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Outlines the role of viruses in relation to food safety. Those of significance fall largely into two groups – the so‐called small round‐structured viruses and Hepatitis A virus – the original source of which is human faeces. This may contaminate foods “in the field”, especially in the case of shellfish, or during food handling by infected food handlers. Although viruses cannot grow in foods, contamination of foods followed by person‐to‐person spread can lead to major outbreaks. The public health significance of food‐borne viruses is likely to become better appreciated as methods for their detection improve.
This paper aims to inquire about the types of measurements used by international university rankings and their connection to the higher education institutions’ (HEIs…
This paper aims to inquire about the types of measurements used by international university rankings and their connection to the higher education institutions’ (HEIs) third mission activities, namely, the contribution to society.
The paper is based on a review of literature and content analysis of nine international rankings.
This empirical study corroborates that rankings focus on teaching and research activities but rarely measure the HEIs’ connection to practice.
As the measurements used by international university rankings are claimed to have a huge impact on the structuring of the academic environment, this paper shows that international rankings fail to measure the HEIs’ success in developing third mission activities.