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1 – 10 of over 31000
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Henry Huang and H. Gin Chong

This paper aims to analyze Public Companies Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) inspection reports on audit reports of those inspected accounting firms in Brazil, Russia…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze Public Companies Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) inspection reports on audit reports of those inspected accounting firms in Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC). In meeting the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the PCAOB conducts inspections on audit reports of firms listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

The reports include those submitted by both the US audit parent firms and their secondary firms located outside the USA. In each PCAOB report, it unravels the nature of audit deficiencies. The focus is on Big Four because they play a dominant role in the marketplace and issuers’ market capitalization. All the seven-year deficiencies are documented since publications of the reports from 2004 to 2012.

Findings

Of the 37 reports, 19 (51 per cent) were issued relating to audits conducted by the Big Four. Out of these 19 reports, 10 (53 per cent) contain inspection criticism. These include audit quality and common recurring audit deficiencies.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is based solely on those inspection reports published by the PCAOB.

Practical implications

The findings have significant implications to audit firms and the audit profession on improving audit quality, firms’ internal control and reports.

Originality/value

No known prior research paper is available on the ramifications of the PCAOB’s inspection reports relating to BRIC.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 58 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Ahmad M. Al‐Omari, Yousef F. Jahmani and Anwar Y. Salimi

This paper deals with the preferences of creditors and investors in Jordan regarding the credibility and use of financial statements audited by accounting firms with…

Abstract

This paper deals with the preferences of creditors and investors in Jordan regarding the credibility and use of financial statements audited by accounting firms with international affiliations compared to local accounting firms. Audit firms in Jordan are divided into two groups. Group 1 consists of audit firms with affiliation with an international firm. Group 2 consists of audit firms with no international affiliation. A questionnaire elicited preferences of creditors and investors for Group 1 and Group 2 audit firms. This questionnaire was administered to a sample of investors and creditors. The results suggest that a preference by both creditors and investors for financial statements audited by accounting firms with international affiliation. The factors leading to such a preference are also indicated. The results suggest that affiliation with international audit firms, application of international standards, personal contacts and the long experience of auditors are the most important factors that make both investors and creditors prefer Group 1 over Group 2 audit firms.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 9 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Khaled Hussainey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of audit quality, measured by financial statements audited by the big four accounting firms, on the investors' ability…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of audit quality, measured by financial statements audited by the big four accounting firms, on the investors' ability to predict future earnings for profitable and unprofitable firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the returns‐earnings regression model and interacts all independent variables in this model with a dummy variable, AUDIT, which is set to equal one if financial statements audited by the big four accounting firms, zero otherwise. Future earnings response coefficient is the measure of earnings predictability.

Findings

The paper finds that investors are able to better anticipate future earnings when financial statements are audited by the big four accounting firms. However, the findings are not applicable for unprofitable firms.

Practical implications

The findings of the paper have implications for auditing related academic research and the users of financial statements. In particular, the study shows that the big four accounting firms have not lost their audit quality advantage and that financial statements audited by the big four accounting firms are arguably of higher quality than those audited by non‐big four accounting firms.

Originality/value

It is believed that there is no UK study to date examining the association of the quality of financial statements audited by the big four accounting firms and the returns‐earnings association. Consequently, this paper significantly contributes to the limited literature on the perceived value relevance of audit quality.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Albert L. Nagy and William J. Cenker

This paper seeks to discuss the effect that the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act (SOA) had on both the nature of the external audit function and overall audit quality. Additionally, it…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss the effect that the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act (SOA) had on both the nature of the external audit function and overall audit quality. Additionally, it aims to discuss how audit firms maneuvered through the newly regulated environment, and what their strategic actions are for the future.

Design/methodology/approach

This discussion is based on interviews conducted with auditors from nine public accounting firms located in Northeast Ohio, United States of America. The sample consisted of five national and four regional firms, and the interviewees included mostly partners and a few senior managers.

Findings

The increased oversight and workload resulting from the SOA requirements has changed the nature of the external audit function to more compliance type work, and the environment has created much anxiety for the auditors. The new reform has significantly impacted the audit environment in terms of: scope of services; client assessment procedures; management and audit committee relationships with the external auditor; audit firm personnel management; and the long‐term outlook of the profession. The details of these impacts are discussed throughout the paper.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides detailed insight as to how the SOA impacted the audit profession. Hopefully, such an understanding will benefit future research in measuring the costs and benefits of the new reform. Lastly, a future research showed further examine the effect that the SOA has had on overall audit quality.

