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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Khalid Abed Dahleez, Ayman A. El-Saleh, Abrar Mohammed Al Alawi and Fadi Abdelmuniem Abdelfattah

This research examined the factors affecting several types of student engagement, namely agentic, behavioral, emotional and cognitive engagement. Specifically, it examined…

Abstract

Purpose

This research examined the factors affecting several types of student engagement, namely agentic, behavioral, emotional and cognitive engagement. Specifically, it examined the effect of e-learning system usability on student engagement and explored teacher behavior's possible intervening impact on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 418 students studying at different specializations at Omani private academic institutions. This study employed a quantitative methodology and utilized the Smart-PLS for data analyses.

Findings

The findings showed that e-learning system usability influenced significantly and positively agentic, behavioral and cognitive engagement. However, the link between e-learning system usability and emotional engagement was not significant. Moreover, teacher behavior mediated the relationship between e-learning system usability and the four types of engagement.

Originality/value

This study improves one’s understanding of how the interaction of e-learning system usability and teacher behavior affects several aspects of student engagement. It also helps higher education administrators and policymakers by exploring the influential effects of e-learning systems usability and teacher behavior on facilitating students' engagement.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2018

Ayman El-Dessouki

This paper aims to examine the effects of domestic structure forces on “sub-national” foreign policy (SFP); an analytical concept provides a suitable operational framework…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of domestic structure forces on “sub-national” foreign policy (SFP); an analytical concept provides a suitable operational framework for research on international activities of sub-national entities or regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is carried out on the basis of a theoretical framework proposed by the author. First, the dependent variable is defined. Then, domestic structure is broken down into four variables, including legal grounds, the level of autonomy, the type of intergovernmental relations and institutionalization. A comparative method is used to examine the validity of the theoretical framework.

Findings

The paper finds out that domestic structural forces influence level and form of SFP with some regularity. The influence of these forces on SFP can be explained, as they recur and have such consistent effects that they create patterns and regularities in SFP. Such regularities can be detected through systematic analysis.

Originality/value

The topic of SFP is relatively controversial because of academic debate over international agency of substate actors. However, it is a worthwhile subject of research, as it has the potential to revolutionize research in foreign policy analysis. Moreover, the phenomenon of SFP is in need of theorizing and comparison as the literature on SFP is still in its infancy.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 3 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3561

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Abstract

Purpose

Because dietary fibre has been recognized as a major ally to the maintenance of a healthy body as well as to help against the development of some chronic diseases, this paper aims to study the level of knowledge of a relatively wide range of people about the health effects related to the ingestion of dietary fibre in appropriate dosages.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 6,010 participants. The data were collected from 10 countries in three different continents (Europe, Africa and America) and measured the level of knowledge regarding different health benefits from dietary fibre. The questionnaires were applied by direct interview after verbal informed consent.

Findings

The results obtained considering the general level of knowledge revealed a considerable degree of information about the benefits of fibre (average score of 3.54 ± 0.5, on a scale from 1 to 5). There were significant differences between genders (p < 0.001), with higher average score for women, and also for level of education (p < 0.001), with higher score for university level. The living environment also showed significant differences (p < 0.001), with people living in urban areas showing a higher degree of knowledge. Also for countries the differences were significant (p < 0.001), with the highest score obtained for Portugal (3.7), and the lowest for Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia and Romania (3.5). However, despite these differences, the results showed that for all the countries the degree of knowledge was good (above 3.5), corresponding to a minimum level of knowledge of 70 per cent.

Originality/value

This work is considered important due to the wide coverage, including so many countries inclusive with different social and cultural settings. The study allowed concluding that, in general, the participants in the study were quite well informed about the benefits of dietary fibre for the improvement of human health, regardless of gender, level of education, living environment or country. This finding is very relevant considering the diversity of people that composed the sample and reinforces the necessity of continuing with educational policies aimed at providing the general population with the knowledge that might help them make appropriate food choices.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 December 2020

M. Karim Sorour, Philip J. Shrives, Ahmed Ayman El-Sakhawy and Teerooven Soobaroyen

This paper seeks to investigate to what extent (and why) CSR reporting in developing countries reflect instrumental and/or “political CSR” motivations and the types of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate to what extent (and why) CSR reporting in developing countries reflect instrumental and/or “political CSR” motivations and the types of organisational legitimacy sought in these circumstances.

