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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

C. Zhang, Y. Huang, Y. Liu, S. Wang and X. Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to study the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallisation kinetics of pure polypropylene (PP), 1 kGy pre‐irradiated PP and 1 kGy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallisation kinetics of pure polypropylene (PP), 1 kGy pre‐irradiated PP and 1 kGy pre‐irradiated PP/syndiotactic 1,2‐polybutadiene (s‐1,2 PB) (90/10) blends by differential scanning calorimetry.

Design/methodology/approach

The Avrami equation, modified Avrami equation, Ozawa equation and the treatment by combining the Avrami and Ozawa equation were used to analyse the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallisation of various samples.

Findings

The s‐1,2 PB acted as a heterogeneous nucleation agent during the crystallisation of the PP/s‐1,2 PB blends and accelerated the crystallisation rate. The Avrami exponent n of the blends implied that the isothermal crystallisation kinetics of the blends followed a three‐dimensional growth via heterogeneous nucleation. The modified Avrami equation was limited to describe the nonisothermal crystallisation process of pure PP and 1 kGy pre‐irradiated PP, but it was successful for the blends. The treatment by combining the Avrami and Ozawa equation described appropriately the nonisothermal crystallisation process and obtained the kinetic parameter F(T) with specific physical meaning. The crystallisation activation energy for isothermal crystallisation and nonisothermal crystallisation of the blends was reduced due to the s‐1,2 PB acting as a heterogeneous nucleating agent during the crystallisation of the blends and accelerating the crystallisation rate.

Research limitations/implications

The Avrami equation, modified Avrami equation, Ozawa equation and the treatment by combining the Avrami and Ozawa equation were compared for analysis of the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallisation of samples. The crystallisation activation energy for isothermal crystallisation and nonisothermal crystallisation was also calculated according to the Arrhenius and the Kissinger method.

Practical implications

The fundamental research on the crystallisation properties of PP/s‐1,2‐PB blends is essential to understand the mutual effects of two components on their crystallisation mechanisms, facilitating to improve the mechanical properties of the final materials.

Originality/value

The isothermal and nonisothermal crystallisation behaviours of PP/s‐1,2 PB blends, especially pre‐irradiated PP/s‐1,2 PB blends, have not been studied systematically yet, though PP/s‐1,2 PB blends were promising materials in terms of both PP toughening and the application of s‐1,2 PB thermal plastic elastomer.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Zhifeng Huang, Xiaoyang Ma, Zemin Qiao, Shujuan Wang and Xinli Jing

This paper aims to disclose the evolution of pendulum hardness of two-component acrylic polyurethane coatings during the cure process and attempts to describe the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to disclose the evolution of pendulum hardness of two-component acrylic polyurethane coatings during the cure process and attempts to describe the quantitative relationship between pendulum hardness and curing time. These findings are helpful for the study of fast curing acrylic polyurethane coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

The pendulum hardness method was used to monitor the hardness of two-component acrylic polyurethane coatings during curing. The quantitative relationship between pendulum hardness and curing time can be obtained with Avrami equation.

Findings

The evolution of coating pendulum hardness can be divided into three stages. By using the Avrami equation that explained the influence of both the acid value and the curing temperature on the drying speed of hydroxyl acrylic resin, the evolution of coating pendulum hardness during curing can also be accurately described.

Research limitations/implications

It should be noted that the physical meaning of the Avrami exponent, n, is not yet clear.

Practical implications

The results are of great significance for the development of fast-curing hydroxyl-functional acrylic resins, with the potential to improve the drying speed of the coatings used in automotive refinish.

Originality/value

It is novel to divide the pendulum hardness into three stages, and, for the first time, the Avrami equation is utilized to describe the evolution of coating pendulum hardness during curing.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

J. Smirnova, L. Silva, B. Monasse, J‐M. Haudin and J‐L. Chenot

This paper sets out to show the feasibility of the genetic algorithm inverse method for the determination of the parameters of crystallization kinetics laws in isothermal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to show the feasibility of the genetic algorithm inverse method for the determination of the parameters of crystallization kinetics laws in isothermal and non‐isothermal conditions, using multiple experiments.

Design/methodology/approach

The mathematical model for crystallization kinetics determination and the numerical methods of its resolution are introduced. Crystallization kinetic parameters determined by approximate physical analysis and the inverse genetic algorithm method are presented. Injection molding simulations taking into account crystallization are performed using the finite element method.

Findings

It is necessary to perform the optimization on two parameters, transformed volume fraction and number of spherulites to obtain correct results. It is possible to use results from different samples, in spite of the dispersion of some values.

Research limitations/implications

Experimental data for isothermal and non‐isothermal conditions were used and obtained good results for the parameters of crystallization kinetics laws from which the evolutions of overall crystallization kinetics and crystalline microstructure were deduced. Nevertheless, the dispersion of the experimental data concerning the number of spherulites obtained with different samples is important. The evolution of the number of spherulites is required for the optimization to get correct results.

Practical implications

An important result of this work is that the genetic algorithm optimization can be applied to this problem where the experiments cannot be performed with a single sample and the experimental data for the number of spherulites have low precision. Even if only the crystallization kinetics was considered, the feasibility in molding simulation has been shown.

