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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Pedro Cabral Santiago Faria

This paper aims to elaborate on the concept of avoided emissions, as a topical issue in the carbon accounting debate, both in practice and in academia. It is a commentary…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to elaborate on the concept of avoided emissions, as a topical issue in the carbon accounting debate, both in practice and in academia. It is a commentary on the paper by Revellino (2019) who analyses an avoided emissions technology in the transport sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a commentary based on secondary data analysis.

Findings

This commentary reviews the history of quantification for avoided emissions and elaborates on three major challenges that project using “avoided emissions” face. This commentary is also a reflection on why avoided emissions calculations are needed in a world of transition, and how this leads to the concept being used and abused while being central to the building of new foundations.

Practical implications

The commentary flags a few areas that could be research focus areas in future.

Social implications

This paper can lead to changes in the public perception of “avoided emissions” and corporate claims around emission avoidance.

Originality/value

This commentary outlines clear avenues for research, asking notably to reflect on the acceptable uses and acceptable claims related to avoided emissions.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Daniel Rolph Schneider, Mislav Kirac and Andrea Hublin

The purpose of this paper is to examine a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from different waste management practices in Croatia. Energetic, environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from different waste management practices in Croatia. Energetic, environmental and economic benefits can be accomplished by utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) and landfill gas as fuel in industry and energy sector, which is emphasized in this paper. The paper gives an overview of measures for energy recovery from MSW and landfill gas that could be implemented in Croatia. These measures also represent measures for an additional GHG emission reduction by decreased use of fossil fuels.

Design/methodology/approach

A methodology used for emission calculation (kinetic model) is explained. Three different scenarios of GHG reduction in waste management were defined. Implementation of best available techniques in waste management is envisaged by cross‐sectoral impact and effect of respective measures. Findings –This paper gives maximum achievable potential of GHG emission reduction with defined measure implementation dynamics. It was calculated that around one million ton of CO2 can be avoided in 2020, which is 2.7 percent of projected GHG emissions in Croatia. The energy that could be recovered from waste (8.34 PJ in 2020) is relatively small in relation to the total final energy consumption in Croatia (about 3 percent).

Originality/value

The novelty of this work is achieved through integrated approach to GHG emission reduction and energy potential from MSW management in Croatia. The GHG reduction potentials are calculated by taking into account dependencies and interactions between the measures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Chunzeng Fan and Taoyuan Wei

Constructing a low-carbon agriculture (LCA) park is considered an effective means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Constructing a low-carbon agriculture (LCA) park is considered an effective means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of integrated low-carbon agricultural technologies based on evidence from a pilot LCA experiment in Shanghai, China, from 2008 to 2011.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrated low-carbon technologies in an agricultural park were adopted to reduce GHG emissions. Reduced emissions and net economic benefits were calculated by comparing emissions before and after the implementation of the experiment.

Findings

Results show that the low-carbon agricultural park experiment markedly reduced GHG emissions. This outcome can be attributed to the integrated technologies adopted in the experiment, including the reuse and recycle of resources, control of environmental pollution and GHG emissions and improvement of economic efficiency and social benefit. All the technologies adopted are already available and mature, thus indicating the great potential of LCA to reduce GHG emissions despite the lack of advanced technologies. However, supporting policies may be necessary to motivate private interests in LCA because of the considerable starting investments.

Originality/value

Previous macro-level and policy studies on LCA are based on knowledge from experimental studies, which typically specify environmental conditions to explore solely the effects of one low-carbon technology. Practically, integrating several low-carbon technologies in one experiment may be more effective, particularly for extensive agriculture, in developing countries. The effectiveness of integrated technologies is insufficiently discussed in the literature. Therefore, this study explores how effective integrated feasible LCA technologies can be in terms of both emission reduction and economic benefits based on the data obtained from an experiment in Shanghai, China.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 29 May 2012

Mark Brussel and Mark Zuidgeest

Purpose – This chapter reflects on the role of cycling in India, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, discusses and compares explanatory factors of cycling behaviour and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter reflects on the role of cycling in India, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, discusses and compares explanatory factors of cycling behaviour and provides three methods of spatial analysis that can feed into local transport policy and planning.

