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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Audrey J. Murrell

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the impact of persistent racial bias, discrimination and racial violence is facilitated by otherwise well-intentioned…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the impact of persistent racial bias, discrimination and racial violence is facilitated by otherwise well-intentioned individuals who fail to act or intercede. Utilizing the aversive racism framework, the need to move beyond awareness raising to facilitate behavioral changes is discussed. Examining the unique lens provided by the aversive racism framework and existing research, the bystander effect provides important insights on recent acts of racial violence such as the murder of Mr. George Floyd. Some promise is shown by the work on effective bystander behavior training and highlights the need for shared responsibility in preventing the outcomes of racial violence and discrimination to create meaningful and long-lasting social change.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses literature based on the aversive racism framework together with the literature on the bystander effect to understand the factors, conditions and consequences for lack of intervention when the victim is African American. This paper also provides evidence and theory-based recommendations for strategies to change passive bystanders into active allies.

Findings

The use of the aversive racism framework provides a powerful lens to help explain the inconsistencies in the bystander effect based on the race of the victim. The implications for intervention models point to the need for behavioral and competency-based approaches that have been shown to provide meaningful change.

Practical implications

Several different approaches to address incidents of racial aggression and violence have been developed in the past. However, given the principles of aversive racism, a unique approach that considers the inconsistencies between self-perceptions and actions is needed. This sets a new agenda for future research and meaningful behavioral intervention programs that seek to equip bystanders to intercede in the future.

Social implications

The need to address and provide effective strategies to reduce the incidence of racial aggression and violence have wide-ranging benefits for individuals, communities and society.

Originality/value

By connecting the aversive racism framework to the bystander effect, the need for different models for developing responsive and active bystanders can be more effectively outlined.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Nisha Nair, Deborah Cain Good and Audrey J. Murrell

Given the nascent stage of research on microaggressions, the study is an attempt to better understand the experience of microaggressions and examine it from the point of…

1419

Abstract

Purpose

Given the nascent stage of research on microaggressions, the study is an attempt to better understand the experience of microaggressions and examine it from the point of view of different marginalized minority identities. The purpose of this paper is to report on the subjective experience of microaggressions from the lenses of gender, race, religion and sexual orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore how microaggressions are experienced by different identities, the authors conducted four focus group studies with university students at a prominent Midwestern university. Each focus group focused on the experience of microaggressions for a particular identity group.

Findings

The authors discuss the nature and forms of exclusion that occur through microaggressions, and offer six microaggression themes that emerged as common across the marginalized identities studied. The authors add to the microaggression taxonomy and highlight the role of repetition in how microaggressions are perceived. The authors also discuss intersectional microaggressions.

Originality/value

While various studies have focused on reporting microaggression themes with regard to singular identities, this study is potentially the first that explores microaggression themes across different marginalized identities. The findings highlight novel forms of microaggressions such as the revealing or making visible of marginalized identities, and microaggressions emanating from within a minority group directed at other members within the same identity group, what the authors call as in-group microaggressions. The authors highlight and point to the need for more work on intersectional microaggressions.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Feibo Shao, Audrey J. Murrell, Xiaoping Zhao, Ke Zhang and Timothy A. Hart

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR) co-exist within many firms. Yet, without understanding how CSR and CSIR are related, our…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR) co-exist within many firms. Yet, without understanding how CSR and CSIR are related, our knowledge of these concepts is incomplete. This study initiatively explores four relationships between prior CSR/CSIR and subsequent CSR/CSIR.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the KLD database as the source of measures on CSR and CSIR. The final sample contains 1,820 firms and 14,420 firm-year observations from 1991 to 2013. The Arellano—Bond GMM estimator is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical analyses yield the following results: (1) a positive relationship between prior CSR and subsequent CSR, (2) a negative relationship between prior CSR and subsequent CSIR, (3) a positive relationship between prior CSIR and subsequent CSR and (4) a positive relationship between prior CSIR and subsequent CSIR.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides comprehensive evidence of the dynamic relationships between CSR and CSIR by incorporating multiple relationships between these variables into a single study. It also identifies key contexts that shape these relationships and identifies several promising areas of further inquiry.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the dynamic CSR – CSIR relationships in a single study. Most previous studies investigate either CSR or CSIR; few studies have incorporated them into one study.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Audrey J. Murrell and Thomas J. Zagenczyk

The purpose of this paper is to understand better the gendered nature of role model status within organizations. The paper aims to argue that women require organizational…

1554

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand better the gendered nature of role model status within organizations. The paper aims to argue that women require organizational legitimacy to be perceived as a role model, whereas men rely primarily on the strength of social ties within their friendship networks.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study of admissions department employees at a large eastern university within the USA was conducted. Using a social network approach, participants were asked to identify advice, friendship and role model relationships and provide information about awards and recognition received from the organization.

