In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially‐related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication…
In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially‐related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication theory involving supervisor‐subordinate communication, contingency ideas involving use of coaching/directive vs counselling/participative leader communication styles, and leader‐member exchange (LMX) theory from the management literature. LMX suggests that supervisors may afford differing treatment, and thus possibly use different communications tactics, with subordinates in higherquality exchange relationships than with those in lower‐quality relationships. This literature, however, leaves unresolved whether supervisors should treat employees differently. In contrast, much of the communication literature has emphasised development of “best” practices which, presumably, should be used with all employees. In this research the authors consider whether there are consistencies between leader communication practices and the perceived quality of the leader‐member exchange. They report evidence that employees perceive differences, especially in the level of participation‐related communication, depending upon whether they believe they are in a higher‐ or lower‐quality LMX relationship. Moreover, they find weak evidence for congruence between supervisor and subordinate perceptions of the quality of the exchange and no significant evidence that similarity of the dyad influences the quality of the exchange.
The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by…
The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by Ford and Baucus (1987). In this study, we adapted a Ford and Baucus model to examine 25 organizations in an area of economic downturn. Managerial perceptions of the business environment were related to internal and external organizational responses. Findings were interpreted as supporting the portion of the model dealing with active responses. Logical relationships between variables were observed. Moreover, a series of linkages was suggested. While the model shows distinct categories of responses, an important finding of this research is that firms' responses could not be characterized as falling exclusively into any one specific category as predicted by the model. Instead, we found complex networks of internal and external strategies.
This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally…
This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally considered to perform boundary‐spanning functions, make more use of external networking than do the associate deans, who are their subordinates. We examine the relationship between accuracy in perceiving a network and influence in the network. Finally, we consider the relationship between reports of networking outside the sample and influence within the sample. We find support for our first two propositions and raise several issues related to our final one.
Seeks to conduct serious academic study of the Generation X phenomenon.
Considers how the literature (primarily the popular press) has viewed the contrast between Generation X and its predecessor, the Baby Boomer generation. Uses Fey's acceptance of others scale to consider what differences may exist between these individuals and those who preceded them.
The popular literature and anecdotal evidence from practicing managers hold that the impact of a new, radically different generation, often referred to as Generation X, is just now beginning to be felt in US organizations as well as in society as a whole. Many observations and informal reports from practicing managers describe how different the “new breed” of employees is and how difficult they are to manage. Finds that issues of trust and independence surface repeatedly. Interprets the results as providing some evidence that generational differences may exist.
Considerable future research will be required to clarify the extensiveness of the differences and their significance.
Considers the impact of a radically different generation on US organizations and on society as a whole.
Examines the behaviour of hotel employees who, even when they say they are “satisfied”, move from job to job for reasons unrelated to that “satisfaction”. Suggests that an…
Examines the behaviour of hotel employees who, even when they say they are “satisfied”, move from job to job for reasons unrelated to that “satisfaction”. Suggests that an important reason for leaving jobs is that such movement may represent an important way to “get ahead”. Reports on a study which is a preliminary investigation of what is described as a “hobo phenomenon” in the hotel sector. Explains that limited longitudinal data (over eight months), were collected and analysed; and implications were pursued through in‐depth interviews with hotel employees. Results suggest that the hobo phenomenon may have potential as an explanatory variable in voluntary turnover research in the hotel sector. Discusses the implications, emphasizing the need to consider employee perceptions of promotion opportunities, and specifically the importance of considering promotion opportunities separate from promotion fairness, a factor neglected in current job satisfaction measures.
Traditionally, entrepreneurs and small businesses have faced difficulties when competing with entrenched firms for customers and expanding into global markets. The World…
Traditionally, entrepreneurs and small businesses have faced difficulties when competing with entrenched firms for customers and expanding into global markets. The World Wide Web (WWW) is one approach to overcoming obstacles by giving organizations a direct connection to potential customers and suppliers on a global level. However, complex technology, security, and reliability present significant challenges to the entrepreneur or small business owner about to enter the e‐business arena. Difficulties are especially notable when the business operates in a non‐Web‐related field or when it has relatively few individuals with IT (information technology)/Web experience. Facing these challenges alone by hiring or developing an in‐house technology staff and building a support infrastructure is costly and may be risky. An alternative, contracting for Web‐based services from an application service provider (ASP), effectively reduces cost and risk while preserving the competitive advantage of the entrepreneurial firm. This paper describes the use of the ASP concept to allow an entrepreneurial firm to compete effectively in the global market.