Design/methodology/approach

We adopt a theoretical framework based on neo-institutional theory, “political CSR” framework and types of organisational legitimacy. This interpretive research is set in the Egyptian context post-2011 revolution. We first carry out a content analysis of web disclosures for 40 banks in 2013 and 2016 to ascertain the nature of CSR activities and any changes over time. Second, we draw on 21 interviews to tease out the implications of the change in societal expectations due to the revolution and to deepen our understanding of the organisational motivations underlying CSR reporting.

Findings

Following the 2011 revolution, the banks’ CSR reporting practices have gradually shifted from a largely instrumental “business-case” perspective towards a more substantive recognition of a wider set of societal challenges consistent with a political CSR perspective. Overall, the maintaining/gaining of legitimacy is gradually bound to the communication of accounts about the multi-faceted socially valued consequences or structures performed by banks. Our interview data shows that participants reflected on the legitimation challenges brought by the revolution and the limits of transactional strategies involving traditional constituents, with a preference for pursuing consequential and structural forms of moral legitimacy.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates a constructive shift by businesses towards engaging with the new social rules in response to sociopolitical changes and the need to achieve moral legitimacy. Hence, policymakers and stakeholders could consider engaging with different economic sectors to foster more transparent, accountable, and impactful CSR practices.

Originality/value

We highlight the implications of Scherer and Palazzo’s political CSR approach for accountability and CSR reporting. CSR reporting in some developing countries has typically been seen as peripheral or a symbolic exercise primarily concerned with placating stakeholders and/or promoting shareholders’ interests. We suggest that researchers need to be instead attuned to the possibility of a blend of instrumental and normative motivations.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Rehab F.M. Ali, Ayman M. El-Anany and Hassan M. Mousa

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of partial or total substitution of milk fat by various levels of jojoba oil on the nutritional, physicochemical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of partial or total substitution of milk fat by various levels of jojoba oil on the nutritional, physicochemical and sensory properties of Domiati cheese during cold storage at 6°C for 45 days.

Design/methodology/approach

The fat percentage of milk used for cheese manufacture was standardized to 4% fat. Five formulas were produced by replacing milk fat with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of jojoba oil, respectively. The physicochemical and sensory properties of cheese samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45th days of cold store were evaluated.

Findings

No significant differences in moisture, fat, protein and acidity values amongst the control samples and those samples supplemented with different concentrations of jojoba oil. Significant differences (p = 0.05) in total volatile fatty acids were detected amongst experimental cheese samples. The highest values were recorded for control sample containing 100% milk fat, while the lowest values were recorded for cheese sample containing 100% jojoba oil (p = 0.05). Total nitrogen (TN), water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN) levels of experimental cheeses were nearly same as for control. The results of fatty acids profile showed that jojoba oil has a unique structure of straight monounsaturated alcohols. Significantly (p = 0.05), the highest cholesterol content was recorded for control sample containing 100% milk fat; however, the lowest (p = 0.05) value was recorded for cheese sample containing 100% jojoba oil. At the end time of storage period, control sample manufactured with 100% milk fat had the highest (p = 0.05) values of free fatty acids, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid, while the lowest values were recorded for cheese sample with 100% jojoba oil as a source of fat. The sensory evaluation results demonstrated that blending milk fat with jojoba oil improved the sensory properties of Domiati cheese.

Practical implications

It is concluded that substitution of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of milk fat by equal amounts of jojoba oil enhanced the nutritional and sensory characteristics of Domiati cheese.

Originality/value

It is concluded that Domiati cheese formulated with substitution of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of milk fat by equal amounts of jojoba oil enhanced the nutritional characteristics and improved the sensory properties of produced cheese.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Ayman El-Anany, Sami Althwab, Rehab Ali, Rehab F.M. Ali and Hassan Mousa

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of dried lemongrass leaves (DLGL) powder, at different levels, on phenolics content, antioxidant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of dried lemongrass leaves (DLGL) powder, at different levels, on phenolics content, antioxidant activities, consumer acceptance and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of roasted coffee (RC).

