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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Enrique Soriano Heras, Fernando Blaya Haro, José María de Agustín del Burgo and Manuel Enrique Islán Marcos

The purpose of this paper is to present a solution for the levelling plate of fused deposition modelling (FDM) additive manufacturing (AM) systems. This automatic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a solution for the levelling plate of fused deposition modelling (FDM) additive manufacturing (AM) systems. This automatic levelling system is presented as an evolution of actual systems, which uses a new ultrasound sensing system.

Design/methodology/approach

After obtaining a prototype, different tests were conducted for getting a system which solves the level plate problem and can be mounted in any FDM AM machine. Several benchmark models were obtained and compared with current equipment concepts for the validity of the product.

Findings

All tests were performed with high accuracy, enabling the production of geometries that could not have been achieved without this novel system.

Practical implications

This development will enable experienced users to set aside the problems of calibration and focus on the purpose of this type of machines, making prototypes.

Originality/value

A system architecture has been developed and integrated into an open hardware AM system, allowing real-time adjustment of the plate during each layer, thus eliminating the need of levelling the plate, allowing to achieve easier printing, and without increasing the cost significantly.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Yuezong Wang, Zhaodong Wang, Mengfei Guo and Xin Zhang

The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic leveling method for a printing platform based on a three-point coordinate feedback. The proposed method is used in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic leveling method for a printing platform based on a three-point coordinate feedback. The proposed method is used in fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing systems. The coordinate error of the leveled plane is constrained to within  ± 0.2 mm, which is less than the printed layer thickness.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the model of the forward and inverse solutions of the parallel arm is obtained based on the principles of vector algebra. Second, the automatic leveling mechanism for collecting the z-coordinate is designed. The best position of the virtual origin plane is obtained by comparing the z-coordinates of the test points. Finally, after making multiple adjustments through a closed-loop z-coordinate feedback, the parallelism of the printing plane and the virtual origin plane is limited to an effective range.

Findings

The experimental results show that after three leveling attempts, the z-coordinate of the test points can be constrained to within  ± 0.2 mm, which shows that this method can effectively achieve automatic leveling in a delta three-dimensional (3D) printer.

Originality/value

This study presents a novel and distinctive delta 3D printer leveling system by designing a leveling mechanism and a leveling algorithm. The method uses a closed-loop feedback mode to make the leveling process simple, convenient and efficient without requiring major changes to the printer. The error after leveling is less than the printed layer thickness, which fully guarantees the accuracy of the leveling process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Yuezong Wang, Jinghui Liu, Mengfei Guo and LiuQIan Wang

A three-dimensional (3D) printing error simulation approach is proposed to analyze the influence of tilted vertical beams on the 3D printing accuracy. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

A three-dimensional (3D) printing error simulation approach is proposed to analyze the influence of tilted vertical beams on the 3D printing accuracy. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of such errors on printing accuracy and printing quality for delta-robot 3D printer.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the kinematic model of a delta-robot 3D printer with an ideal geometric structure is proposed by using vector analysis. Then, the normal kinematic model of a nonideal delta-robot 3D robot with tilted vertical beams is derived based on the above ideal kinematic model. Finally, a 3D printing error simulation approach is proposed to analyze the influence of tilted vertical beams on the 3D printing accuracy.

Findings

The results show that tilted vertical beams can indeed cause 3D printing errors and further influence the 3D printing quality of the final products and that the 3D printing errors of tilted vertical beams are related to the rotation angles of the tilted vertical beams. The larger the rotation angles of the tilted vertical beams are, the greater the geometric deformations of the printed structures.

Originality/value

Three vertical beams and six horizontal beams constitute the supporting parts of the frame of a delta-robot 3D printer. In this paper, the orientations of tilted vertical beams are shown to have a significant influence on 3D printing accuracy. However, the effect of tilted vertical beams on 3D printing accuracy is difficult to capture by instruments. To reveal the 3D printing error mechanisms under the condition of tilted vertical beams, the error generation mechanism and the quantitative influence of tilted vertical beams on 3D printing accuracy are studied by simulating the parallel motion mechanism of a delta-robot 3D printer with tilted vertical beams.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Carola Esposito Corcione, Francesco Montagna, Antonio Greco, Antonio Licciulli and Alfonso Maffezzoli

In this work, the production of ceramic moulds for aluminium casting using a stereolithographic apparatus (SLA) is presented.

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1368

Abstract

Purpose

In this work, the production of ceramic moulds for aluminium casting using a stereolithographic apparatus (SLA) is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Suspensions of silica powders in a photoreactive resin were used in a standard SLA equipment in order to build green parts. SLA, SLA‐250 (3D System, Valencia, CA) was modified in order to fabricate a ceramic green parts.

Findings

A characterization of mechanical properties of the material samples was performed. Finally, moulds for aluminium casting were obtained either using the stereolithographic part as a green mould, either by pyrolisis of the organic binder and subsequent sintering at high temperature.

Research limitations/implications

Future investigations will be devoted to optimise the process and the mechanical performances of the sintered parts, improving the rheological properties of suspensions and reducing the building time.

Originality/value

This is a novel work on the production of ceramic moulds for aluminium casting using a SLA.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1958

‘THE most interesting years of my industrial life’ is the way the writer of this column would describe the three and a half years of office as editor of Time and Motion Study.

Abstract

‘THE most interesting years of my industrial life’ is the way the writer of this column would describe the three and a half years of office as editor of Time and Motion Study.

Details

Work Study, vol. 7 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

James I. Novak and Jonathon O’Neill

This paper aims to present new qualitative and quantitative data about the recently released “BigRep ONE” 3 D printer led by the design of a one-off customized stool.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present new qualitative and quantitative data about the recently released “BigRep ONE” 3 D printer led by the design of a one-off customized stool.

