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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Mushtaque Ahmed and B.S. Choudri

The purpose of this paper is to give professionals, researchers and policy makers in Oman and the region understanding of the climate change implications for better…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give professionals, researchers and policy makers in Oman and the region understanding of the climate change implications for better planning. The likely impacts will cause serious damage to the economy of Oman which already suffers from aridity, soil salinity, recurrent drought and water scarcity. This paper highlights the work being carried out and current knowledge and efforts being made in view of climate change challenges in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a literature review of texts and references sourced from scientific reports, research papers and other published documents by various national and international agencies.

Findings

Sultanate of Oman is vulnerable to the potential impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise (SLR) and desertification. Integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in development strategies and policies is a must for a country like Oman which is at the early stage of economic and industrial development.

Research limitations/implications

It is not clear from existing data that any organized research effort is ongoing in Oman to tackle various climate change related issues. There are number of projects undertaken may look impressive but none of the projects was taken up as a direct response to climate change concerns. A small and scattered number of research studies have been published in the field of climate change, and there are many gaps that still need to be filled in the future, especially pertaining to the vulnerability of water resources, agriculture, and biodiversity of Oman.

Originality/value

The paper offers inputs for researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders on issues related to climate change and its management in Oman and the region.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Bheemanagoud S. Choudri, Ahmed Al-Busaidi and Mushtaque Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to give policy makers, professionals and researchers in Sultanate of Oman and in the region an understanding of the impacts of climate change…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give policy makers, professionals and researchers in Sultanate of Oman and in the region an understanding of the impacts of climate change (CC) related to agriculture and offer farming communities a basis for developing adaptation strategies. It is important to clearly understand and realize what is happening at the community level, because farming communities are the most climate vulnerable groups in this region. The information generated from this study is expected to be used by stakeholders, particularly the Omani Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, to address issues related to CC and its variability in areas of similar agro-climatic conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data from the study site were collected through structured interview, interviews with community leaders, and field observation. The participatory rural appraisal method was applied to gather information on perception and awareness of CC, vulnerability, adaptation measures of local farmers and communities to minimize such impacts. The focused group discussions approach was used to understand the attitudes, perceptions and existing practices.

Findings

The analysis of primary data and the perception of the local people indicated that a shift in the sowing period has occurred from July to the end of September. This shift appears to be in response to the shortening of rainfall period and increased frequency of drought. A combination of adaptation strategies are in place, such as proper timing of agricultural operations and crop diversification, changing planting dates, the use of crop varieties, the use of increased water and soil conservation measures and diversifying from farm to non-farm activities.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable inputs for policy makers, managers at the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, researchers and other stakeholders on issues related to CC impacts on agriculture and its management through appropriate adaptation strategies in Oman and the region.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Jonas Lorson and Joël Wagner

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to hedge annuity portfolios against increases in life expectancy. Across the globe, and in the industrial nations in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to hedge annuity portfolios against increases in life expectancy. Across the globe, and in the industrial nations in particular, people have seen an unprecedented increase in their life expectancy over the past decades. The benefits of this apply to the individual, but the dangers apply to annuity providers. Insurance companies often possess no effective tools to address the longevity risk inherent in their annuity portfolio. Securitization can serve as a substitute for classic reinsurance, as it also transfers risk to third parties.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper extends on methods insurer's can use to hedge their annuity portfolio against longevity risk with the help of annuity securitization. Future mortality rates with the Lee-Carter-model and use the Wang-transformation to incorporate insurance risk are forecasted. Based on the percentile tranching method, where individual tranches are aligned to Standard & Poor's ratings, we price an inverse survivor bond. This bond offers fix coupon payments to investors, while the principal payments are at risk and depend on the survival rate within the underlying portfolio.

Findings

The contribution to the academic literature is threefold. On the theoretical side, building on the work of Kim and Choi (2011), we adapt their pricing model to the current market situation. Putting the principal at risk instead of the coupon payments, the insurer is supplied with sufficient capital to cover additional costs due to longevity. On the empirical side, the method for the German market is specified. Inserting specific country data into the model, price sensitivities of the presented securitization model are analyzed. Finally, in a case study, the procedure to the annuity portfolio of a large German life insurer is applied and the price of hedging longevity risk is calculated.