Originality/value

This paper summarizes the insightful comments obtained in structured interviews with several leading audit professionals. The sample was judged to be highly knowledgeable of the changing audit environment caused by the SOA. With an improved understanding of its impacts, regulators, practitioners, and academics can better assess the effectiveness of the SOA.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Joann Noe Cross and Robert A. Kunkel

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Andersen implosion over Enron impacted Fortune 500 firms that were competitors of Enron and/or audited by Andersen. This…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Andersen implosion over Enron impacted Fortune 500 firms that were competitors of Enron and/or audited by Andersen. This event provides an opportunity to study various contagion effects.

Design/methodology/approach

An event study methodology is used to analyze the immediate financial impact of the Andersen implosion on competitors of Enron and/or firms audited by Andersen. More specifically, how did the announcement of the implosion impact these firms?

Findings

The results support a strong industry contagion effect where Enron's failure benefited the surviving energy/utility firms who could then increase their market shares. The authors find the energy/utility firms not audited by Andersen, on average, experienced an astounding 2.5 percent increase in market capitalization when the audit scandal was announced. In dollar terms, the mean and median market capitalization increases were $226 million and $101 million, respectively. In the aggregate, the 21 utility/energy firms gained $4.76 billion in market capitalization.

Research limitations/implications

The results show the importance of the auditing process and the impact of unethical actions on the firm, their auditor, and their competitors. One limitation is the data are limited to large Fortune 500 firms.

Originality/value

This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, that evaluates the contagion effect of the Andersen/Enron audit scandal on Fortune 500 firms: in the same industry as Enron; audited by Andersen; and operating in the same industry as Enron and audited by Andersen.

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

Li (Lily) Zheng Brooks, Susan Gill, Bernard Wong-On-Wing and Michael D. Yu

This study aims to examine the moderating effect of audit firm tenure on the association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm value. Prior studies…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the moderating effect of audit firm tenure on the association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm value. Prior studies provide mixed results on this association, which may be due to differing theoretical expectations related to CSR and firm value. It is also possible that external stakeholders are unable to differentiate between positive and negative CSR investments, as CSR reports are generally not assured by independent third parties. Thus, the authors propose that audit firm tenure may be used by external stakeholders to evaluate CSR performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an ordinary least squares regression to examine the moderating effect of audit firm tenure on the relation between CSR and firm value after controlling for other determinants of firm value and various internal and external governance mechanisms documented in the literature. The sample consists of 15,707 firm-year observations from US firms during the sample period of 2000 to 2012. The authors measure CSR quality using rating scores from MSCI ESG STATS (formerly the KLD database), audit firm tenure as the number of years the incumbent auditor has served the client and firm value using Tobin’s Q.

Findings

The results indicate that CSR is positively associated with firm value when audit firm tenure is long but not when tenure is short. The results are robust to alternative measures of firm value, CSR performance scores, and individual CSR dimensions. The evidence supports the argument against mandatory audit firm rotation in the USA.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies could examine a similar issue in alternative settings and/or look at cross-sectional variations among firms on the association between CSR and firm value by other auditor traits such as auditor industry specialization and big-name reputation. Additionally, as auditor alone is unable to ensure the quality of management disclosures and their accountability, future studies could examine the moderating effect of internal and other external governance mechanisms on the association between CSR and firm value, exploring when the signaling effect of auditor tenure on CSR reporting quality and its effect on firm value is most salient.

Practical implications

The findings are important to regulators and investors. The authors provide evidence that longer audit tenure serves as a signaling device for external investors with regard to the quality of a firm’s CSR performance. Hence, the study facilitates regulators’ cost-benefit analysis related to mandating audit firm rotation. The evidence suggests that mandating a term limit on auditor tenure may have the unintended consequence of eliminating a signaling effect of auditor tenure on the quality of CSR disclosures under information asymmetry. This supports the Public Company Oversight Board’s decision to forgo the requirement of mandatory audit firm rotation in the USA.

Originality/value

Prior literature presents mixed findings on the association between CSR performance and firm value based on a variety of underlying theories (economic, stakeholder and contingency theory). Literature on mandatory auditor rotation has concentrated on the auditor tenure effect on perceived and actual audit quality as reflected in earnings quality. Relying on agency theory, this study posits that auditor tenure serves as a signal for the quality of CSR activities in the absence of CSR assurance reporting as CSR quality can be difficult to evaluate. The authors provide evidence that audit tenure moderates the association between CSR activities and firm value and longer audit tenure makes it more likely that the CSR activities are associated with increased firm value.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

Md Mustafizur Rahaman, Md Moazzem Hossain and Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan

The new audit regulation for disclosure of key audit matters (KAMs) in financial reporting has been introduced in both developed and developing countries. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

The new audit regulation for disclosure of key audit matters (KAMs) in financial reporting has been introduced in both developed and developing countries. This study investigates the influence of three distinctive sets of variables, namely industry features, firm characteristics and auditor attributes, on the extent, pattern and level of disclosure of KAMs by companies listed in Bangladesh, an emerging economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses qualitative and quantitative research approaches to investigate the pattern of disclosure of KAMs and their determinants. With a sample of 447 firm-year observations from companies listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange over 2018–2020, the study reveals industry-level, firm-level and auditor-specific characteristics that affect KAMs' communication in the new audit reporting model.