Design/methodology/approach

DLGL powder was incorporated at the levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% of RC weight. The total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP) and antioxidant activity measured using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reducing power assay of RC, DLGL and binary mixture of them determined. The oxidative indices of coffee oil samples during storage were investigated. In addition, the sensory characteristics of RC fortified with different levels of DLGL powder were evaluated.

Findings

The TP content of DLGL powder was 1,100.32 mg/100 g DWb, nearly 1.2 times higher than found in RC beans. The TF content of RC enriched with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% DLGL were found to be around 1.05, 1.10, 1.15 and 1.20 times higher than that in the control coffee samples. RC supplemented with various levels of DLGL powder showed higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. At the end of the storage period (six months), the acid, peroxide, P-Anisidine and total oxidation value values of RC supplemented with 10% DLGL powder were about 1.94, 2.52, 2.60 and 2.59 times as low as in the control sample without any addition of DLGL powder, respectively. RC containing 2.5% and 5.0% DLGL powder had significantly (p < 0.05) the highest sensory scores. Consequently, the addition of DLGL in coffee at up to a 5% ratio may have potential health benefits.

Practical implications

RC containing 2.5% and 5.0% DLGL powder had significantly (p = 0.05) the highest sensory scores.

Originality/value

Consequently, the addition of DLGL in coffee at up to a 5% ratio may have potential health benefits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 February 2020

Ayman El-Dessouki and Ola Rafik Mansour

The purpose of this paper is to unveil the main changes in the UAE’s policy towards Iran since its foundation in 1971. The UAE favored strategic hedging, extending its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to unveil the main changes in the UAE’s policy towards Iran since its foundation in 1971. The UAE favored strategic hedging, extending its commercial and diplomatic relations with Iran, in addition to developing its military capabilities and maintaining military/security alliances with Saudi Arabia and the USA. However, the UAE started to reorient its policy towards Iran by adopting some sort of balancing strategy in the aftermath of the Arab Spring of 2011. This paper examines how and why the UAE had to change course and explores whether it would revert back to strategic hedging with Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

The study will be carried out based on a theoretical framework drawn from strategic hedging theory, a new structural theory in international relations, to examine the shifts in UAE policy towards Iran. Previous literature suggests that small states prefer hedging over balancing or bandwagoning. The authors also undertake a descriptive analysis and deploy a longitudinal within-case method to investigate changes in UAE policy towards Iran and identify the causal mechanisms behind these changes. That method allows investigating the impact of a particular event on a case by comparing the same case before and after that event occurred.

Findings

The main finding of this study is that the UAE hedging strategy towards Iran allowed maximizing the political and economic returns from the cooperation with Iran and mitigating the long-range national security risks without breaking up the consistent and beneficial ties with other regional and global powers. Hedging achieved the desired outcome, which is preventing direct military confrontation with Iran. Hard balancing, adopted by Abu Dhabi after the 2011 Arab Spring, has proved to have some negative effects, most importantly provoking Tehran. Some recent indicators suggest, though that the UAE may revert back to its long-established hedging policy towards Iran.

Originality/value

Strategic hedging is a new structural theory in international relation, although hedging behavior in states’ foreign policies is far from new. It is new enough, thus, not have been researched sufficiently, strategic hedging still needs theorizing and comparison. This paper highlights the importance of strategic hedging as the most appropriate strategy for small states. It provides an important contribution to the application of the theory to the case of UAE policy towards Iran. The paper also assesses the conventional wisdom that small states prefer hedging over balancing in the light of the changes in the UAE foreign policy since 2011.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Sami A. Althwab, Raghad M. Alhomaid, Rehab F. M. Ali, Ayman Mohammed El-Anany and Hassan M. Mousa

The effects of incorporation of Locusta migratoria (LM) powder at different levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) on nutritional, qualitative and sensory properties of baked…

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of incorporation of Locusta migratoria (LM) powder at different levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) on nutritional, qualitative and sensory properties of baked breads were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Chemical composition, mineral elements and functional properties of wheat flour, LM powder and their binary mixture systems were determined. The breads were assayed for proximate composition, minerals, amino acids profile, physical characteristics and sensorial properties.

