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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Macarena Cuenca-Amigo and Amaia Makua

The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of audience development, analysing differences between a number of countries and identifying common elements that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of audience development, analysing differences between a number of countries and identifying common elements that underlie the concept regardless of the context.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to the literature review, fieldwork has been conducted in the UK, Denmark, Italy, and Spain applying qualitative methodology. The study has been structured in two phases. The first phase comprised 26 in-depth interviews with European experts in audience development while the second phase consisted of six focus groups with European experts.

Findings

The paper reveals differences between countries, ranging from the definition of the term audience development to the approach undertaken. Despite this, a number of aspects, independent of the context and considered key to a successful audience development, are identified. These aspects are related to the consideration of the development of audiences as a transversal long-term strategy supported by the top management of the organisation.

Originality/value

The value provided is twofold. First, thanks to the empirical data used, the paper analyses the socio-cultural aspects that affect the emergence of country-specific approaches to audience development and it individuates general features and ideas that contribute to the better understanding of the concept itself. Second, it is one of the few academic works carried out in Spain on this issue.

Purpose

El propósito del artículo es revisar el concepto de desarrollo de audiencias, analizando las diferencias existentes entre diversos países e identificando los elementos comunes que subyacen al mismo independientemente del contexto.

Design/methodology/approach

Además de una revisión bibliográfica, se ha llevado a cabo un trabajo de campo en Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Italia y España. El estudio, de carácter cualitativo y con finalidad exploratoria, se ha estructurado en dos fases. En la primera se han realizado 26 entrevistas en profundidad a expertos en desarrollo de audiencias europeos, mientras que en la segunda se han llevado a cabo 6 grupos de discusión con expertos.

Findings

El artículo evidencia diferencias entre los distintos países que oscilan desde la consideración del propio término desarrollo de audiencias hasta el enfoque desde el que se entiende el desarrollo de audiencias. A pesar de ello se identifican una serie de aspectos, independientes del contexto, y considerados clave para un desarrollo de audiencias exitoso. Dichos aspectos están relacionados con la consideración del desarrollo de audiencias como una estrategia transversal de largo plazo, apoyada por la dirección general de la organización.

Originality/value

El valor aportado es doble. En primer lugar, gracias a los datos empíricos utilizados, el artículo analiza los aspectos socio-culturales que afectan a la aparición de enfoques de desarrollo de audiencias específicos para cada país y al mismo tiempo identifica aquellas características generales e ideas que contribuyen a una mejor comprensión del concepto en cuestión. Por otro lado, se distingue por ser uno de los escasos trabajos académicos realizados en España sobre este tema.

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Stephanie Pitts and Jonathan Gross

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the “audience exchange” approach for audience development and research, and to highlight the insights offered…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the “audience exchange” approach for audience development and research, and to highlight the insights offered by peer-to-peer dialogue in understanding experiences of unfamiliar arts.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a case study with contemporary arts audiences, and setting this in the wider context of studies with other first-time attenders at a range of arts events, the paper explores the use of the “audience exchange” method, in which facilitated conversations after performance events allow newcomers to reflect upon and deepen their first-time encounters with live arts.

Findings

The study demonstrates the way in which conversations about arts events can enrich audience experience, and shows how participants use exploratory and emotional language to articulate their understanding of unfamiliar arts events. Peer-to-peer learning occurs through these conversations, in ways that could be further supported by arts organisations as a valuable tool for audience development. The audience exchange discussions also reveal the varieties of participation from “drifting” to full attention that are all part of audience engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This is a small-scale, qualitative study, and the method has potential to be tested in future studies with a greater variety of participants (e.g. younger or more ethnically diverse groups).

Practical implications

Use of the audience exchange for enriching experiences of first-time attendance could be adopted by arts organisations as a regular part of their audience engagement. Greater understanding of how new audience members draw on prior cultural experiences in finding the language to articulate their first impressions of an unfamiliar arts event could be valuable for targeted marketing and increasing accessibility.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in its elaboration of the audience exchange method, and its focus on the language and peer-to-peer learning evident in the facilitated post-performance discussions.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Ben Walmsley

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how researchers in the field of arts marketing are gradually abandoning the traditional marketing concept in order to respond…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how researchers in the field of arts marketing are gradually abandoning the traditional marketing concept in order to respond to established and emerging modes of audience engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a comprehensive content analysis of the past three decades of journal articles related to arts marketing.