Practical implications

To illustrate the implication of this bond structure, several sensitivity tests were conducted before applying the pricing model to the retail sample annuity portfolio from a leading German life insurer. The securitization structure was applied to calculate the securitization prices for a sample portfolio from a large life insurance company.

Social implications

The findings contribute to the current discussion about how insurers can face longevity risk within their annuity portfolios. The fact that the rating structure has such a severe impact on the overall hedging costs for the insurer implies that companies that are willing to undergo an annuity securitization should consider their deal structure very carefully. In addition, we have pointed out that in imperfect markets, the retention of the equity tranche by the originator might be advantageous. Nevertheless, one has to bear in mind that by this behavior, the insurer is able to reduce the overall default risk in his balance sheet by securitizing a life insurance portfolio; however, the fraction of first loss pieces from defaults increases more than proportionally. The insurer has to take care to not be left with large, unwanted remaining risk positions in his books.

Originality/value

In this paper, we extend on methods insurer's can use to hedge their annuity portfolio against longevity risk with the help of annuity securitization. To do so, we take the perspective of the issuing insurance company and calculate the costs of hedging in a four-step process. On the theoretical side, building on the work of Kim and Choi (2011), we adapt their pricing model to the current market situation. On the empirical side, we specify the method for the German market. Inserting specific country data into the model, price sensitivities of the presented securitization model are analyzed.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2010

Tiia Vissak

International business (IB) research has mostly concentrated on two forms of internationalization: the gradual/step-by-step approach, and the “international new…

Abstract

International business (IB) research has mostly concentrated on two forms of internationalization: the gradual/step-by-step approach, and the “international new venture”/“born global” approach. The existence of nonlinearity – substantial “jumps” in international intensity – has received relatively modest attention. This paper addressed nonlinear internationalization processes: partial and complete de- and re-internationalization and the internationalization of born-again globals and born-again internationals. It concludes that nonlinear internationalization is neither an irregular deviation nor an exceptional case of linear internationalization but that linear internationalization is an exceptional case of nonlinear internationalization.

Details

The Past, Present and Future of International Business & Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-085-9

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Ma. Regina M. Hechanova and Lynn C. Waelde

Advances in disaster prevention and mitigation in Southeast Asia (SEA) have increasingly included plans for mental health and psychosocial support. However, substantial…

Abstract

Advances in disaster prevention and mitigation in Southeast Asia (SEA) have increasingly included plans for mental health and psychosocial support. However, substantial challenges remain, particularly in the areas of (a) disaster communication and preparedness, (b) institutionalized disaster education, (c) culturally adapted and evidence-based tools and interventions, (d) developing capacities and caring for disaster responders, and (e) enabling collective resilience. In addition, the impacts of poverty, lack of access to education, and other forms of marginalization result in less resources to prepare for hazardous event and increased vulnerability to environmental hazards for SEA countries. These issues highlight the need for SEA governments to address deeply rooted human development issues that put communities at risk and heighten vulnerabilities of SEA populations.

Details

Resistance, Resilience, and Recovery from Disasters: Perspectives from Southeast Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-791-1

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Kristen Thomasen and Suzie Dunn

Perpetrators of Technology-Facilitated gender-based violence are taking advantage of increasingly automated and sophisticated privacy-invasive tools to carry out their…

Abstract

Perpetrators of Technology-Facilitated gender-based violence are taking advantage of increasingly automated and sophisticated privacy-invasive tools to carry out their abuse. Whether this be monitoring movements through stalkerware, using drones to nonconsensually film or harass, or manipulating and distributing intimate images online such as deepfakes and creepshots, invasions of privacy have become a significant form of gender-based violence. Accordingly, our normative and legal concepts of privacy must evolve to counter the harms arising from this misuse of new technology. Canada's Supreme Court recently addressed Technology-Facilitated violations of privacy in the context of voyeurism in R v Jarvis (2019) . The discussion of privacy in this decision appears to be a good first step toward a more equitable conceptualization of privacy protection. Building on existing privacy theories, this chapter examines what the reasoning in Jarvis might mean for “reasonable expectations of privacy” in other areas of law, and how this concept might be interpreted in response to gender-based Technology-Facilitated violence. The authors argue the courts in Canada and elsewhere must take the analysis in Jarvis further to fully realize a notion of privacy that protects the autonomy, dignity, and liberty of all.