Findings

The results showed that, in order to be perceived as a role model, females needed to give (but not ask for) advice, earn organizational rewards, hold leadership positions in the organization, and maintain strong ties with other employees. Males only had to have a number of friendship or advice ties to be seen as a role model.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are consistent with the idea that females need to establish formal organizational status or legitimacy (e.g. leadership roles, rewards) in order to be perceived as a role model. In addition, balancing advice‐giving versus advice‐seeking is more important for female compared with male role models.

Originality/value

This paper examines the concept of role modeling using a social network analysis, thus providing new insight about the impact of advice and friendship network centrality on role model status in organizations.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Thomas J. Zagenczyk, Audrey J. Murrell and Ray Gibney

The aim of this article is to examine how office designs influence social capital or the value inherent in relationships. More specifically, this article attempts to…

1596

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to examine how office designs influence social capital or the value inherent in relationships. More specifically, this article attempts to better understand the level to which the value of social capital accrues, either to the individual or to the group.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review theoretical and empirical research on the physical work environment and social capital to develop propositions that relate the effects of open office environments on the development of group‐ and individual‐level social capital.

Findings

It is argued that an open‐office environment, defined as an office design that attempts to maximize functional communication among organization members by removing physical barriers that hinder the flow of work and communications, can positively affect the development of social capital within an organization. Specifically, it is suggested that open office designs will foster the development of group‐level social capital (i.e. social capital that benefits the group, the result of network closure) but reduce individual‐level social capital (i.e. social capital that benefits individuals who connect otherwise unconnected groups in the network, or structural holes).

Practical implications

By effectively managing the physical work environment, organizations can better control and/or influence the frequency and nature of interactions between employees, which may result in desirable outcomes for both the organization and employees.

Originality/value

The article integrates two streams of literature – social capital and physical work environment – and will be of interest to researchers in both literature groups. In addition, office managers and designers can benefit from the discussion in an effort to foster group level social capital.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Karen Becker-Olsen

Stadium naming rights programs have proliferated over the past decade, yet we have no direct evidence that these types of sponsorship programs help companies develop their…

Abstract

Stadium naming rights programs have proliferated over the past decade, yet we have no direct evidence that these types of sponsorship programs help companies develop their long-term brand equity or even provide a short-term boost to corporate value. This paper examines the impact that naming rights programs have had on the stock values of the corporate sponsors. Using event study analysis, it is found that there are mixed responses to these types of programs. A discussion is provided which helps to explain the mixed results and provides communications mangers with some suggestions on creating more effective naming rights programs.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Marilyn M. Helms and Lawrence P. Ettkin

Time is the top priority. We now live in real time. It's no longer life in the fast lane because every lane is fast. The computer has changed the way we view time. We…

263

Abstract

Time is the top priority. We now live in real time. It's no longer life in the fast lane because every lane is fast. The computer has changed the way we view time. We expect everything to occur at Pentium speed! A time lag causes stress since it is viewed as an unnecessary waste. This is not a matter of immediate gratification; rather delays—such as standing in line—are viewed as something being wrong with the system, and the company that allows it to happen is perceived as not being up to speed! (Graham, 1996, p. 4).

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

Larry E. Pate and Kendrith M. Rowland

In a recent issue of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Blake strongly criticised an article on organisational change by Blumberg and Wiener for the authors'…

Abstract

In a recent issue of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Blake strongly criticised an article on organisational change by Blumberg and Wiener for the authors' failure thoroughly to review the literature and for missing important material relevant to their study. In response, Blumberg simply stated that they were not aware of the material, because it had appeared in a relatively obscure journal. Indeed, a later writer (Zurcher) criticised one of Blake's papers on the same grounds, and then suggested that an event such as this might easily happen to any of us. Despite their apparent conflict, each of these individuals did agree, of course, that a thorough review of the literature on any given topic is necessary to good research and reporting. Our purpose here is not to pour salt on wounds, but rather to illustrate our raison d'être for presenting the material below.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 14 no. 0
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Abstract

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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