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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

P.M. Leplat, B. Lemaire‐Semail, S. Clenet and F. Piriou

Proposes to compare two models ‐ finite element method and “magnetic” equivalent scheme ‐ for numerical modelling of electromagnetic systems. Both these approaches coupled…

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302

Abstract

Proposes to compare two models ‐ finite element method and “magnetic” equivalent scheme ‐ for numerical modelling of electromagnetic systems. Both these approaches coupled with electric circuit equations take into account saturation effects. Uses a machine of 5.5kW as a model to show the validity of these approaches. Compares the results obtained from numerical calculation with experimental ones.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Abstract

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International Perspectives on Gender and Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-886-4

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Mohd Taufiq Mohd Khairi, Sallehuddin Ibrahim, Mohd Amri Md Yunus and Mahdi Faramarzi

This paper aims to present a review of the design and development of the turbidimeter for measuring the turbidity level in water. Monitoring the turbidity level of water…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a review of the design and development of the turbidimeter for measuring the turbidity level in water. Monitoring the turbidity level of water is important because it is related to public health.

Design/methodology/approach

A precise and reliable turbidimeter can provide vital data that reveals the water condition level. Several turbidimeter units are discussed briefly. Three types of turbidimeter design – single beam, ratio and modulated four beams – are elaborated with some illustrations of the design concept. Various improvements and innovations for upgrading turbidimeter design are also discussed.

Findings

This paper elaborated on a new method of estimating the water turbidity level in water samples using an optical tomography system based on the independent component analysis method. The results showed that a tomography-based turbidimeter can measure slight changes in the level of turbidity when the volume of contaminants is changed slightly. The turbidimeter can also provide a profile of the distribution of the turbidity in the water sample.

Originality/value

A turbidimeter based on the optical tomography concept can be a valuable tool in determining the level of pollution in rivers, sea, etc.

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Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1981

S. Mouchaud, H. Merguen and B. Lemaire

Developing general purpose mobile robots is very much dependent on the availability of suitable sensors. A common choice by researchers is ultrasonics and work at the…

Abstract

Developing general purpose mobile robots is very much dependent on the availability of suitable sensors. A common choice by researchers is ultrasonics and work at the Laboratory of Applied Advanced Electronic Techniques (LATEA) has resulted in a simple, self‐adapting and self‐correcting ultrasonic sensor,

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Sensor Review, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Lucy Gildersleeves

The aim of this article is to investigate the nature of use and impact of the Improve Your Library self‐evaluation process on school libraries and their integration into…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to investigate the nature of use and impact of the Improve Your Library self‐evaluation process on school libraries and their integration into whole‐school development planning for pupil learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is structured in two phases. Phase one seeks to map levels, patterns and experiences of use by those responsible for the library within schools and to establish the nature of support needed for librarians from school library services and training providers. Phase two will track schools in detail to explore the extent of difference the process may have on library integration into the wider school self‐evaluation, development priorities and planning, and on library contribution to pupil reading and learning.

Findings

Preliminary investigations indicate that there is considerable diversity in current evaluation practice and in expectations of the Improve Your Library toolkits. There is a need for a national vehicle for sharing individual library experience to inform reflective practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research focused on English schools. Successful delivery of the intended case banks of practice examples is dependent on a good range of schools being willing to share their experience.

Practical implications

Training and support needs and networks will be identified for providers and practitioners. Practical experience will be made available to librarians, school management and policy‐makers.

Originality/value

This is a timely evaluation of the first unified system of library self‐evaluation across English schools within the context of a new approach to whole‐school evaluation. It will provide librarians with a means of sharing and comparing experiences in the absence of a formalised benchmarking system for school libraries and contribute to a national picture of school library activity and priorities.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 58 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2015

Anne-Chantal Hardy

Feminization of medicine in France has come about in several stages, in connection with student and medical specialists recruitment. Its dynamics show that it can’t be…

Abstract

Feminization of medicine in France has come about in several stages, in connection with student and medical specialists recruitment. Its dynamics show that it can’t be considered as a virtually definitive gender reversal, but should rather be viewed as a dynamic recomposition closely related to societal changes and economic situations. I explain the way women succeeded in entering medicine via the concours, and how their situation has often given rise to wrongful interpretations concerning their ‘choices’. Finally, I reflect on the complex connections between feminization and the democratization of medical recruitment, on the one hand, and with the transformations within the liberal model in medicine, on the other. I conclude that the feminization of medicine questions a wide array of social relations in the domains of family, health, economics and politics, as a complex social fact.

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Gender, Careers and Inequalities in Medicine and Medical Education: International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-689-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

J. Gyselinck, P. Dular, W. Legros and D. Grenier

This paper deals with the modelling of transformer supply in the two‐dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) simulation of rotating electrical machines. Three different…

Abstract

This paper deals with the modelling of transformer supply in the two‐dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) simulation of rotating electrical machines. Three different transformer models are compared. The reference one is based on two 2D FE models, considering a cross‐section either parallel or perpendicular to the laminations of the magnetic core. The parameters of the two other transformer models, a magnetic equivalent circuit and an electrical equivalent circuit, can be derived from the reference model. Particular attention is paid to some common features of the transformer models, e.g. with regard to the inclusion of iron losses. The three models are used in the 2D FE simulation of the steady‐state load operation and the starting from stand‐still of an induction motor.

