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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Kim Hua Tan, Mohd Helmi Ali, Zafir Mohd Makhbul and Azman Ismail

Much has been written about the importance of external integration for the integrity of food products. To achieve food integrity, all actors along the supply chain have to…

Abstract

Purpose

Much has been written about the importance of external integration for the integrity of food products. To achieve food integrity, all actors along the supply chain have to be fully integrated and comply with an assurance system or process. The more complex the supply chain operations are, the greater will be the need for integration. This research paper investigates the impact of external integration on compliance with halal standards, as an example of product integrity within the food industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 1,000 food manufacturers was conducted. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to test the effect of external integration on compliance with halal standards.

Findings

The results showed that there were links between halal assurance system and external integration. Nevertheless, it was discovered that only customer integration mediated the relationship between the halal assurance system and product quality and production cost.

Practical implications

The practical implications of the findings extend to managers in the food industry who might pursue supply chain integration as a structure to achieve excellence. The findings suggested that the deployment of a halal assurance system has a positive effect on operational performance. Furthermore, the results show that managers who wish to implement the halal assurance system should carefully invest in an external integration strategy, depending upon the operational performance improvement intended.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first studies to investigate the effects of external integration on halal food in general and is the first empirical investigation of the effect of safeguarding halal integrity on operational performance.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Raja Madihah Raja Alias, Norhashimah Mohd Yasin, Badruddin Hj Ibrahim and Mohd Yazid Zul Kepli

Money laundering and terrorism financing are financial crimes which affect the economic stability and integrity of the country. In this respect, the relevant regulator has…

Abstract

Money laundering and terrorism financing are financial crimes which affect the economic stability and integrity of the country. In this respect, the relevant regulator has a duty to preserve and protect the financial stability of the country. This duty is in line with the concept of the protection of wealth (hifz al-mal) under the maqāsid al-Sharīʿah or higher objectives of Islamic law framework. The objective of this chapter is to examine the protection of wealth vis-á-vis money laundering and terrorism financing from the maqāsid al-Sharīʿah perspective. This study analyses the primary and secondary legal sources on the laws and regulations on anti-money laundering and counter financing of terrorism while also considering the primary and secondary sources of Islamic law. This study is significant as it makes an exploration of the maqāsid al-Sharīʿah perspectives and discusses the position of unlawful wealth that is acquired from the illicit gain of property from the abuse of money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities. This chapter suggests that Islamic law emphasises on the lawful ownership of wealth and prohibits a person from acquiring illicit wealth. This study will contribute towards the study on the deployment of maqāsid al-Sharīʿah, which is beneficial in safeguarding an individual action as well as the country’s commitment against abuse and misuse of wealth for financial crimes.

Details

Emerging Issues in Islamic Finance Law and Practice in Malaysia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-546-8

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Ahmed M. Adel, Xin Dai, Rana S. Roshdy and Chenfeng Yan

The present research extends the existing literature of halal tourism and Muslims’ travel decision-making by applying information-seeking models and the planned behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research extends the existing literature of halal tourism and Muslims’ travel decision-making by applying information-seeking models and the planned behavior theory to identify the process of decision-making to travel to non-Islamic destinations. This study aims to identify the views of Muslim travelers who traveled before to non-Islamic destinations to evaluate their information search experience and how their travel decision is formed.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews are conducted with a sample of Muslim travelers who visited a non-Islamic destination during the past five years. Data saturation resulted in 17 interviewees from different Islamic destinations, namely, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan and Pakistan.

Findings

Muslim interviewees indicate the relative importance of reference groups compared to the government websites as a source of information. This study concludes some remarkable results regarding the importance of some halal marketing strategies such as halal searchability and availability, halal certification and appraisal, halal at airports and halal hotels. It presents an emergent framework that shows the factors affecting visiting a non-Islamic destination regarding halal issues for Muslim travelers.

Practical implications

It provides destinations’ official tourism managers with various strategies to brand their destinations as Muslim-friendly destinations.

Originality/value

Investigating the process of decision-making of traveling to non-Islamic destinations from Muslim travelers’ perspective is limited. Examining the role of information-seeking behavior in Muslim travelers’ decision-making is scarce.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Adil Khan, Mohd Yasir Arafat and Mohammad Khalid Azam

This study aims to investigate the influence of religiosity (intrinsic and extrinsic) and halal literacy on the intention of Muslim consumers to purchase halal branded…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of religiosity (intrinsic and extrinsic) and halal literacy on the intention of Muslim consumers to purchase halal branded food products in India. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as a framework. Apart from religiosity and halal literacy, the influence of attitude, social norms and perceived behavioural control of halal on buying intention were also tested.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a survey design. The data were collected from 350 individual respondents, using a closed-ended, structured questionnaire. The quality of the measurement model has been assessed through reliability testing, factor loading, average variance extracted and Fornell-Larcker criterion. The test of hypotheses was conducted by performing the partial least square structural equation modelling.

