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This article addresses the claim, particularly popular in the 2000s and implicitly resting on a segmentation view of the labour market, that a flexible labour…
This article addresses the claim, particularly popular in the 2000s and implicitly resting on a segmentation view of the labour market, that a flexible labour market-driven immigration policy (within the EU as well as from outside), often associated to a ‘Canadian model’, would respond to the economic needs of continental European countries.
A comparative historical approach is applied, including analysis of historical series of unemployment and migration data and a qualitative analysis of secondary sources on Germany, Spain and Canada, selected as best representatives of different labour market and immigration regimes. The research asks to what extent, and how, immigration has been used as a ‘buffer’ for labour market uncertainty.
Against ideas of a ‘Canadian’ model advertised in Europe (e.g. Germany), the historical and quantitative analysis shows that Canada itself has moved from short-term labour market-driven immigration policies to more long-term approaches. In fact, there has been a stronger labour market-migration link in Spain, but not without problems,
The article is a small-N comparison of critical cases, that is most different labour market models. Major demographic and geographic differences exist between the three countries, which raises even more scepticism about the suitability of a Canadian model in Europe.
The policy implications are centred on the detected paradox of labour market-driven immigration policies: in order to be sustainable, they need to have a long-term orientation and involve some degree of social integration policies.
The article adds to comparative studies of migration policies through a stronger link to labour market analysis and in particular issues of uncertainty and segmentation.
Urban green spaces are valuable to residents for a variety of reasons and some degree of management is needed to ensure at least their preservation, if not enhancement, in…
Urban green spaces are valuable to residents for a variety of reasons and some degree of management is needed to ensure at least their preservation, if not enhancement, in a rapidly urbanising society. Intensification of the urban environment brings pressure upon the undeveloped spaces within a city and an understanding of the needs of residents is needed if green spaces are to be managed in alignment with their wishes, so that changes will be accepted. However, gaining such an understanding of the complex relationships between people and their environment is difficult. Constructs may exist that researcher, respondent, or both have not yet articulated. This paper sets out to address this issue.
The repertory grid method is described as an approach that addresses this problem by researcher and respondent collectively, creating a survey instrument, which the respondent then completes.
The repertory grid technique was applied in Zurich and revealed a surprisingly dominant anthropocentric attitude towards urban green spaces.
The universal anthropocentric perspective allows the interpretation that residents see Zurich essentially as a place for people and furthermore see green spaces as places for themselves to pursue their own interests.
Application of this technique, in the context of an exploratory study, simultaneously provides direction for further research and demonstrates its utility as a tool for planners and managers of urban green spaces.