Originality/value

Simulation of crystallization in injection molding is very important for a later prediction of the end‐use properties.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Qin Sheng, Fred F. Farshad and Shangyu Duan

In this study, a three‐dimensional (3D) flow model is used to approximate the crystallinity gradients of slowly crystallizing polymers developed in the injection molding…

Abstract

In this study, a three‐dimensional (3D) flow model is used to approximate the crystallinity gradients of slowly crystallizing polymers developed in the injection molding process. A generalized second order parallel splitting formula is constructed to achieve both the accuracy and efficiency of the computation. Calculated values of flow‐wise (flow‐thickness plane) and width‐wise (width‐thickness plane) crystallinity distributions are obtained and compared with experimental results. The structure‐oriented simulation method developed is not only capable of describing moldability parameters, but is also able to predict the characteristics of ultimate properties of the final products.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Tao Yan, Liang Ma, Shuo Zhao and Enlin Yu

This study aims to focus on numerical simulation investigations of phase transformation during cooling of 55SiMnMo steel, which is commonly applied to improve mechanical…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on numerical simulation investigations of phase transformation during cooling of 55SiMnMo steel, which is commonly applied to improve mechanical properties.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model based on the finite element method (FEM) and the phase transformation kinetics model has been proposed to predict microstructure changes during continuous cooling of 55SiMnMo steel. This model can be employed to analyze the variation of austenite, special upper bainite and lump-like composite structure with cooling time at different cooling rates.

Finding

According to the continuous cooling experiments, when the cooling rate is lower than 0.1°C/s, the special upper bainite is the only transformation product which decreases with increasing cooling rate; when the cooling rate is above 0.5°C/s, the transformation products include special upper bainite and lump-like composite structure. Meanwhile, the results of continuous cooling experiment verified the correctness of this finite element model.

Originality/value

This model has a great value for proper controlling of the cooling process which can improve the quality of hollow drill steel and increase the service life of the final product.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

Łukasz Łach and Dmytro Svyetlichnyy

Some functional properties of engineering materials, i.e. physical, mechanical and thermal ones, depend directly on the microstructure, which is a result of processes…

Abstract

Purpose

Some functional properties of engineering materials, i.e. physical, mechanical and thermal ones, depend directly on the microstructure, which is a result of processes occurring in the material during the forming and thermomechanical processing. The proper microstructure can be obtained in many cases by the phase transformation. This phenomenon is one of the most important processes during hot forming and heat treatment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new comprehensive hybrid model for modeling diffusion phase transformations. A problem has been divided into several tasks and is carried out on several stages. The purpose of this stage is a development of the structure of a hybrid model, development of an algorithm used in the diffusion module and one-dimensional heat flow and diffusion modeling. Generally, the processes of phase transformations are studied well enough but there are not many tools for their complex simulations. The problems of phase transformation simulation are related to the proper consideration of diffusion, movement of phase boundaries and kinetics of transformation. The proposed new model at the final stage of development will take into account the varying grain growth rate, different shape of growing grains and will allow for proper modeling of heat flow and carbon diffusion during the transformation in many processes, where heating, annealing and cooling can be considered (e.g. homogenizing and normalizing).

Design/methodology/approach

One of the most suitable methods for modeling of microstructure evolution during the phase transformation is cellular automata (CA), while lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) suits for modeling of diffusion and heat flow. Then, the proposed new hybrid model is based on CA and LBM methods and uses high performing parallel computations.

Findings

The first simulation results obtained for one-dimensional modeling confirm the correctness of interaction between LBM and CA in common numerical solution and the possibility of using these methods for modeling of phase transformations. The advantages of the LBM method can be used for the simulation of heat flow and diffusion during the transformation taking into account the results obtained from the simulations. LBM creates completely new possibilities for modeling of phase transformations in combination with CA.

Practical implications

The studies are focused on diffusion phase transformations in solid state in condition of low cooling rate (e.g. transformation of austenite into ferrite and pearlite) and during the heating and annealing (e.g. transformation of the ferrite-pearlite structure into austenite, the alignment of carbon concentration in austenite and growth of austenite grains) in carbon steels within a wide range of carbon content. The paper presents the comprehensive modeling system, which can operate with the technological processes with phase transformation during heating, annealing or cooling.

Originality/value

A brief review of the modeling of phase transformations and a description of the structure of a new CA and LBM hybrid model and its modules are presented in the paper. In the first stage of model implementation, the one-dimensional LBM model of diffusion and heat flow was developed. The examples of simulation results for several variants of modeling with different boundary conditions are shown.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2018

Jingfu Liu, Behrooz Jalalahmadi, Y.B. Guo, Michael P. Sealy and Nathan Bolander

Additive manufacturing (AM) is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry due to several advantages and capabilities, including use of rapid prototyping, fabrication of…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry due to several advantages and capabilities, including use of rapid prototyping, fabrication of complex geometries, reduction of product development cycles and minimization of material waste. As metal AM becomes increasingly popular for aerospace and defense original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), a major barrier that remains is rapid qualification of components. Several potential defects (such as porosity, residual stress and microstructural inhomogeneity) occur during layer-by-layer processing. Current methods to qualify AM parts heavily rely on experimental testing, which is economically inefficient and technically insufficient to comprehensively evaluate components. Approaches for high fidelity qualification of AM parts are necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

This review summarizes the existing powder-based fusion computational models and their feasibility in AM processes through discrete aspects, including process and microstructure modeling.