Findings

The result of hypotheses testing shows that both intrinsic and extrinsic types of religiosities did not have a direct influence on buying intention. However, religiosity (extrinsic and intrinsic) and halal literacy have significant relationships with most of the antecedents of the intention of the TPB. In addition, both kinds of religiosities (extrinsic and intrinsic) and halal literacy had a significant indirect effect (through TPB antecedents) on buying intention.

Originality/value

Muslim population in India is one of the largest in the world, yet there is a lack of popular halal branded food products in the market. Nevertheless, few researchers have attempted to study the consumer behaviour of the Muslim population for halal products in India. A large amount of research work on halal food behaviour is from countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, where the Muslim population is in the majority and halal brands are already popular. Further, this paper studies the impact of dimensions of religiosity, which has been overlooked by researchers studying the halal food purchasing behaviour. The study also explores the impact of halal literacy, an understudied construct in halal marketing literature. The present study is amongst the earliest empirical research based on Muslim consumers in India on the topic of halal branded food products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Norliza Ismail, Azman Jalar, Maria Abu Bakar, Roslina Ismail and Najib Saedi Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the wettability and intermetallic (IMC) layer formation of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint according to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the wettability and intermetallic (IMC) layer formation of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint according to the formulation of solder paste because of different types of fluxes.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder pastes were prepared by mixing SAC305 solder powder with different flux and different wt.% of carbon nanotube (CNT). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify functional groups from different fluxes of as-formulated solder paste. The solder pastes were then subjected to stencil printing and reflow process. Solderability was investigated via contact angle analysis and the thickness of cross-sectionally intermetallic layer.

Findings

It was found that different functional groups from different fluxes showed different physical behaviour, indicated by contact angle value and IMC layer thickness. “Aromatic contain” functional group lowering the contact angle while non-aromatic contain functional group lowering the thickness of IMC layer. The higher the CNT wt.%, the lower the contact angle and IMC layer thickness, regardless of different fluxes. Relationship between contact angle and IMC layer thickness is found to have distinguished region because of different fluxes. Thus it may be used as guidance in flux selection for solder paste formulation.

Research limitations/implications

However, detail composition of the fluxes was not further explored for the scope of this paper.

Originality/value

The quality of solder joint of SAC305/CNT/Cu system, as indicated by contact angle and the thickness of IMC layer formation, depends on existence of functional group of the fluxes.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Norliza Ismail, Azman Jalar, Maria Abu Bakar, Nur Shafiqa Safee, Wan Yusmawati Wan Yusoff and Ariffin Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and micromechanical properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint under blast wave condition. This work is an extension from the previous study of microstructural evolution and hardness properties of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder under blast wave condition.

Design/methodology/approach

SAC/CNT solder pastes were manufactured by mixing of SAC solder powder, fluxes and CNT with 0.02 and 0.04 by weight percentage (Wt.%) separately. This solder paste then printed on the printed circuit board (PCB) with the copper surface finish. Printed samples underwent reflow soldering to form the solder joint. Soldered samples then exposed to the open field air blast test with different weight charges of explosives. Microstructure, interfacial IMC layer and micromechanical behavior of SAC/CNT solder joints after blast test were observed and analyzed via optical microscope, field emission scanning microscope and nanoindentation.

Findings

Exposure to the blast wave induced the microstructure instability of SAC305/Cu and SAC/CNT/Cu solder joint. Interfacial IMC layer thickness and hardness properties increases with increase in explosive weight. The existence of CNT in the SAC305 solder system is increasing the resistance of solder joint to the blast wave.

Originality/value

Response of micromechanical properties of SAC305/CNT/Cu solder joint has been identified and provided a fundamental understanding of reliability solder joint, especially in extreme conditions such as for military applications.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Wan Yusmawati Wan Yusoff, Norliza Ismail, Nur Shafiqa Safee, Ariffin Ismail, Azman Jalar and Maria Abu Bakar

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of a blast wave on the microstructure, intermetallic layers and hardness properties of Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu (SAC0307) lead-free solder.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of a blast wave on the microstructure, intermetallic layers and hardness properties of Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu (SAC0307) lead-free solder.

Design/methodology/approach

Soldered samples were exposed to the blast wave by using trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. Microstructure and intermetallic layer thickness were identified using Alicona ® Infinite Focus Measurement software. Hardness properties of investigated solders were determined using a nanoindentation approach.

Findings

Microstructure and intermetallic layers changed under blast wave condition. Hardness properties of exposed solders decreased with an increase in the TNT explosive weight.

