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Light, when constructed in terms of the elementary quanta of light, may be viewed in particle‐like or wave‐like terms. The elementary quanta of light, when placed in…
Light, when constructed in terms of the elementary quanta of light, may be viewed in particle‐like or wave‐like terms. The elementary quanta of light, when placed in motion through space/time at a speed of a constancy of c forms a light path through the space or reference frame viewed. The light path formed is curved, as space/time is curved. The curvilinear light path formed is a function of the gravitational potential within the viewed frame of reference. The linear description of this light path, termed the geodesic (Riemannian), does not describe the curvilinear light path, but rather the chord of the curvilinear path described by the inscribed arc. This linear description of the light path is the manner in which we describe the coordinate system involved, and is the same manner in which we determine the “speed of light”. The arc length of the light path, compared to the lesser value as described by the chord length, allows for a displacement to be determined, if both measures are applied to a linear measure. A displacement of linear coordinates then occurs, with this displacement a result of the gravitational potential occurring within the frame viewed. This displacement, derived via observation and predictions of the quantum model, resolves Maxwell as well as Newton. The theory concludes that the Special Theory of Relativity, suitably modified to account for gravitational displacement within one particular frame, derives a precise relative model of gravitation within the special frame. This model satisfies Newton, as the model arrives at an exact description of the three‐body problem.
Light, when viewed as a particle, reacts in a determinable manner with reference to the gravitational potential existing within the reference frame viewed. The elementary quanta of light, expressed under the terms of Planck, and as derived via the expressions of Einstein as a particle, may not reach a speed exactly equating to the speed (electromagnetic) of light of c. Here c is viewed as an electromagnetic constancy in any gravitational frame of reference. The theory is that a relative particle of mass may not achieve the speed of light, for the energy of that particle would then equate to infinity or in that the force required allowing the relative particle to reach c would then be infinite. The theory is then totally reliant upon the tenants of what has become to be known as the Special Theory of Relativity. As per the General Theory, light would be “bent”, more or less, from one gravitational reference frame as compared to another gravitational reference frame. The theory then evolves that light, when viewed as a particle, forms a curvilinear light path through the gravitational reference frame viewed. However, until now, the light path has been solely described on a linear basis. It is the result of the theory that the light path may be described on a curvilinear basis, under the method of Lagrange. This method, or model, allows a particle of light (viewed as a projectile of mass under a constant velocity, therefore under a constant acceleration) to achieve Newton's description of the path of a projectile. Note that the following paper is applicable to a previous paper, which proposes a displacement of light within the gravitational field.
Let us consider that light, when viewed as a particle, forms a conic arc segment inscribed within the space viewed. The space (or frame) viewed is considered to exhibit a…
Let us consider that light, when viewed as a particle, forms a conic arc segment inscribed within the space viewed. The space (or frame) viewed is considered to exhibit a gravitational potential, and it is thus this potential that deforms the light path from a Euclidean/Newtonian derivation of a straight line to that of a relativistic curvilinear nature. Given a distance over this conic arc segment (assumed to form a parabolic arc segment) and a given time (considering the given distance involved), one derives a constancy of the speed of light of c, where c is considered as a constant regardless of the gravitational potential exhibited by the frame viewed. If we further consider that the Special Theory requires that light propagate on a linear measure as the velocity v (of necessity v being less than c on a comparable linear measure) between the axes concerned; then a displacement (in linear measure equal to c−v) occurs. The displacement evolved is then assumed to agree with the form of Maxwell. We assume that this linear displacement of c−v occurs upon the y‐axis of the frame viewed. Of necessity, a relative displacement must occur upon the x‐axis of the frame viewed. From the calculus, the dot products derived must vary in concept, in order to derive the totality of relative coordinate shifts occurring within any three‐dimensional space. One displacement is linear in nature, while the other is trigonometric in nature. We consider the displacement of Maxwell, Lorentz, Compton, and de Broglie to be linear in nature. Based on the principle of the Special Theory (and the other forms as mentioned), we consider the total displacement to be mechanically derivable. That derivation, once allowed, results the physics to agree with the observations complete to this moment in time. The paper concludes that the error in coordinate positioning shown by the global positioning satellite system (GPS satellite platform) is resolvable.
