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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Barry J. Bryan

Examines the influence of various audit firm and client characteristics on compliance with Generally Accepted Auditing Standards’ (GAAS) reporting standards for private…

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Abstract

Examines the influence of various audit firm and client characteristics on compliance with Generally Accepted Auditing Standards’ (GAAS) reporting standards for private sector audits performed by small audit firms. Because prior studies in this area have focused on public sector audits, an important contribution of this study is the use of an observable quality measure as the dependent variable on audits performed in the private sector. Obtains data for the study from the quality reviews of firms licensed to practise in the State of Arkansas during the years 1989‐1991. Suggests that audit fees, the complexity of the engagement and membership in the state Certified Public Accountants’ society are positively related to compliance with GAAS reporting standards on private sector engagements performed by small audit firms. In addition, firm size is negatively related to compliance with GAAS reporting standards on private sector engagements performed by small audit firms.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1996

Janet L. Colbert

As investors and companies become more accustomed to crossing national borders to invest or raise capital, interest in comparing international and national accounting and…

3909

Abstract

As investors and companies become more accustomed to crossing national borders to invest or raise capital, interest in comparing international and national accounting and auditing standards is growing. Compares two concepts crucial to planning and performing the audit work: audit risk and materiality. Differences between international and US guidance would imply that the two sets of standards require different levels of audit work; this situation would be a concern to investors and auditors. Similarities in the international and US standards would suggest consensus regarding the levels of work. Shows that the comparison of ISA 6 to SASs 47 and 55/78 indicates many similarities and few differences between international and US guidance.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2014

Deborah S. Archambeault

This chapter presents an approach for teaching divergent and evolving auditing standards in an introductory auditing course. The existence of divergent and continually…

Abstract

This chapter presents an approach for teaching divergent and evolving auditing standards in an introductory auditing course. The existence of divergent and continually evolving auditing standards can be challenging for students and for auditing educators. In addition to two separate sets of standards in the United States for the audits of public companies (issuers) and nonpublic companies (nonissuers), auditors also need to be aware of the growing prominence of international standards. In addition to providing background information on standard-setting bodies and divergent auditing standards, and suggestions for simplifying the process of guiding students to an understanding of these standards, this chapter provides figures that can be used for demonstration in class, along with a series of brief internet-based research exercises. The exercises and examples provided may help auditing educators to facilitate students’ understanding and mastery of the fundamental elements of the domestic and international auditing standard-setting forces and activities that impact, directly or indirectly, auditing practice in the United States and abroad.

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Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-840-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Yusuf Kaya and Mehmet Utku

Financial crises in the international markets, which have global effects, have increased the importance of internal auditing especially in the banking sector in recent…

Abstract

Financial crises in the international markets, which have global effects, have increased the importance of internal auditing especially in the banking sector in recent years. Minimizing the negative effects of crises is closely related to the establishment and functioning of an effective internal control system. International internal audit standards (IIAS) issued by the International Internal Audit Standards Boards are internationally applicable standards that contain the basic requirements for the professional implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of internal auditing. In developing countries where the effects of crises are intensely felt, public banks are one of the most important actors of the financial system. An effective internal control structure in public banks and in compliance with international standards is necessary for a strong and fragile financial system. The purpose of this study is to examine the internal audit activities in public banks in terms of compliance with international standards. In this study conducted at one of the leading state-owned bank in Turkey, the bank’s internal control procedures and internal control activities reports were examined. In addition, the Bank’s internal audit activities were analyzed by conducting interviews with bank officials for a better understanding of the internal control system. The IIAS, which are grouped under two main headings, are related to the internal audit activities of the related bank. It is thought that the study will guide banks and auditors in terms of demonstrating the application of IIAS, which usually consist of abstract statements.

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Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accounting and Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-508-5

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2021

C. Richard Baker and Martin E. Persson

In this chapter, we study the evolution of the auditor’s report from its emergence more than 150 years ago to the present. During this period, the standard auditor’s…

Abstract

In this chapter, we study the evolution of the auditor’s report from its emergence more than 150 years ago to the present. During this period, the standard auditor’s report has evolved from a rudimentary form to its current and more sophisticated structure with a clearly defined title, addressed to specific entities, and systematically divided into sections that are meant to highlight certain aspects of the audit examination. We describe the major events that have affected the financial reporting environment in the United States and, in turn, how these events have transformed the auditor’s report over the last century. As will be demonstrated in the chapter, the progression of the presentation of the auditor’s report, from being a certification to the standard report of the present day, has been guided primarily by the kind of information that investors and creditors wanted to know in relation to their investments in public companies. However, the desire for that information was often influenced by periodic incidents of corporate scandals. These scandals made it imperative that a monitoring mechanism was established to maintain the confidence of investors and creditors in the reporting of financial information about companies and the overall functioning of the capital markets.

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Historical Developments in the Accountancy Profession, Financial Reporting, and Accounting Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-805-1

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2017

John E. McEnroe, Ning Du and Mark Sullivan

The typical unqualified audit report of publicly traded firms in the United States indicates the nature of the audit and an opinion that the firm’s financial statements…

Abstract

The typical unqualified audit report of publicly traded firms in the United States indicates the nature of the audit and an opinion that the firm’s financial statements fairly present the financial position and the results of operations of the audited company. Accordingly, some users of the financial statements, including investors, do not consider the unqualified opinion to be very useful in providing other informational value about the particular audit. In this paper, the authors examined the views of two stakeholders in the US financial reporting system, auditors in large public accounting firms and Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) in the Fortune 1000. The authors elicited their perceptions involving a Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) proposed auditing standard commonly referred to as “the other information standard.” This standard, if adopted, would require the auditor to evaluate information other than the audited financial statements and the related audit report for (1) a material inconsistency, (2) a material misstatement of fact, or (3) both, and if they exist, communicate them in the auditor’s report. The authors developed their research instrument based upon its perceived potential effects on the audit if adopted, some of which were referenced in the exposure draft of the proposed standard (PCAOB, 2013). They found that a majority of each groups believed, among other effects, that the proposed standard would increase audit costs, subject both the auditor and the reporting firm to increased litigation risk, and that its implementation costs by affected firms would exceed any benefits to financial statement users created by the standard.

