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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Hiroshi Asaoka, Tomoya Takahashi, Jiafei Chen, Aya Fujiwara, Masataka Watanabe and Fumiyuki Noro

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to respond to tasks from their own perspective. The authors investigated the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to respond to tasks from their own perspective. The authors investigated the effects of explicitness of viewpoint on performance of spontaneous level 2 perspective-taking skills in six- to eight-year-old children with ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted visual perspective-taking tasks with explicit and implicit instructions about the viewpoint to be used. Participants operated a toy car on a map while listening to the experimenter’s instructions. In the implicit condition, when the experimenter said “Turn right/left” at each intersection, the participants moved the car accordingly. Subsequently, in the explicit condition, the experimenter said “Look from the driver’s viewpoint and turn right/left” at each intersection.

Findings

In the implicit condition, the authors did not observe a clear developmental change in performance between six- and eight-year-old children in the ASD group. In contrast, performance in the ASD group improved under the explicit condition relative to that under the implicit condition.

Originality/value

The results suggest six- to eight-year-old children with ASD tend not to spontaneously use level 2 perspective-taking skills. Therefore, viewpoints should be explicitly instructed to children with ASD. In addition, it is also important to implement training to encourage spontaneous transitions from self-perspective to other-perspective under the implicit condition.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2012

Ken Kato, Kazunobu Yamauchi, Makoto Miyaji, Nakako Fujiwara, Kimiko Katsuyama, Hiroshi Amano, Santaro Kobayashi, Michio Naito, Yasunori Maki, Hirohisa Kawahara, Mitsuaki Maseki and Yoshio Senoo

This study seeks to investigate doctors' desire to change the hospital where they work to sustain higher quality care.

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate doctors' desire to change the hospital where they work to sustain higher quality care.

Design/methodology/approach

Self‐administered questionnaires were sent to doctors in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Data were analyzed using univariate and logistic regression analysis and recursive partitioning.

Findings

Factors related to doctors' desire to change hospitals, according to logistic regression, were interaction between working hours and satisfaction with the hospital, evaluation, local government hospitals versus private ones, small vs large hospitals, ophthalmology versus internal medicine, desire to continue working as a hospital doctor and age. Additionally, working hours were also found to be related, based on recursive partitioning.

Research limitations/implications

The response rate was low and sampling bias was observed – therefore results need careful interpretation. Also, because this was a cross‐sectional study, causal relationships could not be identified. Desire to change hospitals, but not actual behavior, was measured.

Practical implications

Efforts to prevent doctors from changing hospitals should include considering job satisfaction and workload, doctor evaluation methods, support for career progression and organizational management.

Originality/value

As the hospital doctor shortage in rural areas becomes more serious, exploring doctors' desire to leave their current hospital is meaningful for Japanese hospital managers and hospitals worldwide aiming to provide sustainable and higher quality care.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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