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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Aznan Hasan, Rusni Hassan, Engku Rabiah Adawiah Engku Ali, Engku Muhammad Tajuddin Engku Ali, Muhamad Abduh and Nazrul Hazizi Noordin

The purpose of this study is to propose a contemporary human resource management (HRM) framework by zakat institutions, which collect and manage religious alms, both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a contemporary human resource management (HRM) framework by zakat institutions, which collect and manage religious alms, both obligatory (zakat) and voluntary (ṣadaqah), in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

In doing so, discussions pertaining to the key elements of zakat institutions’ HRM including recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, training and development and compensation are gathered from the existing literature and other sources of information such as zakat institutions’ websites and publications. In addition, zakat officers’ insight on how HRM is practiced at their institutions is gathered through a series of semi-structured interviews and incorporated in the findings of this study.

Findings

The paper finds that the state government, by virtue of the State Islamic Religious Council (SIRC), which is the sole trustee of all waqf properties in Malaysia, may have significant influence in formulating the human resource strategies and policies in zakat institutions.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed HRM model can be a useful reference for SIRC in enhancing the current human resource practice in its respective zakat institutions.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study lies in the proposed HRM model applicable to zakat institutions. The model emphasizes the alignment between the zakat institutions’ HRM practice and their zakat collection and distribution goals, as well as zakat management objectives in general.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Syahnaz Sulaiman, Aznan Hasan, Azman Mohd Noor, Muhd Issyam Ismail and Nazrul Hazizi Noordin

This paper aims to present the viability of unit trust waqf (Islamic endowment) as an alternative asset class for waqf creation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the viability of unit trust waqf (Islamic endowment) as an alternative asset class for waqf creation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper starts with the conceptual exploration of the literature in the areas of waqf. The sources of the literature cover authentic sources of the Qurʾān and ḥadīth, as well as secondary sources such as books, journal articles and online resources.

Findings

This paper provides the conceptual framework of five models of unit trust waqf and their investment management parameters.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper lies in its attempt to highlight the importance of waqf investment strategy in ensuring sustainable returns for waqf. It does so by introducing the conceptual models of unit trust waqf as viable mechanisms to pool more cash waqf from individual investors. The sustainability of the capital waqf assets in the form of unit trusts is maintained through the parameters for its application proposed towards the end of the paper.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Sadali Rasban, Adam Abdullah and Aznan Hasan

This paper aims to examine the current practice in Singapore regarding an inheritance issue: disposal of the residual net estate to the bayt al-māl, which is identified as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the current practice in Singapore regarding an inheritance issue: disposal of the residual net estate to the bayt al-māl, which is identified as the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura, MUIS). The issue arises when the deceased leaves farḍ (fixed-share) heir(s) and/or dhawū al-arḥām (outer family members) but there is no ʿaṣabah (agnatic residuary heir by blood). Farḍ legal heirs are those beneficiaries for whom the Qurʾān prescribes inheritance of a pre-determined share. Disposal of the residual net estate to the bayt al-māl results in a reduction in the share due to the farḍ legal heir or worse, a total loss to the dhawū al-arḥām legal heirs.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach based on library and case study research has been adopted to elaborate practices that fall under the purview of the Administration of Muslim Law Acts (AMLA), Chapter 3.

Findings

The current practice seems biased against, especially, women and spouses. It creates high dissatisfaction in the community, especially those affected by such practices. This paper elaborates on the practice of residual net estate distribution in Singapore and the contemporary practices of the four Sunni madh-habs – the Ḥanafī, Mālikī, Shāfiʿī and Ḥanbalī jurisprudential schools – in other countries.

Research limitations/implications

In Singapore, Muslim law is defined and implemented by the civil court, not the Syariah Court or MUIS. The recommendation to change from the current classical practice by the Syariah Court and MUIS to the contemporary practice that is relevant to today’s context lies with the civil court and Government of Singapore. The choice for the Syariah Court and MUIS to adopt the contemporary practice as per Ḥanafī School by rule of the court or the government is beyond this research. Zayd ibn Thābit, Caliph Abū Bakr and a small number of companions held the view that the residue net estate asset must go to the bayt al-māl, the current classical practice. The contemporary practice adopted by Sayyidina ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān, Jābir ibn Zayd and majority of the companions’ view, is not in favour of the residue net estate asset to go to the bayt al-māl; rather they view that it must be returned to the legal heirs.

Practical implications

Awareness in the community in the current controversial practice in Singapore when the residue net estate through the farāʾiḍ law was giving to bayt al-māl instead of returning to farḍ or dhawū al-arḥām in the absence of the ʿaṣabah legal heir as stated in the Inheritance Certificate issued by Syariah Court.