Findings

The findings suggest that significant differences exist between firms in the number and types of KAMs reported and the extent of their disclosure. The study findings also observed variations both within and across different industry sectors. Highly regulated firms disclose a greater number of KAMs, while environmentally sensitive firms are found to provide a greater detail of the issues presented as KAMs. Further, both firm size and age positively impact the number of KAMs disclosed and the extent of the disclosure provided. Big-4-affiliated auditors do not issue a significantly higher number of KAMs but deliver extensive details to their KAMs description, compared to non-Big-4 auditors. In addition, while auditors, in general, tend to issue boilerplate KAMs, Big-4 associates are found to disclose more new KAMs. However, audit fees and auditor rotation do not influence KAMs disclosure.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on two years of publicly available data. However, future studies could consider in-depth interviews to explore the motivation behind KAMs' disclosure in Bangladesh and other developing countries with similar cultural and contextual values.

Practical implications

These findings have substantial policy considerations for improving firms' audit quality and, thus, their financial reporting quality, with implications for national and international standard-setters, regulators and other stakeholders.

Originality/value

This study is one of the earliest endeavours to investigate KAMs in a context of an emerging country, such as Bangladesh, which adopted KAMs' disclosure in 2018.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

David S. Jenkins and Thomas E. Vermeer

The purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct overview of academic research that has examined audit firm rotation both in the USA and in other countries.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct overview of academic research that has examined audit firm rotation both in the USA and in other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors outline the unresolved nature of academic research on audit firm rotation, review recent literature, discuss why academics have been unable to resolve this issue and offer suggestions for improving subsequent research in the area.

Findings

Overall, the collective evidence is inconclusive at best; with earlier studies generally finding mixed results and more recent studies indicating that audit quality generally goes through two distinct phases during the auditor‐client relationship, the “auditor learning” and “auditor closeness” phases.

Originality/value

Given the importance of the issue, this article provides an overview of academic research that has examined audit firm rotation, discusses why academics have been unable to resolve this issue, and provides suggestions on how academics and practitioners can work together to enhance the quality of future research.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Maryam Firoozi and Michel Magnan

This study aims to investigate how audit committee members’ geographical location relative to corporate headquarters affects audit fees. The motivation for the paper rests…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how audit committee members’ geographical location relative to corporate headquarters affects audit fees. The motivation for the paper rests on the observation that regulatory and market trends have significantly affected the composition of boards of directors and audit committees. To ensure that audit committees play their monitoring role, regulations now require directors’ independence and some level of financial expertise. The need to find directors who meet these requirements, as well as the advent of globalization and technological improvements lead firms to expand their reach when looking for directors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of 1,517 firm-year observations of Canadian firms from 2008 to 2017. The study relies on multivariate analyses.

Findings

The results show that, among nonlocal audit committee members, the presence of foreign directors is associated with higher audit fees. In contrast, other nonlocal audit committee members do not have a differential impact on audit fees. This effect is more prevalent in large firms. Moreover, having a foreign chair of the audit committee as well as foreign audit committee members who are not accounting experts appear to accentuate the increase in audit fees. A possible explanation for the finding is that, from the supply side, auditors assign a higher risk to firms with a higher percentage of foreign audit committee members. Alternatively, from the demand side, firms with foreign audit committee members may ask for more audit effort. Further analysis indicates that having a higher percentage of foreign audit committee members is associated with a higher likelihood of restatements, an indication of low audit quality.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to document that auditors price the location of audit committee members and consider it when planning for their audit.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Alan Reinstein and Thomas R. Weirich

Establishing an audit committee presumably strengthens the external auditor’s independence. Several studies have examined how audit committees affect the selection of the…

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Abstract

Establishing an audit committee presumably strengthens the external auditor’s independence. Several studies have examined how audit committees affect the selection of the company’s external auditor, negotiate audit fees and enhance the auditor’s independence. But what of the independence of the audit committee members themselves? Do audit committee members exhibit biases when they select their company’s auditors? The relationship between the entity’s external auditor and the audit committee member’s affiliated company’s auditors has not been examined. For example, are audit committee members prone to select or remain with audit firms with which they have developed a formal relationship within their own company? This study of 247 New York Stock Exchange firms finds significant relationships (at the 0.05 level of significance) between CPA firms selected by audit committees and by the CPA firm which audits the audit committee member’s own organization. Results indicate that audit committee members exhibit conscious or unconscious biases in their selection or retention of their companies’ auditors.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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