Approach – The chapter compares important relevant contextual issues and challenges and presents examples of ongoing research on three continents.

Findings – The findings are in the first instance methodological in nature. Methods have been developed to assess the effect of barriers on access by bicycle, to quantify the avoided carbon emission associated with cycling and to help plan a demand-based cycling network.

Practical implications – Three different spatial analysis methods are presented: the planning of new bicycle infrastructure, the evaluation of existing cycling in terms of avoided carbon emission and the role of the physical environment in levels of cycling accessibility. The methods can be easily replicated and integrated into transport policy and planning at the local level.

Social implications – Effective cycling-inclusive planning in developing countries is expected to lead to higher levels of cycling that positively affect people's welfare, health and the environment.

Value of chapter – The chapter affirms that a thorough understanding of physical, social, economic and cultural factors of the developing city context are important in effective cycling-inclusive planning. It provides three relatively simple and replicable methods that are considered particularly appropriate for data scarce developing cities.

Details

Cycling and Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-299-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Silvana Revellino

Most carbon accounting consists of valuing what has not happened; such absent entities and their materialisation through simulated calculations can enact political…

Abstract

Purpose

Most carbon accounting consists of valuing what has not happened; such absent entities and their materialisation through simulated calculations can enact political participation, however. By using Marres’s (2012) notion of an “experimental site of material politics”, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of simulated calculations of prevented carbon emissions in deploying environmental politics’ discourses. Here, such calculations become seductive forces for public engagement and help performing engaging spaces for supporting the diffusion of innovation technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis concerns a simulated calculative device developed by Autostrade, a motorway management firm, in its work to translate questions about capacity utilisation, through the fluidity of traffic, into reductions in CO2 emissions. These reductions took the form of a simulation that required an apparatus to be performed and involved alternative scenarios focussing on hypothetical rather than absolute CO2 reductions.

Findings

The Autostrade case highlights how simulated calculations of absent CO2 emissions participate in the construction of a collective experience by interfacing concerns that encompass the rationalities of the domestication of technological innovation and make motorway mobility a responsible and ac-countable action.

Practical implications

The paper shows how simulated and experimental calculations on absent carbon emissions act as mediators between public engagement and the deployment of environmental politics discourses. They both extend political participation and propagate and reproduce the trials, which, from time to time, challenge the enticement and forcefulness of a technological innovation.

Social implications

The paper suggests a different dimension of politics that relies on material politics. Rather than considering human centric discursive acts, it looks at the power of technical objects and their augmented calculative devices in engaging the public in environmental politics. This is where absence, which is made visible and materialised through simulations, deploys affordances that reframe power relationships.

Originality/value

This is the first case study that addresses the issue of the role of accounting calculation on absent carbon emissions in enabling innovation and engaging publics in environmental politics.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Melissa Kazemi Rad, David Riley, Somayeh Asadi and Parhum Delgoshaei

The purpose of this paper is to examine significant steps taken by the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) to account for both energy cost savings and greenhouse…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine significant steps taken by the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) to account for both energy cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction goals through strategic investments in energy conservation measures (ECMs) in campus buildings. Through an analysis of multiple years of investment in facility upgrades across the university, the impacts of ECMs of various types are characterized by building type. The standards and criteria for ECMs investments are also evaluated with the goal to develop a predictive tool to support decision making pertaining to an annual investment in a portfolio of ECMs that will maintain a trajectory to achieve both financial return on investment as well as GHG reduction goals.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is comprised of three main parts: analyzing the energy costs saving and GHG emissions reduction contribution of various building types in which ECMs were conducted, analyzing costs saving and GHG emissions reduction contribution of each ECM while considering the average annual investments made in them and estimating the impact of upgrading Penn State’s steam plants from firing a mixture of coal and natural gas to natural gas only on the GHG emissions.