Findings

Current progresses and challenges in high fidelity modeling of AM processes are presented.

Originality/value

Potential opportunities are discussed toward high-level assurance of AM component quality through a comprehensive computational tool.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2007

L.Q. Ma, X.Q. Yuan, S.H. Jiao, Z.Y. Liu, D. Wu and G.D. Wang

The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and flow stress of Nb‐bearing steels were investigated by means of isothermal single compression testing at temperatures of 850‐105…

Abstract

The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and flow stress of Nb‐bearing steels were investigated by means of isothermal single compression testing at temperatures of 850‐105° and at constant strain rate from 0.1 to 20s‐1 using a Gleeble 3800 thermo‐mechanical simulator in order to model the DRX processes and predict the flow stress during plate rolling. On the basis of the measured flow stress, a new model of DRX kinetics was proposed to calculate the volume fraction of dynamically recrystallized grains, which was a function of processing parameters such as deformation temperature, strain, strain rate, the initial austenite grain size and Nb content. The effect of deformation conditions was quantified by the Zener‐Hollomon parameter, in which the activation energy of deformation was expressed as a power function of Nb content. The critical strain was determined by using the method proposed by Jonas and co‐workers. It is shown that the ratio of the critical strain to the peak strain decreases with increasing Nb content, from which an empirical equation was developed. In addition, the influence of Nb content and deformation conditions on the steady state grain size was determined by fitting the experimental results to a linear relationship. Finally, the flow stress of Nb bearing steels was accurately predicted using a one‐internal‐variable evolution equation by taking Nb content as a parameter and including the influence of DRX. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical results confirmed that the modeling had a good accuracy to predict flow stresses during hot deformation.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Marco Baldan, Alexander Nikanorov and Bernard Nacke

Reliable modeling of induction hardening requires a multi-physical approach, which makes it time-consuming. In designing an induction hardening system, combining such…

Abstract

Purpose

Reliable modeling of induction hardening requires a multi-physical approach, which makes it time-consuming. In designing an induction hardening system, combining such model with an optimization technique allows managing a high number of design variables. However, this could lead to a tremendous overall computational cost. This paper aims to reduce the computational time of an optimal design problem by making use of multi-fidelity modeling and parallel computing.

Design/methodology/approach

In the multi-fidelity framework, the “high-fidelity” model couples the electromagnetic, thermal and metallurgical fields. It predicts the phase transformations during both the heating and cooling stages. The “low-fidelity” model is instead limited to the heating step. Its inaccuracy is counterbalanced by its cheapness, which makes it suitable for exploring the design space in optimization. Then, the use of co-Kriging allows merging information from different fidelity models and predicting good design candidates. Field evaluations of both models occur in parallel.

Findings

In the design of an induction heating system, the synergy between the “high-fidelity” and “low-fidelity” model, together with use of surrogates and parallel computing could reduce up to one order of magnitude the overall computational cost.

Practical implications

On one hand, multi-physical modeling of induction hardening implies a better understanding of the process, resulting in further potential process improvements. On the other hand, the optimization technique could be applied to many other computationally intensive real-life problems.

Originality/value

This paper highlights how parallel multi-fidelity optimization could be used in designing an induction hardening system.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Josef Valentin Ecker, Andreas Haider, Ivana Burzic, Axel Huber, Gerhard Eder and Sabine Hild

This papers aims to study the influence of water absorption on the mechanical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA) and PLA/Wood composites. Virgin PLA and PLA/Wood…

Abstract

Purpose

This papers aims to study the influence of water absorption on the mechanical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA) and PLA/Wood composites. Virgin PLA and PLA/Wood double-bone-shaped specimens were prepared by two methods: injection moulding and 3D printing. The results were compared to each other and showed the influence of the production method on the properties of the produced parts.

Design/methodology/approach

Morphology studies were done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from fracture surfaces of tensile and notched impact specimens of all samples. Tensile properties were analysed by the production and testing of dog-bone-shaped samples. Heat deflection temperature (HDT) was tested, as also was the crystallinity of the tested samples by differential scanning calorimetry.

Findings

The values for notched impact strength were higher upon water uptake in the case of injection-moulded specimens, which was not the case with 3D-printed specimens. Tensile properties of the specimens produced by both methods were reduced after water absorption tests. Values of the HDT were also lower after water absorption tests studied for both processing methods.

Originality/value

Morphology studies were done by SEM from fracture surfaces of tensile as well as notched impact specimens of injection-moulded and 3D-printed samples. The effect of water storage on various samples was tested. The two different production technologies were compared to each other owing to their influence of water storage. This study also dealt with NFC compounds and produced NFC composites and the influence of water storage on these samples.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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