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Parables, Myths and Risks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-534-4

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Abstract

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Quality Control Procedure for Statutory Financial Audit
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-226-8

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

J.M.P. Venter and R. du Bruyn

Internal auditing assumes an increased responsibility for the evaluation of entity operations as a service to management and the board of directors. Quality assurance…

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Abstract

Internal auditing assumes an increased responsibility for the evaluation of entity operations as a service to management and the board of directors. Quality assurance review is the process through which assurance is obtained that the internal auditing department’s work is done in accordance with the Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing. This study examines the current practices of quality assurance review in South Africa. Although not all organisations surveyed do perform internal auditing quality assurance reviews, the organisations that do, benefit from them. Various methods are used in practice to perform internal and external quality assurance reviews. This study provides information on the processes and procedures used in quality assurance review programmes.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Rocco R. Vanasco, Clifford R. Skousen and Curtis C. Verschoor

Professional accounting associations in various countries andgovernmental and other quasi‐official bodies have played an importantrole not only in the evolution of…

12278

Abstract

Professional accounting associations in various countries and governmental and other quasi‐official bodies have played an important role not only in the evolution of internal control reporting on a global scale, but also in educating management, investors, financial institutions, accountants, auditors, and other interested parties highlighting the pervasiveness of the effects of a sound internal control structure in corporate reporting as well as other aspects of an organization′s success. These associations include the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the General Accounting Office (GAO), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Cadbury Committee, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales (ICAEW), the Scottish Institute of Chartered Accountants (SICA), the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA), and others. Business failures, management fraud, corporate misconduct, international bribery, and notorious business scandals in all sectors of business have prompted the US government to take drastic action on internal control reporting to safeguard public interest. Several professional and government committees were formed to study this precarious situation: the Treadway Commission, the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) of the Treadway Commission, the Packard Commission, the Cohen Commission, the Adams Commission in Canada, the Cadbury Committee in the UK, and others. The principal motivation for the changing dynamics has been growing public pressure for greater corporate accountability. The government′s pressure on the accounting profession and management of public corporations has been pivotal in spearheading internal control reporting. Examines the role of professional associations, governmental agencies, and others in promulgating standards for internal control reporting, and the impact of legislation on this aspect of internal auditing in the USA and worldwide.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Marianne Jennings, Dan C. Kneer and Philip M.J. Reckers

“The definition of auditing calls for the communication of the degree of correspondence between assertions and established criteria” [ASOBAC, 1973]. As the profession has…

Abstract

“The definition of auditing calls for the communication of the degree of correspondence between assertions and established criteria” [ASOBAC, 1973]. As the profession has rejected adoption of universal quantitative definitions of materiality as infeasible [FASB, 1979], Don Leslie [1984] recommended adoption of a standard requiring disclosure of specific engagement materiality thresholds in the auditor's report. This study examines how such disclosures might affect perceptions of an auditor's culpability and liability in instances where post publication errors are discovered which alternately aggregate to more or less than reported materiality thresholds. A behavioral experiment was conducted in which eighty‐seven U.S. general jurisdiction judges participated. Findings support the potential for meaningful modifications to the standard auditor's report to reduce perceived auditor liability but also note the importance of jurists' pre‐experimental attitudes and beliefs respecting the public accounting profession. In 1985, the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants published Materiality: The Concept and its Application to Auditing [CICA, 1985]. In that research study, Don Leslie focused on his perceptions of the communication deficiencies of the standard form audit report used in Canada and the U.S. — the most critical of which he found to be the continuing lack of a quantitative definition of materiality. Leslie's remedy for the problem was novel and controversial even if his recognition of this problem was not without precedent. Leslie did not recommend the prompt adoption of universal, quantitative materiality standards (a proposal which has stalemated progress in the profession for years) but rather adoption of a standard making it compulsory that auditors disclose their individual materiality standards, whatever they may be, on each specific audit, in the audit report. To date, no serious research has examined this proposal since the report's publication, and yet the costs of the communications gap between accounting/auditing professionals and the public seem to be getting greater. The Auditing Standards Board recently readdressed the communications provided by the standard form audit report. One of the clearest observa‐tions to emerge from those deliberations was that there is a lack of reliable research data upon which to base regulatory decisions in this area [Elliott and Jacobson, 1987]. This paper contributes to reduce that vacuum. Specifically, on the following pages we outline the genesis of a research project and the findings of that study in which eighty‐seven (87) U.S. judges evaluated whether and to what degree an altered form of the audit report (including quantitative definition of materiality) would reduce the assessed culpability and legal liability of auditors. The remaining sections of this paper are organized as follows: in section one, we will summarize representative recent relevant literature; in section two, we develop testable hypotheses from that background literature; in section three, we provide a description of the design of our study; in section 4, our findings are reported and in section 5 we discuss implications for practice and future research.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 22 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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