Social implications

To understand the contemporary Muslim law and the practical and just application in today’s Singapore context as supported by the AMLA, Chapter 3.

Originality/value

This is the first study that challenges the current practice by the Syariah Court and MUIS in Singapore, thereby endeavouring to restore justice to the community.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Nazrul Hazizi Noordin, Siti Nurah Haron, Aznan Hasan and Rusni Hassan

The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review on how the Khazanah’s Sukuk Ihsan was structured in compliance with the requirements for issuance of Sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review on how the Khazanah’s Sukuk Ihsan was structured in compliance with the requirements for issuance of Sustainable and Responsible Investment (SRI) sukuk set by the Securities Commission (SC) Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

To explain the structures and features of the Sukuk Ihsan, this study extracted important information from the sukuk’s Principle Terms and Conditions and Information Memorandum and presented them in a simple and easy-to-understand way. Next, this study refers to Part D: Requirement for Issuance, Offering or Invitation to Subscribe or Purchase Sustainable and Responsible Investment Sukuk of the SC’s Guidelines on Sukuk (revised edition: 28 August 2014) to assess the compliance of the sukuk in terms of eligibility of SRI sukuk issuer and SRI projects, use of proceeds, reporting and disclosure and independent assessment on SRI programmes. In addition, this study then compares the requirements stated in the SC’s SRI Sukuk Framework with the International Capital Market Association’s Green Bond Principles (GBP) and the USA’s Social Impact Bond (SIB) Act 2014.

Findings

The present study finds that the definition of eligible SRI sukuk issuer in the Guidelines on Sukuk seems to be more stringent compared to the one provided in the GBP and the US’ SIB Act. Nevertheless, the SRI Sukuk Framework provides a more comprehensive yet precise list of eligible SRI projects, covering both environmental and social aspects, compared to the GBP (which only focuses on broad categories of environmental projects) and also the USA’s SIB Act (explicitly outlines 13 social projects which are aligned with the US Federal Government’s agenda in tackling social illnesses). Indeed, the main difference between the eligible SRI sukuk projects and its conventional counterparts lies in its compliance to Shariah principles. It is also observed that a significant emphasis has been given on SRI legislations in ensuring proper reporting and disclosure provided to the SRI sukuk stakeholders together with critical evaluation on the impacts of SRI programmes provided by an independent assessor.

Practical implications

This paper contributes towards enriching the literature on the Islamic capital market, particularly on the integration between sukuk and social impacts investing. This paper was intended to highlight the important requirements in issuing SRI sukuk to various stakeholders of the Islamic capital market.

Originality/value

The authors hope to shed some lights on the unique features and structural applications of SRI sukuk and its importance in becoming an effective instrument to raise funds for social agenda of a country by providing a real and practical example.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Mohamed Fairooz Abdul Khir

This study aims to examine the scholars’ views on the legality of bilateral rebate in Islamic financial transactions. It also aims to evaluate the contemporary application…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the scholars’ views on the legality of bilateral rebate in Islamic financial transactions. It also aims to evaluate the contemporary application of bilateral rebate in Islamic banking operation as an alternative to the conventional mechanism in handling the events of early settlement of debt, early termination of debt facility and early withdrawal of term deposit.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used deductive and inductive methods to analyze the juristic literature of all the major schools of law on the legality of both bilateral and unilateral rebate in a financial transaction.

Findings

The study found bilateral rebate (ibra’ mutabadal), instead of unilateral rebate, to be the best and fairest Islamic mechanism to overcome injustice in several events that may impact the bank’s liquidity such as that of early settlement of debt facility and early withdrawal of term deposit in the sense that the interest (maslahah) of both transacting parties is equally secured.

Research limitations/implications

This study has its limitation, as it only covers the applicability of bilateral rebate in Islamic banking operation. It does not include the applicability of bilateral rebate in other segments of Islamic finance such as Islamic capital markets and Islamic insurance (Takaful business).

Practical implications

This paper has practical implication for Islamic banking industry particularly with regard to its liquidity management in the event of early settlement of a debt facility, early termination of an Islamic facility and early withdrawal of Islamic term deposit. It may also assume policy implication in the event that the regulator adopts the legality of bilateral rebate in its Islamic banking policy and guidelines.