Details

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Francesca Battaglia and Maria Mazzuca

The purpose of this study was to examine the 2007-2009 financial crisis to analyze how securitization relates to the Italian bank risk profile, both in terms of credit and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the 2007-2009 financial crisis to analyze how securitization relates to the Italian bank risk profile, both in terms of credit and liquidity risks.

Design/methodology/approach

To test our research hypotheses, we adopt ordered probit models, in which we regress the changes in credit risk and liquidity on a set of regressors, including two securitization dummy variables plus a vector of control variables.

Findings

Our results show that the impact of securitization on the originators risk-taking is not uniform. When credit risk is considered, the securitization effects seem to be statistically significant only during the crisis period. However, when we turn to analyze the bank’s liquidity position, our results show that securitization improves it both during the pre-crisis and the crisis years. Our results support the Basel III initiatives aimed to realize a better integration between the different types of risks (i.e. credit and liquidity risks).

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of our study is related to the analyzed geographic area.

Practical implications

First, our results support the Basel III initiatives aimed to realize a better integration between the different types of risks (i.e. credit and liquidity risks). In general, the broad policy implication of the paper is that in some contexts, such as the Italian market, securitization does not necessarily produce negative effects in terms of bank’s risk.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the empirical literature on the effects of securitization for banks in several ways. First, we consider the complexity of the bank’s risk profile; second, despite the importance of the Italian securitization market, there is a research void on it. Furthermore, unlike previous studies, our analysis covers the period 2000-2009, including the financial crisis years. Finally, to our knowledge, our methodology (ordered probit models) has not been used in the past in this context.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Ruth M. Mestre i Mestre and Sara Johnsdotter

This chapter discusses adjudication, expertise, and cultural difference as it appears in criminal court cases concerning female genital cutting (FGM) in the EU, as…

Abstract

This chapter discusses adjudication, expertise, and cultural difference as it appears in criminal court cases concerning female genital cutting (FGM) in the EU, as reported in a 2015 comparative overview. It begins with the distinction between typical and atypical FGM cases; a distinction that connects court cases to the cultural realities of the practicing communities, suggesting that the lack of cultural knowledge can cause unnecessary suffering to families and/or individuals who wrongly undergo prosecution in alleged FGM cases. A contrario, the intervention of experts in FGM court cases could be a positive approach to assessing the legitimacy of public intervention in certain cases.

Details

Cultural Expertise and Socio-Legal Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-515-3

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Geraldine Pratt and Migrante BC

We contextualize contemporary domestic worker organizing in Vancouver within a history of domestic worker organizing in Canada and then build the argument that their…

Abstract

We contextualize contemporary domestic worker organizing in Vancouver within a history of domestic worker organizing in Canada and then build the argument that their organizing has been structured by the gendered geographies of: international migration; the location of the work in the private home; and the prevalence of stepwise migration of Filipina domestic workers to Canada. These gendered geographies have led to a distinctive mode of organizing: in the community around a wide range of issues that enfold social reproduction into workplace issues to engage the entirety of individuals’ and families’ lives across the life course. Domestic workers’ organizing is grounded in the spatialities and materialities of their lives, and seemingly familiar gender scripts take on an active force in the domestic workers’ mobilization. Confronting the contradictions of organizing domestic workers and organizing to revalue domestic work points to the enduring undervaluation of feminized workers and their work, as well as the potential for intersectional solidarities along with the need for multisectoral strategies.

Details

Gendering Struggles against Informal and Precarious Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-368-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Angelo Corelli

Abstract

Details

Understanding Financial Risk Management, Second Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-794-3

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