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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1974

B.W. Rooks, K.O. Okpere and R.H.M. Cheng

The use of industrial robots in the advanced countries of the world is growing. Whilst generally the concept of a robot is taken as a highly versatile human‐like device…

Abstract

The use of industrial robots in the advanced countries of the world is growing. Whilst generally the concept of a robot is taken as a highly versatile human‐like device the term also extends to include much simpler devices of the pick‐and‐place type with a fixed sequence of events and these form by far the largest proportion of the world's robot population. Whilst they lack versatility in themselves they often form part of a much more complex automatic system in which some degree of flexibility is required. In addition they must operate at their optimum rate whilst being fail‐safe in operation. The design of a suitable control system to meet such demands particularly when a number of such devices and the primary process machinery have to be interlinked can be solved with the aid of sequential switching theory.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1964

MISS ANNE SHAW's presence on the platform at the annual general meeting of the Management Consultants Association was a solid assurance that work study still lies within…

Abstract

MISS ANNE SHAW's presence on the platform at the annual general meeting of the Management Consultants Association was a solid assurance that work study still lies within its scope. The initial impression was weakened, however, when the chairman, Mr. D. J. Nicolson, mentioned that the bulk of consultancy work was no longer concerned with work study. Instead, it gave more than half its attention to policymaking and the broad aspects of organising financial, manufacturing and marketing resources.

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Work Study, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

I. Schmidt

Problems in the application of industrial robots for the handling of workpieces in small series production and in assembly arise from the gripper's structure among other…

Abstract

Problems in the application of industrial robots for the handling of workpieces in small series production and in assembly arise from the gripper's structure among other things. The differences in form and weight of the workpieces make it impossible in most cases to apply a single traditional gripper for all workpieces to be handled in one installation.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1974

B.W. Rooks and S.A. Tobias

The present designs of industrial robots or mechanical handling units generally fall into two categories, the simple pick‐and‐place units with two fixed positions per…

Abstract

The present designs of industrial robots or mechanical handling units generally fall into two categories, the simple pick‐and‐place units with two fixed positions per axis, or the more sophisticated type such as Unimate with a very large number of positions per axis and a large memory. Whilst the latter devices are essential for complex operations such as spot welding, paint spraying or palletising there are many applications where only a small number of positions per axis are required, e.g. press loading, conveyor transferring, assembly operations. This paper describes a positioning system that falls between the above two general categories in that it allows a number of positions on each axis to be selected. A detailed description is given of the positioning system which basically consists of a number of mechanical stops attached to indexable bars such that there are a minimum number of 6 positions per axis. These stops are positioned as required and include a fine positioning adjustment. It is found that this system gives a positioning accuracy far greater than those commonly used with robots. The design of the hydraulic system and the control system for the fast to slow traverse are given together with test results obtained from a prototype system. The method of programming and the advantages and disadvantages are specified in a final discussion. In particular how the system can be used in fairly complex operations such as palletising is discussed.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

S. Rooks and T. Sack

To accommodate increasing levels of device integration at the chip level, circuit line densities in electronic packages are continually increasing. Greater circuit line…

Abstract

To accommodate increasing levels of device integration at the chip level, circuit line densities in electronic packages are continually increasing. Greater circuit line density, in turn, necessitates a corresponding increase in package‐to‐board interconnection density, with I/O counts expected to reach over 600 by 1995. In conjunction with the upward trend in I/O counts are a complementary upward trend in clock speed and an opposing downward trend in package sizes driven by the need to provide more functionality in less space, particularly in notebooks and PCMCIA cards. To satisfy the requirements of increased I/O counts and clock speed, and reduced package sizes, various package‐to‐board interconnection technologies are being developed, such as flip chip attach (FCA) using C4 joints. However, FCA interconnections have a disadvantage of being very difficult, if not impossible, to visually inspect. Though automatic test equipment (ATE) can determine whether the package is functional, it cannot determine the quality and reliability of FCA interconnections. Of the possible inspection techniques available to assess the quality of FCA interconnections — differential laser thermal analysis, acoustic microscopy and cross‐sectional X‐ray radiography — only cross‐sectional X‐ray radiography is capable of accurate, automated inspection of production volumes. This paper will first examine the requirements for inspecting FCA joints and will then describe the various inspection alternatives, outlining their advantages and disadvantages. Having described the potential advantage of one particular cross‐sectional X‐ray technique, digital tomosynthesis, the paper will conclude with some cross‐sectional images of FCA and SMT joints taken by a digital tomosynthesis system being developed for the inspection of FCA joints.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