Originality/value

This paper offers an Islamic alternative to the conventional mechanism in handling the event of early settlement of a debt facility, early termination of an Islamic facility and early withdrawal of Islamic term deposit. Under conventional banking, there are certain fees and charges imposed on customers in the above events like early settlement charge and early withdrawal charge. Unlike its conventional counterpart, Islamic banks cannot opt for the conventional method that seems unjust to the customers as the charge is imposed without Sharīʿah basis. In this case, bilateral rebate serves as a fair mechanism to manage the bank’s liquidity in the aforementioned events.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Md. Faruk Abdullah and Asmak Ab Rahman

The objective of the chapter is to discuss the role of wa’d (promise) to mitigate risk in different Islamic banking products. The chapter will illustrate the element of…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the chapter is to discuss the role of wa’d (promise) to mitigate risk in different Islamic banking products. The chapter will illustrate the element of wa’d in different Islamic banking products in Malaysia.

Methodology/approach

The study has adopted the document review method to get information on different banking products. Moreover, it conducted semi-structured interviews with bankers to get in-depth information.

Findings

The study finds out that wa’d plays a vital role in structuring several products including retail products, trade financing products, and treasury products. Along with the unilateral wa’d there is a usage of double wa’d (wa’dan) in some product structures. In most of the products, wa’d is included as a risk mitigation instrument along with other major underlying Shari’ah contracts. Some Shari’ah issues are involved with these products namely the Shari’ah rulings related to wa’dan, “form over substance,” etc.

Originality/value

This is an in-depth field study which adds new knowledge on wa’d-based products. The experience of Malaysia might be a lesson for other countries to minimize risk in their Islamic banking products.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Beebee Salma Sairally

Abstract

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Essia Ries Ahmed, Md Aminul Islam, Tariq Tawfeeq Yousif Alabdullah and Azlan bin Amran

The purpose of this paper is to find applicable Islamic pricing benchmarks (IPBs) instead of the market interest rates which are currently used in Islamic finance as benchmark.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find applicable Islamic pricing benchmarks (IPBs) instead of the market interest rates which are currently used in Islamic finance as benchmark.

Design/methodology/approach

The suggested model (Islamic pricing benchmark model (IPBM)) obviously reveals the feasibility and practical effectiveness of a substitute to London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and as an evaluator tool to suggested investment projects. The model is a suggested mechanism which could be used as an alternative choice to the conventional borrowing based on the forbidden Riba or on interest. The suggested IPBM depends on estimating the rate of return for any project on consideration of the cash flows in future which is expected to be relative to the invested capital.

Findings

The IPBM approach might be applied to financial tools, where the fund owner bears the loss since it is not because of negligence. An instrument to help identify the investment for target rates of return (as an alternative choice to LIBOR) to identify a breakeven point based on expected cash flows for the project to be financed instead of based on seeking the indicators of interest or Riba (as LIBOR). This feature of the IPBM model as an Islamic benchmark renders it as a Shariah pricing mechanism for the Islamic financial products.

Practical implications

The IPBM could be used as a financial instrument to assist in identifying the investment for the target return rates to determine a breakeven point based on expected cash flows for the project to be funded instead of being based on seeking the interest indicators or Riba (as LIBOR). This feature as an Islamic benchmark is considered as a Shariah pricing mechanism for the Islamic financial products. In particular, the proposed model incorporates the Shariah parameters. In that, it is hoped that the Islamic financial instruments will be more comprehensive in their Shariah compliance and thereby may bring more credibility to the Islamic financial system in general.

Originality/value

This paper highlights several important issues related to the IPBMs in Islamic financial institutions which are not widely discussed among researchers. This study contributes to finding an alternative IPB for the Islamic financial products which is currently using the conventional interest rate (LIBOR) as its benchmark. The current study provides empirical evidence for the possibility of relying on the IPBM as an Islamic benchmark to price Islamic financial transactions.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Beebee Salma Sairally

Abstract

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Leila Gharbi

This paper aims to address a specific question over the compatibility of International Financial Reporting Standards with Islamic finance regarding the use of interest…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address a specific question over the compatibility of International Financial Reporting Standards with Islamic finance regarding the use of interest rate as discounting rate in impairment testing and valuation techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Inductive methodology and qualitative-narrative methods are used to explore the available texts and literature.

Findings

There are two main findings: first, the use of reference rate obtained in non-Islamic financial system is inappropriate from the Islamic perspective. Interest-based valuation techniques have not been adopted by the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions in its adaptation of conventional accounting practices, and the majority of Islamic scholars argue against Interest rate benchmarking. Second, the authors suggest nominal gross domestic product (NGDP) growth rate as an alternative benchmark because Islamic finance, in its ideal sense, is based on and closely linked to the real sector. Moreover, recent studies show that there are no statistical differences between NGDP growth rate and nominal interest rate for most of the countries studied.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the accounting implications of the prohibition of interest for valuation techniques and raises the need of acceptable alternative pricing benchmark.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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