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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Datuk Ir M., Roslan Johari Dato Mohd Ghazali, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf, Abu Hassan Asaari Abdullah, Azman Abu Bakar, Faisal Salikin, Mathyvani Umapathy, Roslinah Ali, Noriah Bidin and Wan Ismefariana Wan Ismail

This is a national study which aims to determine the average waiting time in Malaysian public hospitals and to gauge the level of patient satisfaction with the waiting…

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Abstract

Purpose

This is a national study which aims to determine the average waiting time in Malaysian public hospitals and to gauge the level of patient satisfaction with the waiting time. It also aims to identify factors perceived by healthcare providers which contribute to the waiting time problem.

Design/methodology/approach

Self‐administered questionnaires were the main method of data collection. Two sets of questionnaires were used. The first set solicited information from patients on their waiting time expereince. The second set elucidated information from hospital employees on the possible causes of lengthy waiting time. The questionnaires were administered in 21 public hospitals throughout all 13 states in Malaysia. A total of 13,000 responses were analysed for the patient survey and almost 3,000 were analysed for the employee survey.

Findings

The findings indicate that on average, patients wait for more than two hours from registration to getting the prescription slip, while the contact time with medical personnel is only on average 15 minutes. Employee surveys on factors contributing to the lengthy waiting time indicate employee attitude and work process, heavy workload, management and supervision problems, and inadequate facilities to be among the contributory factors to the waiting time problem.

Social implications

Public healthcare in Malaysia is in a state of “excess demand”, where demand for subsidised healthcare far outstrips supply, due to the large fee differential between public and private healthcare services. There is a need for hospital managers to reduce the boredom faced by patients while waiting, and to address the waiting time problem in a more scientific manner, as has been carried out in other countries through simulation and modelling techniques.

Originality/value

Healthcare organisations are keen to address their waiting time problem. However, not much research has been carried out in this area. The study thus fills the lacuna in waiting time studies in healthcare organisations.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Zulkifli Azman, Nafarizal Nayan, Megat Muhammad Ikhsan Megat Hasnan, Nurafiqah Othman, Anis Suhaili Bakri, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafiz Mamat and Mohd Zamri Mohd Yusop

This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature applied at the initial deposition of Aluminium Nitride (AlN) thin-film on a silicon substrate by high-power…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature applied at the initial deposition of Aluminium Nitride (AlN) thin-film on a silicon substrate by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technique.

Design/methodology/approach

HiPIMS system was used to deposit AlN thin film at a low output power of 200 W. The ramping temperature was introduced to substrate from room temperature to maximum 100°Cat the initial deposition of thin-film, and the result was compared to thin-film sputtered with no additional heat. For the heat assistance AlN deposition, the substrate was let to cool down to room temperature for the remaining deposition time. The thin-films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) while the MIS Schottky diode characteristic investigated through current-voltage response by a two-point probe method.

Findings

The XRD pattern shows significant improvement of the strong peak of the c-axis (002) preferred orientation of the AlN thin-film. The peak was observed narrowed with temperature assisted where FWHM calculated at 0.35° compared to FWHM of AlN thin film deposited at room temperature at around 0.59°. The degree of crystallinity of bulk thin film was improved by 28% with temperature assisted. The AFM images show significant improvement as low surface roughness achieved at around 0.7 nm for temperature assisted sample compares to 3 nm with no heat applied.

Originality/value

The small amount of heat introduced to the substrate has significantly improved the growth of the c-axis AlN thin film, and this method is favorable in the deposition of the high-quality thin film at the low-temperature process.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Norliza Ismail, Azman Jalar, Maria Abu Bakar, Nur Shafiqa Safee, Wan Yusmawati Wan Yusoff and Ariffin Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and micromechanical properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint under blast wave condition. This work is an extension from the previous study of microstructural evolution and hardness properties of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder under blast wave condition.

Design/methodology/approach

SAC/CNT solder pastes were manufactured by mixing of SAC solder powder, fluxes and CNT with 0.02 and 0.04 by weight percentage (Wt.%) separately. This solder paste then printed on the printed circuit board (PCB) with the copper surface finish. Printed samples underwent reflow soldering to form the solder joint. Soldered samples then exposed to the open field air blast test with different weight charges of explosives. Microstructure, interfacial IMC layer and micromechanical behavior of SAC/CNT solder joints after blast test were observed and analyzed via optical microscope, field emission scanning microscope and nanoindentation.

Findings

Exposure to the blast wave induced the microstructure instability of SAC305/Cu and SAC/CNT/Cu solder joint. Interfacial IMC layer thickness and hardness properties increases with increase in explosive weight. The existence of CNT in the SAC305 solder system is increasing the resistance of solder joint to the blast wave.