Design/methodology/approach

A design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) framework was adopted, with simulation data iteratively informing the final design.

Findings

Process parameters can vary manufacturing costs of a stool by over AU$1,000 and vary print time by over 100 h. Following simulation, designers can use the knowledge to inform iteration, with a second variation of the design being approximately 50 per cent cheaper and approximately 50 per cent faster to manufacture. Metrology data reveal a tolerance = 0.342 per cent in overall dimensions, and surface roughness data are presented for a 0.5 mm layer height.

Research limitations/implications

Led by design, this study did not seek to explore the full gamut of settings available in slicing software, focusing predominantly on nozzle diameter, layer height and number of walls alongside the recommended settings from BigRep. The study reveals numerous areas for future research, including more technical studies.

Practical implications

When knowledge and techniques from desktop 3 D printing are scaled up to dimensions measuring in meters, new opportunities and challenges are presented for design engineers. Print times and material costs in particular are scaled up significantly, and this study provides numerous considerations for research centers, 3 D printing bureaus and manufacturers considering large-scale fused filament fabrication manufacturing.

Originality/value

This is the first peer-reviewed study involving the BigRep ONE, and new knowledge is presented about the practical application of the printer through a design-led project. Important relationships between material volume/cost and print time are valuable for early adopters.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Deepak B B V L and Pritpal Singh

In the previous decade, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have turned into a subject of enthusiasm for some exploration associations. UAVs are discovering applications in…

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1686

Abstract

Purpose

In the previous decade, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have turned into a subject of enthusiasm for some exploration associations. UAVs are discovering applications in different regions going from military applications to activity reconnaissance. The purpose of this paper is to overview a particular sort of UAV called quadrotor or quadcopter.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper includes the dynamic models of a quadrotor and the distinctive model-reliant and model-autonomous control systems and their correlation.

Findings

In the present time, focus has moved to outlining autonomous quadrotors. Ultimately, the paper examines the potential applications of quadrotors and their part in multi-operators frameworks.

Originality/value

This investigation deals with the review on various quadrotors, their applications and motion control strategies.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Harm-Jan Steenhuis and Leon Pretorius

The purpose of this paper is to explore what underlies the development of the consumer 3D printing industry and gain insight into future developments and its potentially…

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2884

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore what underlies the development of the consumer 3D printing industry and gain insight into future developments and its potentially disruptive impact on the existing manufacturing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of approaches was followed. Initially a consumer 3D printer was purchased to gain first-hand experience as part of a practical research case study. Results were discussed with manufacturers and additional information was sought, and triangulated, via a survey and an exploratory bibliometric study.

Findings

Many characteristics are in place to identify consumer 3D printing as a potential disruptive technology for the manufacturing industry. For example, the cost of consumer 3D printing is lower than for traditional manufacturing. However, the current adoption rate is low and the user friendliness and technological capabilities need to improve.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is the exploratory nature of the study which does not allow generalizations.

Practical implications

If developments and adoption patterns continue, then traditional manufacturing industries, distribution channels and the transportation sector may become threatened.

Social implications

Technological advances in consumer manufacturing can potentially threaten several economic sectors, which can lead to loss of jobs and affect budgets of states of countries that depend on sales tax.

Originality/value

One of the first studies to employ experiments in combination with other methods to gain insight into adoption patterns and the disruptive nature of consumer 3D printers specifically, rather than industrial 3D printers or new business models as a result of 3D printing technology.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Dongmin Li, Guofang Ma and Jia Li

It is essential to level the drilling platform across which a drilling robot travels in a slant underground coal mine tunnel to ensure smooth operation of the drill rod…

Abstract

Purpose

It is essential to level the drilling platform across which a drilling robot travels in a slant underground coal mine tunnel to ensure smooth operation of the drill rod. However, existing leveling methods do not provide dynamic performance under the drilling conditions of the underground coal mine. A four-point dynamic leveling algorithm is presented in this paper based on the platform attitude and support rod displacement (DLAAD). An experimental drilling robot demonstrates its dynamic leveling capability and ability to ensure smooth drill rod operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The attitude coordinate of the drilling robot is established according to its structure. A six-axis combined sensor is adopted to detect the platform attitude, thus revealing the three-axis Euler angles. The support rod displacement values are continuously detected by laser displacement sensors to obtain the displacement increment of each support rod as needed. The drilling robot is leveled according to the current support rod displacement and three-dimensional (3 D) attitude detected by the six-axis combined sensor dynamically.

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the DLAAD algorithm is correct and effectively levels the drilling platform dynamically. It can thus provide essential support in resolving drill rod sticking problems during actual underground coal mine drilling operations.

Practical implications

The DLAAD algorithm supports smooth drill rod operations in underground coal mines, which greatly enhances safety, reduces power consumption, and minimizes cost. The approach proposed here thus represents considerable benefits in terms of coal mine production and shows notable potential for application in similar fields.

Originality/value

The novel DLAAD algorithm and leveling control method are the key contributions of this work, they provide dynamical 3 D leveling and help to resolve drill rod sticking problems.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1958

WHERE are we going? The aim is to double our standard of living in the next 25 years and, as Sir Alexander Fleck, K.B.E., Chairman of Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., so…

Abstract

WHERE are we going? The aim is to double our standard of living in the next 25 years and, as Sir Alexander Fleck, K.B.E., Chairman of Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., so aptly staled recently, ‘The man who knows where he is going is the one who is most likely to arrive.’ One might venture to expand this statement by adding that he is still more likely to arrive if the cluttering debris of inefficient methods and movements are cleared away.

Details

Work Study, vol. 7 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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