The performance of parts produced by fused filament fabrication is directly related to the printing conditions and to the rheological phenomena inherent to the process…
The performance of parts produced by fused filament fabrication is directly related to the printing conditions and to the rheological phenomena inherent to the process, specifically the bonding between adjacent extruded paths/raster. This paper aims to study the influence of a set of printing conditions and parameters, namely, envelope temperature, extrusion temperature, forced cooling and extrusion rate, on the parts performance.
The influence of these parameters is evaluated by printing a set of test specimens that are morphologically characterized and mechanically tested. At the morphological level, the external dimensions and the voids content of the printed specimens are evaluated. The bonding quality between adjacent extruded paths is assessed through the mechanical performance of test specimens, subjected to tensile loads. These specimens are printed with all raster oriented at 90º relative to the tensile axis.
The best performance, resulting from a compromise between surface quality, dimensional accuracy and mechanical performance, is achieved with a heated printing environment and with no use of forced cooling. In addition, for all the conditions tested, the highest dimensional accuracy is achieved in dimensions defined in the printing plane.
This work provides a relevant result as the majority of the current printers comes without enclosure or misses the heating and envelope temperature control systems, which proved to be one of the most influential process parameter.
Health care institutions in many Western countries have developed preoperative testing and assessment guidelines to improve surgical outcomes and reduce cost of surgical…
Health care institutions in many Western countries have developed preoperative testing and assessment guidelines to improve surgical outcomes and reduce cost of surgical care. The aims of this chapter are to (1) summarize the literature on the effect of preoperative testing on clinical outcomes, efficiency, and cost; and (2) to compare preoperative testing guidelines developed in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
We reviewed the literature from 1975 to 2014 for studies and preoperative testing guidelines.
We identified 29 empirical studies and 8 country-specific guidelines for review. Most studies indicate that preoperative testing is overused and comes at a high cost. Guidelines are tied to payment only in one country studied. This is the most recent review of the literature on preoperative testing and assessment with a focus on quality of care, efficiency, and cost outcomes. In addition, this chapter provides an international comparison of preoperative guidelines.
With the increasing prevalence of awards for reporting fraudulent activity, it is important to learn if there are unintended consequences associated with the language offering such awards. Aside from issues regarding submitting unsubstantiated claims of fraud to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Section 922 of the Dodd–Frank Act may inadvertently encourage would-be whistleblowers to delay reporting fraud. Potential whistleblowers may choose to delay reporting due to the consideration of alternatives to external reporting, in a misguided attempt to increase the size of an award, or due to their ethical stance on the issues. Using a three-stage mixed methods (experiment, open-ended interviews, and experiment) approach, this study provides evidence that increased knowledge of statutes involving external whistleblowing may result in reporting delays. The data suggest that despite statements from the SEC forbidding this, managers may choose to delay reporting when under the threshold necessary to receive an award. In such a manner, managers may be allowing the fraud to grow to a necessary perceived level over time. As might be expected, the accountants in this study were more cautious, checking to see if internal reporting worked first. Of particular note, 16 individuals indicated that they would never report, with the motivation apparently driven by fear of job loss and/or retaliation. Lastly, the intention to delay or speed up reporting may be very different based on the perception of ethics involved in the decision.
Mary V. Alfred, Ph.D. is an associate dean for Research and Faculty Affairs and professor of Adult Education and Human Resource Development in the College of Education and Human Development at Texas A&M University. Her research interests include learning and development among women of the African Diaspora, socio-cultural contexts of immigration, welfare reform and women's economic development, and issues of equity and social justice in higher education and in the workplace. She received her Ph.D. in Educational Administration with a focus in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Leadership from the University of Texas at Austin.
The second annual conference of the Research Alliance of Fashion and Textiles (RAFT), hosted by the Department of Clothing Design and Technology of Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU), took place in Manchester in June.