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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2018

Ayman El-Dessouki

This paper aims to examine the effects of domestic structure forces on “sub-national” foreign policy (SFP); an analytical concept provides a suitable operational framework…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of domestic structure forces on “sub-national” foreign policy (SFP); an analytical concept provides a suitable operational framework for research on international activities of sub-national entities or regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is carried out on the basis of a theoretical framework proposed by the author. First, the dependent variable is defined. Then, domestic structure is broken down into four variables, including legal grounds, the level of autonomy, the type of intergovernmental relations and institutionalization. A comparative method is used to examine the validity of the theoretical framework.

Findings

The paper finds out that domestic structural forces influence level and form of SFP with some regularity. The influence of these forces on SFP can be explained, as they recur and have such consistent effects that they create patterns and regularities in SFP. Such regularities can be detected through systematic analysis.

Originality/value

The topic of SFP is relatively controversial because of academic debate over international agency of substate actors. However, it is a worthwhile subject of research, as it has the potential to revolutionize research in foreign policy analysis. Moreover, the phenomenon of SFP is in need of theorizing and comparison as the literature on SFP is still in its infancy.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 3 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3561

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 February 2020

Ayman El-Dessouki and Ola Rafik Mansour

The purpose of this paper is to unveil the main changes in the UAE’s policy towards Iran since its foundation in 1971. The UAE favored strategic hedging, extending its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to unveil the main changes in the UAE’s policy towards Iran since its foundation in 1971. The UAE favored strategic hedging, extending its commercial and diplomatic relations with Iran, in addition to developing its military capabilities and maintaining military/security alliances with Saudi Arabia and the USA. However, the UAE started to reorient its policy towards Iran by adopting some sort of balancing strategy in the aftermath of the Arab Spring of 2011. This paper examines how and why the UAE had to change course and explores whether it would revert back to strategic hedging with Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

The study will be carried out based on a theoretical framework drawn from strategic hedging theory, a new structural theory in international relations, to examine the shifts in UAE policy towards Iran. Previous literature suggests that small states prefer hedging over balancing or bandwagoning. The authors also undertake a descriptive analysis and deploy a longitudinal within-case method to investigate changes in UAE policy towards Iran and identify the causal mechanisms behind these changes. That method allows investigating the impact of a particular event on a case by comparing the same case before and after that event occurred.

Findings

The main finding of this study is that the UAE hedging strategy towards Iran allowed maximizing the political and economic returns from the cooperation with Iran and mitigating the long-range national security risks without breaking up the consistent and beneficial ties with other regional and global powers. Hedging achieved the desired outcome, which is preventing direct military confrontation with Iran. Hard balancing, adopted by Abu Dhabi after the 2011 Arab Spring, has proved to have some negative effects, most importantly provoking Tehran. Some recent indicators suggest, though that the UAE may revert back to its long-established hedging policy towards Iran.

Originality/value

Strategic hedging is a new structural theory in international relation, although hedging behavior in states’ foreign policies is far from new. It is new enough, thus, not have been researched sufficiently, strategic hedging still needs theorizing and comparison. This paper highlights the importance of strategic hedging as the most appropriate strategy for small states. It provides an important contribution to the application of the theory to the case of UAE policy towards Iran. The paper also assesses the conventional wisdom that small states prefer hedging over balancing in the light of the changes in the UAE foreign policy since 2011.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

B. Saleh, Ayman A. Aly, M. Alsehli, M.M. Bassuoni and A. Elfasakhany

This paper aims to investigate the performance and working fluids screening for an ejector refrigeration cycle (ERC) activated by solar energy. Several common and new…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the performance and working fluids screening for an ejector refrigeration cycle (ERC) activated by solar energy. Several common and new hydrofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrofluoroolefins and hydrofluoroethers are proposed as refrigerants for the ERC to determine the most appropriate one.

Design/methodology/approach

The ejector performance is characterized by the ejector area ratio (EAR) and entrainment ratio (ω), while the cycle performance is described by the coefficient of performance (COP). The influences of many working parameters like the evaporator, condenser and generator temperatures on the ejector and cycle performances are investigated for all candidates as well.

Findings

The results indicate that the best ejector and cycle performances are attained with the highest critical temperature dry refrigerant, i.e. R601 under all studied working conditions. From the perspective of energy efficiency and environmental issues, R601 can be considered the most appropriate working fluid amongst all candidates. However, extra attention should be considered against its flammability. The maximum COP, the corresponding ω and the necessary EAR using R601 are 0.743, 1.02 and 15.5, respectively, with 25 ºC condenser temperature and the typical values for the rest operating conditions.

Originality/value

Many common and new hydrofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrofluoroolefins and hydrofluoroethers are suggested as working fluids for the ERC to determine the most appropriate one. The mixing process inside the ejector constant-area section is assumed constant-pressure process.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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