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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Hedayet Chowdhury, Walter Wodchis and Audrey Laporte

The purpose of this paper is to present a productivity measure for hospital services in Ontario.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a productivity measure for hospital services in Ontario.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) to assess the efficiency of hospital services in Ontario, Canada, over the period 2003‐2006. The MPI was decomposed into efficiency change and technological change. Efficiency change was further decomposed into pure efficiency change and scale efficiency change. A bootstrapping technique was also used to obtain confidence intervals for the output oriented MPI and its decompositions.

Findings

By estimating confidence intervals it was found that a large number of hospitals did not achieve significant progress in terms of productivity. By taking geometric means of estimates for all years it was observed that while overall productivity and efficiency of hospitals in Ontario declined during the study period, technological progress increased at a rate of 5.95 percent on average.

Practical implications

The present study helps to understand the productivity and technological change and change in technical efficiency in this vital sector of the economy, which is important for policy making identifying improvement opportunities in resource allocation. It was observed that Ontario hospitals did not improve the efficiency with which they employed their inputs (i.e. staff and supplies) over the study period; they did achieve gains through application of technologies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a thorough study on productivity growth of health care services in Ontario using a non‐parametric framework with bootstrapping. It also provides a robust measurement and analysis of the contributions of technology, size of operation and use of inputs to the performance of hospitals in Ontario.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 60 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Dean Elmuti

Managing cultural diversity in the workplace and attempts to abolish affirmative action are emerging as some of the most important issues facing American business in the…

Abstract

Managing cultural diversity in the workplace and attempts to abolish affirmative action are emerging as some of the most important issues facing American business in the 90s. The relationship between affirmative action and diversity may start in their definitions. Affirmative action was born during the Civil Rights Movement in an effort to reverse the effects of generations of racial discrimination (the concept and the laws which governed it broadened over the years to include women and other traditionally disadvantaged groups). It is federally mandated law to combat discrimination. Diversity on the other hand, is an organisational effort that aims to modify organisation standards, procedures, and management practices that hinder creativity, productivity, and advancement of all employees.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 15 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Salim Mezaache, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Virginie Laporte, Daniela Rojas Castro, Patrizia Carrieri and Perrine Roux

People who inject drugs (PWID) face multiple health problems, including infectious diseases and drug overdoses. Applying syndemic and risk environment frameworks, this…

Abstract

Purpose

People who inject drugs (PWID) face multiple health problems, including infectious diseases and drug overdoses. Applying syndemic and risk environment frameworks, this paper aims to examine the co-occurrence and clustering of drug-related harms and their association with incarceration experience with or without in-prison drug injection.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 among 557 active opioid injectors. Self-reported data were collected through face-to-face or online questionnaires. They distinguished three harm categories, namely, viral infections, bacterial infections and overdoses, and built an index variable by summing the number of harm categories experienced, yielding a score from 0 to 3. Association between incarceration experience and co-occurrence of harms was modelled using a multinomial logistic regression.

Findings

Of the 557 participants, 30% reported lifetime experience of drug-related viral infection, 46% bacterial infection and 22% drug overdose. Multinomial logistic models showed that those who injected drugs during incarceration were more likely to report two (aOR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.03–5.36) and three (aOR = 9.72, 95% CI: 3.23–29.22) harm categories than those who had never been incarcerated. They were also more likely to report three harm categories than formerly incarcerated respondents who did not inject drugs in prison (aOR = 5.14, 95% CI: 1.71–15.48).

Originality/value

This study provides insights of the syndemic nature of drug-related harms and highlights that drug injection during incarceration is associated with co-occurring harms. Public health interventions and policy changes are needed to limit the deleterious impact of prison on PWID.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1954

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Abstract

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Wendy Diamond and Andy Kivel

Not since the Great Depression of the 1930s have the activities of individual corporations come under as much scrutiny as they have over the past decade. With daily…

Abstract

Not since the Great Depression of the 1930s have the activities of individual corporations come under as much scrutiny as they have over the past decade. With daily headlines about the savings and loan crisis, insider trading, layoffs and plant closures, green marketing, ingredient labeling practices, and influence‐peddling political contributions, the new watchwords in the business world are ethics, accountability, and social responsibility.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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