The authors explore the nature of commitment, job satisfaction and job characteristics, and the nature of the interrelationships among these variables concerning…
The authors explore the nature of commitment, job satisfaction and job characteristics, and the nature of the interrelationships among these variables concerning expatriate employees in Saudi Arabia. An examination of a sample of 504 expatriate employees reveals that these employees are, by and large, indifferent with respect to their perceptions of commitment, job satisfaction, and job characteristics. In addition, the results provide strong support for (1) the influence of job satisfaction on commitment, (2) the influence of job variety on commitment, and (3) the influence of job autonomy, identity, and feedback on job satisfaction.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide researchers a summary of some of the latest developments in item response theory (IRT), and to help these groups realize that…
The purpose of this chapter is to provide researchers a summary of some of the latest developments in item response theory (IRT), and to help these groups realize that psychometric tools can now be used for theory testing in addition to the traditional role of improving construct measurement. The author first reviews some of the fundamental tenets of classical test theory to contrast with IRT. He then describes recent advances in goodness-of-fit tests that have helped turn IRT into a model-testing tool. Finally, the author reviews several new test models that provide new flexibilities, summarizing summarize several examples of research that has used these new models in organizational research. At the end of this review, the author provides suggestions to help researchers better use these new IRT tools. Although there have been significant advances in IRT in the past decade, there has not been a systematic review of these developments. This review places those developments in context to provide readers a real appreciation of these breakthroughs.
The institution of food and cookery exhibitions and the dissemination of practical knowledge with respect to cookery by means of lectures and demonstrations are excellent things in their way. But while it is important that better and more scientific attention should be generally given to the preparation of food for the table, it must be admitted to be at least equally important to insure that the food before it comes into the hands of the expert cook shall be free from adulteration, and as far as possible from impurity,—that it should be, in fact, of the quality expected. Protection up to a certain point and in certain directions is afforded to the consumer by penal enactments, and hitherto the general public have been disposed to believe that those enactments are in their nature and in their application such as to guarantee a fairly general supply of articles of tolerable quality. The adulteration laws, however, while absolutely necessary for the purpose of holding many forms of fraud in check, and particularly for keeping them within certain bounds, cannot afford any guarantees of superior, or even of good, quality. Except in rare instances, even those who control the supply of articles of food to large public and private establishments fail to take steps to assure themselves that the nature and quality of the goods supplied to them are what they are represented to be. The sophisticator and adulterator are always with us. The temptations to undersell and to misrepresent seem to be so strong that firms and individuals from whom far better things might reasonably be expected fall away from the right path with deplorable facility, and seek to save themselves, should they by chance be brought to book, by forms of quibbling and wriggling which are in themselves sufficient to show the moral rottenness which can be brought about by an insatiable lust for gain. There is, unfortunately, cheating to be met with at every turn, and it behoves at least those who control the purchase and the cooking of food on the large scale to do what they can to insure the supply to them of articles which have not been tampered with, and which are in all respects of proper quality, both by insisting on being furnished with sufficiently authoritative guarantees by the vendors, and by themselves causing the application of reasonably frequent scientific checks upon the quality of the goods.
A long-standing question is how group perception, which is the perception of a whole group, becomes an exaggerated perception of the individuals who comprise the group…
A long-standing question is how group perception, which is the perception of a whole group, becomes an exaggerated perception of the individuals who comprise the group. The question receives scant attention within computer-mediated communication (CMC), which is increasingly a communication mode for groups and a research tool to study groups. I address this gap by examining bias in group perception when rating copresence, which is the sense of being together, with the group.
I model bias as occurring when perceivers differentially weigh ratings of individual group members on a variable while rating the whole group on the same variable. I analyzed how the degree of bias in participants’ ratings of copresence with a status-differentiated group varied by the availability of visual cues during CMC in an experiment. I also examined how the group’s status hierarchy impacted bias.
Bias increase as the availability of visual cues decreased and ratings of middle status members were weighed more in group perception than ratings of other members.
Middle status was based on possessing inconsistent statuses. Inconsistency, and not status position, may have rendered these members more salient than others.
Interventions that target group perception may benefit from targeting the group’s middle status members. Researchers and practitioners can minimize bias in group perception through increasing the availability of visual cues in CMC.
The findings illustrate the underpinnings of copresence with an entire group. This is important because copresence shapes several group processes during CMC.
Three-dimensional printing of concrete (3DPC) has a potential for the rapid industrialization of the housing sector, with benefits of reduced construction time due to no…
Three-dimensional printing of concrete (3DPC) has a potential for the rapid industrialization of the housing sector, with benefits of reduced construction time due to no formwork requirement, ease of construction of complex geometries, potential high construction quality and reduced waste. Required materials adaption for 3DPC is within reach, as concrete materials technology has reached the point where performance-based specification is possible by specialists. This paper aims to present an overview of the current status of 3DPC for construction, including existing printing methods and material properties required for robustness of 3DPC structures or structural elements.
This paper has presented an overview of three categories of 3DPC systems, namely, gantry, robotic and crane systems. Material compositions as well as fresh and hardened properties of mixes currently used for 3DPC have been elaborated.
This paper presents an overview of the state of the art of 3DPC systems and materials. Research needs, including reinforcement in the form of bars or fibres in the 3D printable cement-based materials, are also addressed.
The critical analysis of the 3D concrete printing system and materials described in this review paper is original.