Findings

These analyses help identify which types of buildings and ECMs would have larger savings and emissions reduction contributions. A calculator is also created to enable forecasting of costs saving and GHG emissions reduction of investment distribution strategy among ECMs. This study demonstrates that the calculator based on data from previous years will benefit decision makers in more wisely configuring the investment portfolio.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identical need to couple energy efficiency strategies coupled with the environmental impacts associated with different fossil fuel energy sources.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Marian Leimbach, Maryse Labriet, Markus Bonsch, Jan Philipp Dietrich, Amit Kanudia, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Alexander Popp and David Klein

Bioenergy is a key component of climate change mitigation strategies aiming at low stabilization. Its versatility and capacity to generate negative emissions when combined…

Abstract

Purpose

Bioenergy is a key component of climate change mitigation strategies aiming at low stabilization. Its versatility and capacity to generate negative emissions when combined with carbon capture and storage add degrees of freedom to the timing of emission reductions. This paper aims to explore the robustness of a bioenergy-based mitigation strategy by addressing several dimensions of uncertainty on biomass potential, bioenergy use and induced land use change emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

Different mitigation scenarios were explored by two different energy-economy optimization models coupled to the same land use model, which provides a common basis for the second generation bioenergy dynamics in the two energy-economy models.

Findings

Using bioenergy is found to be a robust mitigation strategy as demonstrated by high biomass shares in primary energy demand in both models and in all mitigation scenarios.

Practical implications

A variety of possible storylines about future uses of biomass exist. The comparison of the technology choices preferred by the applied models helps understand how future emission reductions can be achieved under alternative storylines.

Originality/value

The presented comparison-based assessment goes beyond other comparison studies because both energy-economy models are coupled to the same land use model.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Kelly A. Stevens, Greg DeAngelo and Shenita Brice

The paper is an excerpt from a more comprehensive study by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection comparing the technical elements of offset projects in…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is an excerpt from a more comprehensive study by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection comparing the technical elements of offset projects in forestry, agriculture, and waste management, as well as some miscellaneous project types. The authors compare and contrast design elements of three specific offset projects: afforestation/reforestation, manure management, and landfill gas capture. The technical review for each offset project is concluded with a look at the potential applicability for that project in Florida in the context of the protocols evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

Offset projects that may be employed in Florida are first broken up into comparable design elements specific to the selected offset project type. Focusing on the design elements, a discussion of the similarities and differences among the protocols for each offset project is presented. Each section begins with general findings then moves on to assessments of the detailed design elements. Finally, the project's general applicability to Florida is considered, highlighting specific strengths of particular protocols from the analysis of the design elements.

Findings

Protocols tend to vary from highly specific requirements to a more general set of recommendations. Interestingly, no one program's set of protocols is the most opportunistic for Florida, but rather various protocols may have distinctive strengths depending on the project type.

Originality/value

Many comparative studies of offset protocols evaluate protocols in the context of program‐level policies. This study uniquely values the technical details in the protocols and does not consider policy or program‐level issues.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2017

David Hone

Abstract

Details

Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2009

Marc A. Rosen

Efforts to address climate change need to focus on curtailing carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and these efforts need to focus in large part on energy processes and…

Abstract

Purpose

Efforts to address climate change need to focus on curtailing carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and these efforts need to focus in large part on energy processes and activities, given the significant contributions to carbon emissions of the energy sectors of countries. This paper aims to describe key energy‐related steps needed to address climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

The key energy‐related steps needed to address climate change are identified, discussed and illustrated.

Findings

Several key energy‐related steps are identified that need to be addressed to combat climate change. These include: use non‐carbon‐based energy sources; use non‐carbon‐based energy carriers and/or energy carriers that facilitate the use of non‐carbon‐based energy sources; remove and sequester carbon‐based atmospheric emissions; and increase efficiency.

Originality/value

Given the major contributions of energy processes to climate change, it is anticipated that initiatives to address these steps will allow major advances to be achieved regarding addressing greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The key energy‐related steps constitute a logical and pragmatic approach that provides a coherent overall structure to guide efforts to address climate change. It is expected that addressing these steps should assist broader efforts to achieve sustainable development.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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