Findings

LM powder have relatively high levels of protein (51.97% db), fat (23.15% db) and fibers (13.76% db). LM powder presented significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity(OAC), emulsion activity (EA) and foam capacity (FC) as compared to wheat flour. Blending wheat flour with various levels of LM powder significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the functional properties of binary mixture systems. Protein, fat, fiber and ash contents of bread samples significantly increased with the addition of LM powder. No significant differences (≤ 0.05) were recorded in specific volume between control breads and those breads containing LM powder up to 2%. Breads fortified with LM powder contained higher values of essential amino acids than the limits of FAO/WHO pattern, with exception of lysine. Sensory evaluation results showed that bread samples with the addition of LM powder at levels 1–4% had high overall acceptability.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of our study are the lack of approved and professional programs about management, collection, harvesting, processing, marketing and consumption of edible insects; therefore, these results should be generalized implications for industry. This present study, therefore, provides useful data to support public health nutrition aimed at improving the nutritional health of populations through the promotion of bakery products enriched with LM powder.

Practical implications

The main findings of this study indicated that the addition of 1–4% of LM powder into wheat flour enhanced sensory and nutritional properties of produced breads.

Originality/value

It is concluded that the addition of LM powder improves the nutritional and sensorial properties of the produced bread when the wheat flour is substituted with 1–4% of LM powder.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Ayman M. EL‐Refaie, Z.Q. Zhu, Thomas M. Jahns and David Howe

Permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines equipped with fractional‐slot concentrated‐windings (FSCW) have been receiving considerable attention over the past few years, due…

Abstract

Purpose

Permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines equipped with fractional‐slot concentrated‐windings (FSCW) have been receiving considerable attention over the past few years, due to the fact that they have short end‐windings, a high‐slot fill factor, a high efficiency and power density, and good flux‐weakening and fault‐tolerance capabilities. A key design parameter for such machines is the phase winding inductance since this has a significant impact on the performance, as well as on the magnitude of any reluctance torque. The purpose of this paper is to describe a detailed investigation of the various components of the winding inductance in machines equipped with both overlapping and non‐overlapping windings and different slot/pole number combinations. It also examines the influence of key design parameters, which affect the inductance components, with particular reference to the inductances of machines in which all the teeth are wound and those in which only alternate teeth are wound.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes and compares various inductance components which result from different winding configurations.

Findings

It is shown that the main component of the winding inductance is the relatively large slot‐leakage component. Both analytical and finite element models are employed and predicted results are validated on several prototype machines.

Originality/value

Such a thorough investigation of the various inductance components for these type of machines has not been presented before. The paper will serve as a good reference for engineers and researchers designing PM machines equipped with FECW.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Ayman EL‐Refaie and Manoj Shah

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the performance of induction machines with fractional‐slot concentrated‐windings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the performance of induction machines with fractional‐slot concentrated‐windings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines induction machine performance with fractional‐slot concentrated windings using the standard distributed lap windings as reference. Four designs are compared and various performance tradeoffs highlighted. The first machine has integral‐slot distributed 2 slots/pole/phase lap winding and it serves as the reference winding. The second machine has a double‐layer 1/2 slot/pole/phase winding, a workhorse for brushless DC machines. The third machine has double‐layer 2/5 slot/pole/phase winding. Lastly, the fourth machine has single‐layer 2/5 slot/pole/phase windings. The comparison includes torque‐speed curves (including the effects of major space harmonic components), rotor bar losses, and ripple torque levels.

Findings

Based on the analysis results presented here, the traditional distributed lap winding is proven to be superior to FSCW in terms of torque production and rotor bar losses for induction machine applications. The 1/2 spp shows some promising results in terms of torque production, in addition to significant reduction and simplification of end turns with lower number of coils albeit with more turns/coil (12 slots vs 48 slots). The penalty is the additional rotor bar losses due to the 2nd and 4th harmonic mmf components. The 2/5 spp is not promising for torque production and should be avoided. The transient simulation results that simultaneously take into account the effects of all space harmonics and magnetic saturation showed comparable trends compared to the harmonic analysis results. It has also been shown that FSCW tend to have higher torque ripple compared to distributed windings.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper for the first time attempts to quantitatively address the tradeoffs involved in using FSCW in induction machines.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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