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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

B. Zafer Erdogan and Stephen Tagg

This study reports findings about British advertising agency managers’ response patterns to a mail survey and four follow‐up techniques (original, photocopy, postcard and…

Abstract

This study reports findings about British advertising agency managers’ response patterns to a mail survey and four follow‐up techniques (original, photocopy, postcard and letter), which were manipulated to determine their individual impact on response rate. Findings should provide original insights to mail survey researchers planning to sample advertising agency managers in reducing both non‐response and sampling bias. The initial response rate was just over 18 per cent and four follow‐up techniques altogether lifted the overall response rate to a little less than 32 per cent. There are several statistically significant differences of importance to mail researchers in reducing non‐response bias and increasing response rate.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

David S. Waller, Kim‐Shyan Fam and B. Zafer Erdogan

The purpose of this paper is to determine attitudes towards the advertising of certain controversial products/services and reasons for being offensive across four…

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15158

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine attitudes towards the advertising of certain controversial products/services and reasons for being offensive across four different countries, Malaysia, New Zealand, Turkey and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

This was achieved by analyzing the responses to a questionnaire that was distributed to a convenience sample of university students in the four countries. A total of 954 were sampled for this study. The results indicated that geography is not a major determinant of attitudes, and that religious and historical factors play a very important role.

Findings

Of the 17 products presented, 11 resulted in similar answers for New Zealand and the UK, and seven were similar for Malaysia and Turkey. However, it was apparent that the two countries mostly populated by Muslims had some differences as Malaysia has a multicultural society that must make some allowances for other ethnic groups. It also appears that racism and racist images are of concern to all those sampled.

Originality/value

The opening up of regional markets and the development of regional and global media, such as satellite television and the internet, will mean that marketers will try to take advantage of the associated benefits of a standardized approach to advertising and promotional activities. For those involved in international marketing, it is important that they are aware of possible differences and cultural sensitivities when entering a new market or undertaking a standardized mass‐media campaign across a region, whether it be Australasia or Europe.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

B. Zafer Erdogan and Cevahir Uzkurt

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and product attitudes, including country of origin, and to investigate whether…

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4883

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and product attitudes, including country of origin, and to investigate whether ethnocentric tendencies and product attitudes vary by demographic variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the study were collected through a face‐to‐face survey of consumers in Turkey. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 283 were accepted as usable for the study. Consumer ethnocentrism was measured by CETSCALE.

Findings

The findings show that shoppers with high levels of ethnocentricity are more likely to be less educated and to earn lower monthly income than those with low levels of ethnocentric tendency. As expected, those with low‐ethnocentricity levels perceive foreign products more favorably than their high‐ethnocentricity counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

The study has two limitations. First, the research sample was located in only one Turkish city which is a clear constraint on the generalizibility of the results. Second, consumers were asked to evaluate the attributes of foreign‐origin products without reference to a specific product group.

Practical implications

These findings provide useful market intelligence for marketing strategists targeting Turkey, but must be generalized with caution.

Originality/value

This paper both supports and contributes to the existing literature by examining consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin together.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

B. Zafer Erdogan and Philip J. Kitchen

Both advertising and sponsorship are key areas of marketing communications activity, though the latter has acted as a somewhat “Cinderella” subject. In the heightened and…

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5382

Abstract

Both advertising and sponsorship are key areas of marketing communications activity, though the latter has acted as a somewhat “Cinderella” subject. In the heightened and increasing consumer‐oriented marketing communications world of the 1990s, this paper asks whether these two marketing communications methods exist in an uneasy alliance or strategic symbiosis. Given the press (both practitioner and academic) coverage concerning integrated marketing communications, it may seem self‐evident that the latter alternative is preferred, but a rationale behind this preferstment is advanced. Notably, the shared conventions of the two communications activities constitute the text of their interactions. This sharing, or as we have termed it, a symbiotic relationship, leads in turn to the what can be described as the unity of a marketing communications culture, or its objective (managerial) mind.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Kim Shyan Fam, David S. Waller and B. Zafer Erdogan

In a constantly changing and increasingly globalized world, religion still plays a significant role in influencing social and consumer behavior. This study will analyze…

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18695

Abstract

In a constantly changing and increasingly globalized world, religion still plays a significant role in influencing social and consumer behavior. This study will analyze what influence religion and intensity of belief has on attitudes towards the advertising of particular controversial products and services. A questionnaire was distributed to 1,393 people across six different countries and resulting in samples of four main religious groups. The results indicated some statistically significant differences between the groups, which can have important implications for global marketers.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2003

Audhesh K. Paswan

This study empirically explores one of the important channel issues – the relationship between various channel support given to channel partners and the perceived (by…

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1034

Abstract

This study empirically explores one of the important channel issues – the relationship between various channel support given to channel partners and the perceived (by managers) goal‐orientation of a firm. Results from an emerging market, India, indicate that perceived orientation towards both profitability and market share is not associated with any of the channel support considered. Growth orientation however is strongly associated with most of the channel support activities – both business (e.g., business advice, pricing and ordering assistance, and personnel training) as well as marketing (advertising support, sales promotional material, and inventory management assistance) oriented activities. In contrast, perceived sales volume orientation is only associated with advertising support and business advice, however, the relationship is negative. These findings have interesting implications for channel management and channel motivation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Richard Kwasi Bannor and Steffen Abele

Rooted in the social identity theory (SIT), the study analysed the effect of consumer ethnocentrism as well as other factors on the purchase of labelled regional…

Abstract

Purpose

Rooted in the social identity theory (SIT), the study analysed the effect of consumer ethnocentrism as well as other factors on the purchase of labelled regional agricultural products together with the readiness to purchase the labelled regional products at a premium price in Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The determinants of the consumption of labelled regional agricultural products and the readiness to pay a premium price for the same in Southwestern Germany were analysed via both probit and ordered probit regressions, respectively.