Findings

The results of the content analysis highlight that a paradigm shift in arts marketing has occurred over the past two decades, from an overriding focus on neoliberal processes of consumption towards a relational, humanistic approach, which aims to enrich audiences and interrogate the wider value and impact of their arts experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The logical conclusion to be derived from this paradigmatic shift is that “arts marketing” is increasingly becoming an outmoded misnomer, which suggests the need for a fundamental reassessment of the traditional arts marketing concept.

Practical implications

In order to develop meaningful relationships with audiences, arts and cultural organisations should prioritise the long-term relational approaches offered by audience engagement over short-term tactical activities such as segmentation and promotion.

Originality/value

The paper advocates a radical reconceptualization of the field that would replace the transactional 4P model with a relational 4E model, derived from an adoption of theories, processes and practices related to the elements of experience, exchange, environment and engagement.

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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2018

Dean Hristov, Nikola Naumov and Petia Petrova

This paper aims to provide an exploratory investigation into contemporary interpretation methods used in historic gardens and their fundamental role in enhancing the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an exploratory investigation into contemporary interpretation methods used in historic gardens and their fundamental role in enhancing the visitor experience and sense of a place.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of semi-structured interviews (n = 65) with Wrest Park visitors – who had the opportunity to experience new interpretation methods provided on-site – have been carried out in an attempt to explore their sense of place through interpretation.

Findings

The research suggests that interpretation has a fundamental role to play in “telling the story” of historic gardens, with 92.5 per cent of the sample understanding elements of the place’s history, significance and evolution. The findings further suggest the presence of two distinct visitor typologies – history explorers and leisure seekers.

Practical implications

The study provides implications for theory and practice and recommendations for historic garden practitioners.

Originality/value

The importance of conceptualising and operationalising interpretation in historic gardens has received relatively little attention across the extant body of heritage interpretation literature. English Heritage’s Wrest Park, which is amongst England’s most prominent historic gardens, is used as a case study.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Ludovico Solima

The Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (MANN, National Archaeological Museum of Naples) is one of the most important archaeological museums in the world. In 2017, MANN…

Abstract

The Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (MANN, National Archaeological Museum of Naples) is one of the most important archaeological museums in the world. In 2017, MANN launched several projects, such as Father and Son, the first video game made by an archaeological museum, and Ancient Present (Antico Presente), a series of five short films produced by the museum in five different languages and based on different artworks selected from the museum's permanent collections. The idea behind these projects was to ‘bring the museum outside the museum’, with the assumption that some tools may improve the museum's ability to speak and interact with its audiences, both in the spatial sense (outside its physical perimeter) and the temporal dimension (not only during the visit experience, but also before and after it). We have studied these two MANN projects, as this museum has explicitly targeted audience development as one of its main objectives (MANN, 2016, p. 72) and these projects are important examples of how to use new ‘languages’ (the digital and the cinematographic) to start a dialogue with new audiences and to address museum accessibility in a new way.

Details

Exploring Cultural Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-515-4

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Daniela Carlucci

In today’s business landscape, arts and cultural organisations are challenged to search for excellence of their business model management to create and deliver value in a…

Abstract

Purpose

In today’s business landscape, arts and cultural organisations are challenged to search for excellence of their business model management to create and deliver value in a more sustainable way. This study develops exploratory focus groups aimed to capture insights into the practical challenges, wants and needs that arts and cultural organisations across Europe address and face in managing and developing their business models.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus groups method has been applied. The methodology included seven focus groups involving arts and cultural organisations operating in different European countries.

Findings

The overall feeling emerging from focus groups is that there is an increasing pressure to prove the value of culture, e.g. economic, social and civic, progressively more in quantitative figures. Arts and cultural organisations are greatly concerned about their financial health, and their ability to continue creating and presenting great arts and cultural events. At the same time, there is an acceptance that gaining financial resilience and sustainability can no longer be put off. Organisations are conscious that it is crucial to rethink their way of operating and to improve their value creation mechanisms to get sustainability. Nevertheless, the challenges to face and issues of change to get a more effective business model management are numerous and various.