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COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2016

Juan Aparicio

The purpose of this paper is to provide an outline of the major contributions in the literature on the determination of the least distance in data envelopment analysis…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an outline of the major contributions in the literature on the determination of the least distance in data envelopment analysis (DEA). The focus herein is primarily on methodological developments. Specifically, attention is mainly paid to modeling aspects, computational features, the satisfaction of properties and duality. Finally, some promising avenues of future research on this topic are stated.

Design/methodology/approach

DEA is a methodology based on mathematical programming for the assessment of relative efficiency of a set of decision-making units (DMUs) that use several inputs to produce several outputs. DEA is classified in the literature as a non-parametric method because it does not assume a particular functional form for the underlying production function and presents, in this sense, some outstanding properties: the efficiency of firms may be evaluated independently on the market prices of the inputs used and outputs produced; it may be easily used with multiple inputs and outputs; a single score of efficiency for each assessed organization is obtained; this technique ranks organizations based on relative efficiency; and finally, it yields benchmarking information. DEA models provide both benchmarking information and efficiency scores for each of the evaluated units when it is applied to a dataset of observations and variables (inputs and outputs). Without a doubt, this benchmarking information gives DEA a distinct advantage over other efficiency methodologies, such as stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Technical inefficiency is typically measured in DEA as the distance between the observed unit and a “benchmarking” target on the estimated piece-wise linear efficient frontier. The choice of this target is critical for assessing the potential performance of each DMU in the sample, as well as for providing information on how to increase its performance. However, traditional DEA models yield targets that are determined by the “furthest” efficient projection to the evaluated DMU. The projected point on the efficient frontier obtained as such may not be a representative projection for the judged unit, and consequently, some authors in the literature have suggested determining closest targets instead. The general argument behind this idea is that closer targets suggest directions of enhancement for the inputs and outputs of the inefficient units that may lead them to the efficiency with less effort. Indeed, authors like Aparicio et al. (2007) have shown, in an application on airlines, that it is possible to find substantial differences between the targets provided by applying the criterion used by the traditional DEA models, and those obtained when the criterion of closeness is utilized for determining projection points on the efficient frontier. The determination of closest targets is connected to the calculation of the least distance from the evaluated unit to the efficient frontier of the reference technology. In fact, the former is usually computed through solving mathematical programming models associated with minimizing some type of distance (e.g. Euclidean). In this particular respect, the main contribution in the literature is the paper by Briec (1998) on Hölder distance functions, where formally technical inefficiency to the “weakly” efficient frontier is defined through mathematical distances.

Findings

All the interesting features of the determination of closest targets from a benchmarking point of view have generated, in recent times, the increasing interest of researchers in the calculation of the least distance to evaluate technical inefficiency (Aparicio et al., 2014a). So, in this paper, we present a general classification of published contributions, mainly from a methodological perspective, and additionally, we indicate avenues for further research on this topic. The approaches that we cite in this paper differ in the way that the idea of similarity is made operative. Similarity is, in this sense, implemented as the closeness between the values of the inputs and/or outputs of the assessed units and those of the obtained projections on the frontier of the reference production possibility set. Similarity may be measured through multiple distances and efficiency measures. In turn, the aim is to globally minimize DEA model slacks to determine the closest efficient targets. However, as we will show later in the text, minimizing a mathematical distance in DEA is not an easy task, as it is equivalent to minimizing the distance to the complement of a polyhedral set, which is not a convex set. This complexity will justify the existence of different alternatives for solving these types of models.

Originality/value

As we are aware, this is the first survey in this topic.

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Journal of Centrum Cathedra, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1851-6599

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Julie Christine Babyar

Physician stress and burnout is a serious and common concern in healthcare, with over half of physicians in the USA meeting at least one criterion for burnout. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Physician stress and burnout is a serious and common concern in healthcare, with over half of physicians in the USA meeting at least one criterion for burnout. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A review on current state of physician stress and burnout research, from 2008 to 2016, was undertaken. A subsequent perspective paper was shaped around these reviews.

Findings

Findings reveal research strength in prevalence and incidence with opportunities for stronger intervention studies. While descriptive studies on causes and consequences of physician burnout are available, studies on interventions and prevention of physician burnout are lacking. Future research on physician stress and burnout should incorporate intervention studies and take care to avoid limitations found in current research. Accountability and prevention of physician burnout is the responsibility of the healthcare industry as a whole, and organizational strategies must be emphasized in future research.

Originality/value

The value of this research comes in the original comprehensive review, international inclusion and succinct summary of physician burnout research and strategies.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Beibei Xiong, Yongli Li, Ernesto D.R. Santibanez Gonzalez and Malin Song

The purpose of this paper is to measure Chinese industries’ eco-efficiency during 2006-2013. The Chinese industry attained rapid achievement in recent decades, but…

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1119

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure Chinese industries’ eco-efficiency during 2006-2013. The Chinese industry attained rapid achievement in recent decades, but meanwhile, overconsumption of energy and environmental pollution have become serious problems. To solve these problems, many research studies used the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the Chinese industry’s eco-efficiency. However, because the target set by these works is usually the furthest one for a province to be efficient, it may hardly be accepted by any province.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds a new “closest target method” based on an additive DEA model considering the undesirable outputs. This method is a mixed-integer programming problem which can measure the ecological efficiency of provinces and more importantly guide the province to perform efficiently with minimum effort.

Findings

The results show that the eco-efficiency of Chinese provinces increased at the average level, but the deviations remained at a larger value. Compared to the “furthest” target methods, the targets by the approach proposed by this study are more acceptable for a province to improve its performance on both economy and environment counts.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to introduce the closest targets concept to measure the eco-efficiency and set the target for each provincial industry in China.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

1 – 10 of 233