Originality/value

Response of micromechanical properties of SAC305/CNT/Cu solder joint has been identified and provided a fundamental understanding of reliability solder joint, especially in extreme conditions such as for military applications.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Norliza Ismail, Azman Jalar, Maria Abu Bakar, Roslina Ismail and Najib Saedi Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the wettability and intermetallic (IMC) layer formation of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint according to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the wettability and intermetallic (IMC) layer formation of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)/CNT/Cu solder joint according to the formulation of solder paste because of different types of fluxes.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder pastes were prepared by mixing SAC305 solder powder with different flux and different wt.% of carbon nanotube (CNT). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify functional groups from different fluxes of as-formulated solder paste. The solder pastes were then subjected to stencil printing and reflow process. Solderability was investigated via contact angle analysis and the thickness of cross-sectionally intermetallic layer.

Findings

It was found that different functional groups from different fluxes showed different physical behaviour, indicated by contact angle value and IMC layer thickness. “Aromatic contain” functional group lowering the contact angle while non-aromatic contain functional group lowering the thickness of IMC layer. The higher the CNT wt.%, the lower the contact angle and IMC layer thickness, regardless of different fluxes. Relationship between contact angle and IMC layer thickness is found to have distinguished region because of different fluxes. Thus it may be used as guidance in flux selection for solder paste formulation.

Research limitations/implications

However, detail composition of the fluxes was not further explored for the scope of this paper.

Originality/value

The quality of solder joint of SAC305/CNT/Cu system, as indicated by contact angle and the thickness of IMC layer formation, depends on existence of functional group of the fluxes.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Wan Yusmawati Wan Yusoff, Norliza Ismail, Nur Shafiqa Safee, Ariffin Ismail, Azman Jalar and Maria Abu Bakar

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of a blast wave on the microstructure, intermetallic layers and hardness properties of Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu (SAC0307) lead-free solder.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of a blast wave on the microstructure, intermetallic layers and hardness properties of Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu (SAC0307) lead-free solder.

Design/methodology/approach

Soldered samples were exposed to the blast wave by using trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. Microstructure and intermetallic layer thickness were identified using Alicona ® Infinite Focus Measurement software. Hardness properties of investigated solders were determined using a nanoindentation approach.

Findings

Microstructure and intermetallic layers changed under blast wave condition. Hardness properties of exposed solders decreased with an increase in the TNT explosive weight.

Originality/value

Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the exposed solder to the blast wave provide a fundamental understanding on how blast waves can affect the reliability of a solder joint, especially for military applications.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Abdulhadi Aliyara Haruna and Abu Sufian Abu Bakar

This study aims to examine the effect of domestic financial deregulation on economic growth in five selected sub-Saharan African nation (SSA). The paper also explored the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of domestic financial deregulation on economic growth in five selected sub-Saharan African nation (SSA). The paper also explored the interaction effect of domestic financial deregulation and corruption on growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used Driscoll and Kraay standard errors based on the pooled ordinary least squares, which is robust to heteroskedasticity, cross-sectional dependence and autocorrelation.

Findings

The outcome indicates that domestic financial liberalization has accelerated growth in SSA economies. Similarly, evidence reveals that foreign direct investment and credit to the private sector by banks accelerate growth. However, evidence indicates that labour and capital negate growth. Also, the interaction term for domestic financial liberalization and corruption shows a negative influence on growth. The study, therefore, recommends that well-tailored policy design and strategy be implemented to provide a smooth and conducive business environment for investors.

Originality/value

Numerous studies have analysed the influence of financial deregulation on growth; however, none have examined the effects of domestic financial deregulation on growth in the context of SSA. Also, no studies have explored the interaction effect of domestic financial deregulation and corruption on growth.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Abdullah Campong Andam and Ahmad Zamri Osman

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors influencing intention of Muslim Filipinos to give zakat on employment income.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors influencing intention of Muslim Filipinos to give zakat on employment income.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the extended theory of planned behaviour – an extension of the theory of reasoned action – to investigate the factors influencing intention to give zakat. The theory introduces six variables (i.e. attitude, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norm, descriptive norm, moral norm and past behaviour) in predicting the intention to give zakat. Totally, 450 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents in a Muslim-majority area (i.e. Marawi City), and 384 cases were deemed usable. The data have been analysed using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

This paper finds that attitude, descriptive norm and moral norm have a positive relationship with the intention to give zakat. Meanwhile, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norm and past behaviour are found to have insignificant influence over intention. However overall, the study supports the extension of the theory of planned behaviour which accounts for 53 per cent of the variance in intention.