Originality/value

The study sheds more light on “business dimensions” perceived by arts and cultural organisations across Europe, as particularly crucial for their survival and requiring proper management attention. In doing this, it offers fresh and valuable knowledge about aspects, factors and dimensions to take into account in the managing business model.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Rupert Nicholas Williams

The purpose of this paper is to explore the main strategic considerations facing the libraries of national museums over the next decade, and to examine anticipated future…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the main strategic considerations facing the libraries of national museums over the next decade, and to examine anticipated future service and resource development priorities.

Design/methodology/approach

An explanatory sequential mixed-methods study was undertaken, consisting of a quantitative research phase followed by a qualitative phase. An online survey was sent to the head librarians of two hundred national museum libraries for the quantitative phase. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the head librarians at seven national museum libraries for the qualitative phase. The survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the interview data were analysed through use of recursive abstraction. Mixing of the data occurred following the qualitative phase.

Findings

National museum libraries are facing a complex array of future challenges and opportunities as a result of a rapidly changing socio-technical landscape, evolving organisational needs and priorities and ongoing operational constraints. The main strategic considerations for many national museum libraries relate to their preparedness for these issues, and their ability to deliver services and resources that are relevant, required, and responsive to the future research needs of internal and external users. It seems likely that development priorities will focus on consolidating high impact services and resources, whilst also expanding provision into new areas that have the greatest potential for growth.

Originality/value

This study identifies issues of strategic importance for national museum libraries and examines the main priority areas being considered by museum librarians as they prepare to develop their libraries into the third decade of the twenty-first century.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Ben Walmsley and Laurie Meamber

Abstract

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Shiraz Durrani and Elizabeth Smallwood

The rapidly changing nature of local government service demands new skills, but there is often a gap between the new skills needed by library authorities and the skills…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapidly changing nature of local government service demands new skills, but there is often a gap between the new skills needed by library authorities and the skills that “traditional” librarianship education delivers. The purpose of this paper is to show how QLP‐Y can bridge this gap and to consider the approach of the Quality Leaders Project – Youth (QLP‐Y, 2003) and its contribution to staff development within the public library sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Setting the project in the context of a changing global situation, the paper considers briefly the effect of this situation on local government service before moving on to consider the learning opportunities afforded by involvement in QLP‐Y. Finally, it considers the importance of sustained innovation in public service and the role of universities within this.

Findings

The paper highlights the need for a different content in librarianship courses and the need for a training approach that combines work‐based learning with an academic focus. It shows how the “management development through service development” approach of QLP‐Y can lead to significant achievements in the development of both staff and service and how QLP‐Y can develop in staff key management skills alongside an understanding of the wider policy context and the ability to shape one's work within it.

Originality/value

Using the latest QLP‐Y material, the paper examines how the project has helped implement new ways of working in line with changing policy requirements and will thus be of interest to the academic community, decision makers and managers in local authorities.

Details

Library Management, vol. 29 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2018

Neville Vakharia, Marilena Vecco, Andrej Srakar and Divya Janardhan

This paper explores the concepts of knowledge-centric organizations in the performing arts sector to understand how specific organizational practices relate to measures of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the concepts of knowledge-centric organizations in the performing arts sector to understand how specific organizational practices relate to measures of financial and operational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative analysis of 368 small and mid-sized nonprofit performing arts organizations in the USA was undertaken via primary data on organizational practices and secondary data on performance metrics. Structural equation modeling was used to validate the latent construct of knowledge centricity and to test hypotheses on how knowledge centricity impacts financial and operational performance, and is influenced by firm-level demographic variables.

Findings

Results show several distinct performance metrics that are statistically associated with knowledge-centric practices of the organizations analyzed.

Research limitations/implications

This article investigates the knowledge centricity of organizations, a relatively nascent theoretical concept, which is of significant relevance in today’s knowledge-driven economy. The findings can serve as a basis to further investigate strategic approaches that arts organizations can undertake to remain sustainable and operate effectively in a knowledge-driven society.

Practical/implications

It provides critical insights into management practices and approaches that can be instituted to drive improved organizational performance.

Originality/value

Building on the extant literature, this article develops a conceptual framework of knowledge centricity and defines a knowledge-centric organization. It thoroughly investigates the latent construct of knowledge centricity, identifies how knowledge centricity impacts financial and operational performance of nonprofit performing arts organizations, and provides grounding for future studies.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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