretical work on violence against women. Much attention is…

Abstract

The key purpose of this chapter is to identify some ways of enhancing feminist conceptual, empirical, and theoretical work on violence against women. Much attention is given to addressing the harms caused by new electronic forms of woman abuse, including the role of adult Internet pornography and sex robots. This chapter also emphasises the importance of revisiting some major feminist contributions from the past.

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The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2004

Martyn Hammersley

There is a huge amount of social and educational research concerned with various kinds of inequality. Much of this research assumes that inequalities are a bad thing, even…

Abstract

There is a huge amount of social and educational research concerned with various kinds of inequality. Much of this research assumes that inequalities are a bad thing, even when it is solely concerned with providing information about the level and causes of inequalities of some particular kind.1 Sometimes, however, this use of crude egalitarianism spills over into presentation of what can be read as practical value judgements. Ambiguity between factual conclusion and practical evaluation is frequently exploited, or at least allowed to prevail. As a result, evaluations seem to be expressed, and/or prescriptions for action proposed, with the implication that they are justified by research evidence. Yet, on its own, research evidence can rarely provide a sufficient justification for value conclusions (see Foster et al., 2000; Hammersley, 2003a). While on some occasions research evidence may be treated as pointing directly to value conclusions, there are always value premisses involved, as well as factual ones, and these will often be open to reasonable doubt and disagreement.

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Ethnographies of Educational and Cultural Conflicts: Strategies and Resolutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-275-7

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Anna Maria Migdał, Łukasz Sułkowski and Aleksandra Zając

Poland has traditionally been perceived as a net emigration country. The scale of the recent inflow of foreigners to the country, however, places Poland among those states…

Abstract

Poland has traditionally been perceived as a net emigration country. The scale of the recent inflow of foreigners to the country, however, places Poland among those states of growing attractiveness to migrants. Therefore, the main aim of this chapter is to present the Polish model of integration policy and describe the development of Poland's migration and integration policy at the national level. As the local perspective on migration and integration has become increasingly important, local policies are also presented through the example of several of the largest Polish cities. Additionally, the role of public discourse in shaping Polish society's attitude towards migrants is discussed. Finally, some aspects of economic migrants' integration are described.

Poland still lacks a long-term and comprehensive migration and integration policy that covers all areas of integration, and all categories of immigrants and so far only once, for a short period, has adopted migration policy at a national level. There is also little coordination among the different governmental bodies that deal with this issue. Therefore, only some of the crucial elements of integration policy at a national level, like the liberalization of the labour market, have occurred successfully. It seems that local policies, especially in large cities, have addressed more precisely various issues faced by immigrants, not only related to employment, and could foster the process of integration.

Details

Integration of Migrants into the Labour Market in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-904-5

Keywords

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