Findings

Consumer ethnocentrism influences the purchase of labelled regional agricultural products as well as the readiness to purchase at a premium price. Also, consumer socioeconomic and product characteristics and knowledge and perceived benefits of regional products had a divergent influence on the purchase and readiness to purchase labelled regional agricultural products at a premium price.

Research limitations/implications

In terms of limitation, even though the sample size was proper, it could be improved in other studies to validate the findings. Also, the study was limited to a limited number of counties in Southwestern Germany; hence future studies could explore a more extensive geographical space within the region.

Practical implications

The results can serve as a good source of information for improving the marketing of regional agricultural products. This study recommends that regional producers and marketers brand regional products with the region's name to capitalise on consumers' ethnocentric tendencies in the region. Further, regional products have to be sold in places where consumers with a certain degree of ethnocentrism are present. Results provided by this study are commonly applicable for all products, regardless of the type and regional origin, so that product-specific studies are no longer necessary, which reduces redundancy and marketing research costs, which are difficult to bear for small producers.

Originality/value

Germany has benefited immensely from the boom of regional marketing in Europe. Likewise, in Southwestern Germany, there is a growing interest in the production and marketing of regional products. As a result, several studies have investigated the factors influencing the purchasing of regional products in Germany. Nevertheless, literature and studies on the effect of ethnocentrism on the purchasing of regional agricultural products in Southwestern Germany are scanty.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Yongdan Liu and Matthew Tingchi Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of celebrity’s poses on consumer attitudes towards the endorsement advertisement by drawing from perceptual fluency…

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1921

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of celebrity’s poses on consumer attitudes towards the endorsement advertisement by drawing from perceptual fluency hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 used a single-factor, two-condition (distinctive pose and casual pose) between-subject design. Both Study 2a and Study 2b employed a single-factor, two-condition (distinctive pose, casual pose) between-subject design and tested the mediator of pose matchiness. Study 3 employed a 2 (pose condition: distinctive, casual)×2 (cognitive capacity: no load, load) between-subject design to test the moderator. All data were sourced from more than 600 respondents in China.

Findings

Study 1 illustrated that the existence of a distinctive pose can lead to higher consumer attitudes regarding advertising stimuli and the endorsed brands as well as more positive behavioural intentions towards endorsed products. Study 2a and Study 2b replicated such finding and demonstrated that the feeling of pose matchiness mediates the relationship between celebrities’ pose and endorsement outcomes. Study 3 further revealed that the cognitive capacity moderates such a relationship, that is, that the effect of a distinctive pose is stronger (lesser) when audiences’ cognitive capacity is loaded (not loaded).

Originality/value

Research efforts to date examining the nature of celebrity advertisement have been limited to celebrity’s faces and facial expressions. Little investigation in the marketing domain has considered the consequences of celebrities’ poses. This study takes the first step in revealing the positive effect of distinctive celebrity poses in product endorsement.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Felix Septianto, Fandy Tjiptono, Widya Paramita and Tung Moi Chiew

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in this study, an explicit expectation that behavior is recognized) on charitable behavior. Further, drawing upon the evolutionary psychology perspective, the status motive is predicted to mediate the predicted effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies were conducted using a 2 (intrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (extrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (recognition: yes/no; manipulated) between-subjects design to examine the predicted effects on likelihood to donate and donation allocations in two Asian countries, namely, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Findings

The results show that recognition increases charitable behavior among consumers with a high level of extrinsic religiosity but low level of intrinsic religiosity (Studies 1a, 1b and 2). Further, a status motive mediates the predicted effects (Study 2).

Research limitations/implications

The present research provides a novel perspective on how marketers can purposively use recognition in charitable advertising to encourage charitable behavior among religious consumers – but only in Asia.

Practical implications

This paper presents the case for how a non-profit organization can develop charitable advertising for disaster relief in Indonesia (Studies 1a and 1b) and Malaysia (Study 2). The findings of this research could potentially be extended to other organizations in Asia or other countries where religiosity places an important role in consumer behavior.

Originality/value

This research shows the interactive effect between extrinsic religiosity, intrinsic religiosity and recognition can increase charitable behavior in Asia.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Naushad Mohamed, Babak Taheri, Anna Farmaki, Hossein Olya and Martin Joseph Gannon

This study aims to investigate the combinations of religiosity, cosmopolitanism and perceived destination image leading to satisfaction and loyalty amongst Muslim…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the combinations of religiosity, cosmopolitanism and perceived destination image leading to satisfaction and loyalty amongst Muslim consumers within the Maldivian tourism and hospitality context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this study reveals that diverse combinations of religiosity, cosmopolitanism and destination image dimensions stimulate satisfaction and loyalty in Muslim consumers.

Findings

Multiple recipes can be used to design compelling destinations that balance the desire for religiosity and cosmopolitanism characteristic of contemporary Muslim consumers. The results confirm the applicability of complexity theory in explaining Muslim consumer behaviour within the Islamic destination context.

Practical implications

Several implications for the hospitality and tourism industry are drawn from the results, with suggestions for future research provided. Each fsQCA recipe identifies distinct suggestions to shape the design of destination attributes and hospitality offerings to stimulate consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

Originality/value

Complexity theory was applied to assess the complex causal relationships among Muslim consumers’ religiosity, perceived destination image, cosmopolitanism, satisfaction and loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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