B.W. Rooks

Industrial robots have become an accepted form of automation for many companies in Western Europe. The multi robot car assembly line is now the rule rather than the…

Abstract

Industrial robots have become an accepted form of automation for many companies in Western Europe. The multi robot car assembly line is now the rule rather than the exception and this type of application has advanced the state of acceptance of robots as a viable form of automation. But what is the future in other areas and is the industrial robot an economic proposition in less glamorous areas? A recent visit to Sweden, with a few calls in West Germany, revealed a surprisingly wide range of applications for the industrial robot and none more so than in the production work shops of the robot manufacturers themselves. In Sweden high wage rates and strict laws on health and safety at work provide the type of incentive that is conducive to investments in robot automation. But even in this environment robots have to work hard to be economic. They invariably work on two or three shifts and in many applications perform numerous tasks.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Brian Rooks

This paper reviews the Weldex exhibition held at the NEC in Birmingham in November 2003. Highlights of the show included VirtualArc from ABB, which is able to predict weld…

Abstract

This paper reviews the Weldex exhibition held at the NEC in Birmingham in November 2003. Highlights of the show included VirtualArc from ABB, which is able to predict weld conditions using physics of the arc, the hybrid MSG‐laser welding process from Cloos and a new spot weld‐specific Motoman robot. Several manufacturers displayed off‐the‐shelf “plug and weld” cells including Cloos, Fanuc and Autotech Robotics. Servo controlled guns were also featured by Motoman Robotics and Rexroth Bosch. The latter also promoted its ultrasonic weld monitoring systems that integrate with Rexroth's medium frequency welding systems for high quality assurance spot welding. Finally, a new laser seam tracker from Micro Epsilon is described.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

B. Rooks

Examines the transformation in image, manufacturing, andprofitability of a UK automotive supplier, through the adoption of anadvanced manufacturing facility. Discusses the…

Abstract

Examines the transformation in image, manufacturing, and profitability of a UK automotive supplier, through the adoption of an advanced manufacturing facility. Discusses the use of Japanese techniques, a CAD facility, simulation, and computer controlled machines. Surmises that while the company is proud of its achievement, it is still suffering from the burden of interest rates that suppliers in other countries are free of.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

B. Rook

Describes the reasons for the development of CIM centre whichaddresses the problem of integrating different systems. Discusses theneed to develop new products quickly, the…

Abstract

Describes the reasons for the development of CIM centre which addresses the problem of integrating different systems. Discusses the need to develop new products quickly, the manufacturers′ tendencies to call in vendors when planning systems integration which led to the centre′s conception, and the systems and facilities that the centre offers. Surmises that the centre offers a particular benefit in terms of objectivity, unlike the vendors themselves.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Brian Rooks

Report of a lecture by Mr Koh Kikuchi, Chairman of Yaskawa Electric Corporation of Japan, which reviews the development of mechatronics by Yaskawa. It traces the history…

Abstract

Report of a lecture by Mr Koh Kikuchi, Chairman of Yaskawa Electric Corporation of Japan, which reviews the development of mechatronics by Yaskawa. It traces the history of the company in its involvement with robotics from the first simple single‐function hand in the 1960s to the latest supermechatronic robots used in semiconductor manufacture. Details are given of two new robots designed for operation in clean rooms down to Class 1. An account is also given of the activities of Yaskawa’s UK company which, in common with the majority of Yaskawa’s overseas operations, started as a joint venture partnership. The lecture concluded with a plea to encourage international co‐operation to solve the current global problems, particularly the effect of manufacturing on the environment.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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