Originality/value

This paper provides new insights on factors influencing the intention to give zakat on a non-Muslim majority country setting where no zakat institution operates. This paper also used the extended theory of planned behaviour on zakat compliance literature.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan, Hijattulah Abdul-Jabbar, Saliza Abdul Aziz and Adel Sarea

Although Zakah is the cornerstone of the social protection system in Muslim societies, providing relief to those in need and collecting funds from those who have access to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although Zakah is the cornerstone of the social protection system in Muslim societies, providing relief to those in need and collecting funds from those who have access to money and property, many administrative and legal improvements need to be made to ensure that Zakah funds are managed effectively and efficiently in Muslim states. It is therefore important to recognize why some Muslims are not paying their Zakah through Zakah authorities. The purpose of this paper is to propose a viable and comprehensive research model, derived from an economic and socio-psychological perspective, to provide a richer understanding of Zakah payers’ compliance behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on extant literature, this study offers a conceptual framework for a better understanding of compliance behaviour by proposing an economic and socio-psychological model based on Fischer’s tax compliance model, which could be applied cautiously in an Islamic setting like Zakah.

Findings

The four main categories of the Fischer model are derived from socio-psychological and economic perspectives, namely, attitude and perception (system fairness, ethics and peer influence); Zakah system structure (Zakah law complexity and law enforcement); non-compliance opportunity (education level, wealth source and occupation); and demographic factors (age and gender). Each has much to offer in understanding Zakah payers’ compliance decisions. To suit the nature of Zakah, the influence of Islamic religiosity and the moderating effect of trust in the Zakah institution are incorporated into the model.

Practical implications

Those Muslim communities that strive to have functional Zakah systems to search for solutions to the perennial problem of low Zakah funding and its damning consequences, are offered a compliance model for systematically assessing Muslims’ compliance behaviour with Zakah provisions. This framework is anticipated to offer invaluable input to policymakers in streaming and strategizing the minimization of losses of Zakah revenue to Zakah authorities.

Originality/value

Although behavioural models such as the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behaviour have been extensively used in Zakah compliance studies, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is perhaps the first to apply a socio-psychological and economic framework, emerging from tax literature, in the Zakah environment to develop fully understanding of Zakah payers’ compliance decisions.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2019

Sani Abubakar Saddiq and Abu Sufian Abu Bakar

The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of economic and financial crimes on the economies of emerging and developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of economic and financial crimes on the economies of emerging and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and meta-analysis of economics research reporting guidelines were used to conduct a quantitative synthesis of empirical evidence on the impact of economic and financial crimes in developing and emerging countries.

Findings

A total of 103 studies were searched, out of which 6 met the selection/eligibility criteria of this systematic review. The six selected studies indicated that economic and financial crimes have a negative impact in emerging and developing countries.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, no published systematic review of the impact of economic and financial crimes in developing countries has been conducted to date.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Pg Mohd Faezul Fikri Ag Omar, Haneffa Muchlis Gazali, Mohd. Nasir Samsulbahri, Nurul Izzati Abd Razak and Norhamiza Ishak

The purpose of this paper is to deliberate on the establishment of zakat (Islamic alms) on oil and gas in Malaysia. Being one of the five Islamic pillars, zakat…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deliberate on the establishment of zakat (Islamic alms) on oil and gas in Malaysia. Being one of the five Islamic pillars, zakat contributes significantly to the country’s socio-economic development and prosperity. However, in Malaysia and other Islamic countries, there is not yet a proper mechanism for calculating zakat on extracted minerals. Similar to gold and silver, oil and gas are valuable minerals, which, upon extraction, are subject to zakat payment. In Malaysia, however, this is not the case.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative method. It presents a thorough review on the stipulation for paying zakat on minerals, specifically oil and gas. The deliberation is based on secondary data entailing a comprehensive content analysis of prominent books on the subject, current zakat rulings and legal acts on oil and gas.

Findings

Oil and gas are subject to zakat payment, as indicated in several Qur’anic verses and based on the academic reasoning of Muslim scholars. The zakat calculation for oil and gas entails the nisab (minimum threshold value of the assets) but not the hawl (the requirement for one full Islamic year of ownership for the assets), by analogy with zakat on agricultural produce. Despite the obligation to pay zakat on minerals under the zakat al-mal (alms due on wealth) category, oil and gas is yet to be fully subject to this practice in Malaysia, although the country is known as an oil-producing Muslim country. Several legislative acts covering the managerial and business side of oil and gas operations have long been established, but the provision on zakat remains unclear. Hence, comprehensive legislation is needed to fine-tune the Malaysian oil and gas system, particularly with regard to zakat.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies mainly on secondary data and literature without performing any empirical investigations.

Practical implications

In terms of academic implication, this study enriches the existing body of knowledge on zakat. Practical implications would include enhanced decision-making concerning zakat on oil and gas on the part of zakat institutions, policymakers and the government of Malaysia.

Originality/value

This study provides practical and academic contributions to the deep understanding of zakat on oil and gas, which has received very little attention in the existing body of literature. Despite being limited in literature, this is a breakthrough study that sheds light on zakat on oil and gas.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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