Originality/value

Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the exposed solder to the blast wave provide a fundamental understanding on how blast waves can affect the reliability of a solder joint, especially for military applications.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Syahnaz Sulaiman, Aznan Hasan, Azman Mohd Noor, Muhd Issyam Ismail and Nazrul Hazizi Noordin

This paper aims to present the viability of unit trust waqf (Islamic endowment) as an alternative asset class for waqf creation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the viability of unit trust waqf (Islamic endowment) as an alternative asset class for waqf creation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper starts with the conceptual exploration of the literature in the areas of waqf. The sources of the literature cover authentic sources of the Qurʾān and ḥadīth, as well as secondary sources such as books, journal articles and online resources.

Findings

This paper provides the conceptual framework of five models of unit trust waqf and their investment management parameters.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper lies in its attempt to highlight the importance of waqf investment strategy in ensuring sustainable returns for waqf. It does so by introducing the conceptual models of unit trust waqf as viable mechanisms to pool more cash waqf from individual investors. The sustainability of the capital waqf assets in the form of unit trusts is maintained through the parameters for its application proposed towards the end of the paper.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2018

Parisa Maroufkhani, Ralf Wagner and Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail

The literature on entrepreneurial ecosystems is fragmented, and yet, no studies have paid attention to integrating the available studies. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on entrepreneurial ecosystems is fragmented, and yet, no studies have paid attention to integrating the available studies. The purpose of this study is to provide a systematic review of contributions related to entrepreneurial ecosystems.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature review evaluates studies that are covered in the Web of Science index.

Findings

In addition to the recent state of research (covering industries, geographical scopes, methodologies, etc.), this study provides an extension of Isenberg’s (2011) model of entrepreneurial ecosystems.

Research limitations/implications

A new avenue arises for both conceptual and empirical research by emphasizing crowdsourcing as a contributing element for the entrepreneurial ecosystem. Future studies can evaluate the effectiveness of different types of crowdsourcing profoundly to make sure whether creating a promising ecosystem all types of crowdsourcing have a similar value or impact.

Practical implications

For public policy and local decision-makers, both collaboration opportunities and interaction interfaces between the stakeholders of the entrepreneurial need to be reconsidered in the design of entrepreneurial ecosystems.

Social implications

Higher degrees of collaboration, information exchange and innovation are likely to yield favorable entrepreneurship environments.

Originality/value

Novelty of this study arises from integrating crowdsourcing theory in the systematic review of entrepreneurial ecosystems.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2017

Izhan Abdullah, Muhammad Nubli Zulkifli, Azman Jalar and R. Ismail

The relationship between the bulk and localized mechanical properties is critically needed, especially to understand the mechanical performance of solder alloy because of…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between the bulk and localized mechanical properties is critically needed, especially to understand the mechanical performance of solder alloy because of smaller sizing trend of solder joint. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between tensile and nanoindentation tests toward the mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder wire at room temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

Tensile test with different strain rates of 1.5 × 10-4 s-1, 1.5 × 10-3 s-1, 1.5 × 10-2 s-1 and 1.5 × 10-1 s-1 at room temperature of 25°C were carried out on lead-free Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder wire. Stress–strain curves and mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation were determined from the tensile test. Load-depth (P-h) profiles and micromechanical properties, namely, hardness and reduced modulus, were obtained from nanoindentation test. In addition, the deformation mechanisms of SAC305 lead-free solder wire were obtained by measuring the range of creep parameters, namely, stress exponent and strain rate sensitivity, using both of tensile and nanoindentation data.

Findings

It was observed that qualitative results obtained from tensile and nanoindentation tests can be used to identify the changes of the microstructure. The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization and the increase of ductility obtained from tensile test can be used to indicate the increment of grain refinement or dislocation density. Similarly, the occurrence of earliest pop-in event and the highest occurrence of pop-in event observed from nanoindentation also can be used to identify the increase of grain refinement and dislocation density. An increment of strain rates increases the YS and ultimate UTS of SAC305 solder wire. Similarly, the variation of hardness of SAC305 solder wire has the similar trend or linear relationship with the variation of YS and UTS, following the Tabor relation. In contrast, the variation of reduced modulus has a different trend compared to that of hardness. The deformation behavior analysis based on the Holomon’s relation for tensile test and constant load method for nanoindentation test showed the same trend but with different deformation mechanisms. The transition of responsible deformation mechanism was obtained from both tensile and nanoindentation tests which from grain boundary sliding (GBS) to grain boundary diffusion and dislocation climb to grain boundary slide, respectively.

Originality/value

For the current analysis, the relationship between tensile and nanoindentation test was analyzed specifically for the SAC305 lead-free solder wire, which is still lacking. The findings provide a valuable data, especially when comparing the trend and mechanism involved in bulk (tensile) and localized (nanoindentation) methods of testing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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