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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Raymond P. Perry, Judith G. Chipperfield, Steve Hladkyj, Reinhard Pekrun and Jeremy M. Hamm

This chapter presents empirical evidence on the effects of attributional retraining (AR), a motivation-enhancing treatment that can offset maladaptive explanatory…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents empirical evidence on the effects of attributional retraining (AR), a motivation-enhancing treatment that can offset maladaptive explanatory mind-sets arising from adverse learning experiences. The evidence shows that AR is effective for assisting college students to adapt to competitive and challenging achievement settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter describes the characteristics of AR protocols and details three primary advances in studying AR efficacy in terms of achievement performance, psychosocial outcomes, and processes that mediate AR-performance linkages. The psychological mechanisms that underpin AR effects on motivation and performance are outlined from the perspective of Weiner’s (1974, 1986, 2012) attribution theory.

Findings

Laboratory and field studies show that AR treatments are potent interventions that have short-term and long-lasting psychosocial, motivation, and performance benefits in achievement settings. Students who participate in AR programs are better off than their no-AR counterparts not just in their cognitive and affective prospects, but they also outperform their no-AR peers in class tests, course grades, and grade-point-averages, and are more persistent in terms of course credits and graduation rates.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the emerging literature on treatment interventions in achievement settings by documenting key advances in the development of AR protocols and by identifying the next steps critical to moving the literature forward. Further progress in understanding AR efficacy will rest on examining the analysis of complex attributional thinking, the mediation of AR treatment effects, and the boundary conditions that moderate AR treatment efficacy.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Arielle Silverman and Geoffrey Cohen

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their…

Abstract

Purpose

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their narrative. In this paper, we describe how brief interventions can maximize student motivation by changing the students’ narratives.

Approach

We review the recent field experiments testing the efficacy of social-psychological interventions in classroom settings. We focus our review on four types of interventions: ones that change students’ interpretations of setbacks, that reframe the learning environment as fair and nonthreatening, that remind students of their personal adequacy, or that clarify students’ purpose for learning.

Findings

Such interventions can have long-lasting benefits if changes in students’ narratives lead to initial achievement gains, which further propagate positive narratives, in a positive feedback loop. Yet social-psychological interventions are not magical panaceas for poor achievement. Rather, they must be targeted to specific populations, timed appropriately, and given in a context in which students have opportunities to act upon the messages they contain.

Originality/value

Social-psychological interventions can help many students realize their achievement potential if they are integrated within a supportive learning context.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Paul Harvey, James K. Summers and Mark J. Martinko

We review past research on the relationship between attributional perceptions, emotions, and workplace aggression and develop a conceptual model that extends this research…

Abstract

We review past research on the relationship between attributional perceptions, emotions, and workplace aggression and develop a conceptual model that extends this research in two ways. First, we consider the influence of controllability attributions on the type (otherdirected, self-directed, hostile, non-hostile) and likelihood of aggressive responses to negative workplace outcomes and situations. Second, we consider the extent to which discrete negative emotions might mediate these attribution-aggression relationships. Implications for anticipating and preventing workplace aggression based on this conceptual model are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Jeremy R. Brees, Jeremy Mackey and Mark J. Martinko

This paper emphasizes that employee attributional processing is a vital element in understanding employee aggression in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper emphasizes that employee attributional processing is a vital element in understanding employee aggression in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to summarize attributional perspectives and integrate recent theoretical advances into a comprehensive model.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper achieved its objectives by reviewing and integrating research and theories on aggression, cognitive processing, and attribution processes to explain how employee aggression unfolds in the workplace. Propositions are suggested.

Findings

It was found that early conceptualizations proposing that employee attributions and attribution styles would play important and significant roles in predicting employee aggression were supported by recent research enabling theoretical advancements.

Originality/value

Over the last 15 years, research advances show how attributions influence employee aggression. This paper integrates recent theoretical advances with prior empirical evidence and provides a comprehensive model exhibiting how attributions influence aggression in the workplace.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Andrew L. Wiley, Melody Tankersley and Andrea Simms

Although we have improved identification of and access to evidence-based interventions for addressing student problem behavior, teacher use of these practices remains low…

Abstract

Although we have improved identification of and access to evidence-based interventions for addressing student problem behavior, teacher use of these practices remains low. In this chapter, we examine teachers’ causal attributions for student problem behavior and their implications for use of effective school-based behavioral interventions and supports. Attribution theory and research suggest that causal attributions strongly influence how individuals (e.g., teachers) perceive and respond to the problem behavior of others (e.g., students). Teacher perception regarding problem behavior and appropriate responses to it can be a significant barrier to the adoption and sustained implementation of empirically supported practices. In light of these factors, causal attribution theory and research can be used as a framework for better understanding and even changing teacher beliefs related to acceptance, implementation, and sustained use of effective behavior management practices. In this chapter, we make the case for cultivating an understanding of teachers’ causal attributions of student problem behavior and considering implications of causal attributions in future research. We explore how such research endeavors can potentially positively impact teacher implementation of effective school-based behavioral interventions and supports.

Details

Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

Abstract

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Pamela Castellanos and Dale Septeowski

For a number of years, the American School Counselor Association has been working to identify and clarify the role and function of school counselors within Developmental…

Abstract

For a number of years, the American School Counselor Association has been working to identify and clarify the role and function of school counselors within Developmental and Comprehensive School Counseling programs. The terms “Developmental” and “Comprehensive” mean that school counseling programs establish goals for their programs that are developmentally appropriate to the age and needs of students and that current and future goals build upon previous goal achievement. Thus, school counseling programs should be in place throughout students’ entire K-12 academic experience.

Details

Current Perspectives on Learning Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-287-0

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Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Ann M. Brewer

Abstract

Details

Careers: Thinking, Strategising and Prototyping
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-210-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Patrice Rosenthal

Focuses on the issue of self‐confidence among women managers and onthe psychological processes which may constrain it. One potentiallyrelevant process is how we perceive…

Abstract

Focuses on the issue of self‐confidence among women managers and on the psychological processes which may constrain it. One potentially relevant process is how we perceive the causes of our success and failure. Evidence from psychological laboratories suggests that women show a comparative tendency to “explain away” their success and take more personal responsibility for failure. Describes a research study investigating whether these gender differences occur among managers in organizations. The sample consisted of 158 managers in three organizations who accounted for incidents of their own and their direct subordinates′ successful and unsuccessful performance. The results indicated significant differences in how women and men account for their own success. Compared with their male counterparts, women managers tended to attribute their achievement of work goals less to their ability and more to hard work. Women also made more “generous” attributions for the success of subordinates. Finally, women managers (unlike men) tended to believe that ability had more to do with their subordinates′ successful performance than their own. Discusses various interpretations and practical implications of these results.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2001

Steve W.J. Kozlowski, Rebecca J. Toney, Morell E. Mullins, Daniel A. Weissbein, Kenneth G. Brown and Bradford S. Bell

The ALS is a theoretically driven approach to the design of integrated-embedded training systems that is highly flexible and offers ease of implementation. It operates by…

Abstract

The ALS is a theoretically driven approach to the design of integrated-embedded training systems that is highly flexible and offers ease of implementation. It operates by exerting leverage on foci of the self-regulation system, which recent research has demonstrated to be central to learning and performance for difficult, complex, and dynamic tasks. The training strategy incorporated in the ALS constructs instructional interventions by combining specific training components that affect different aspects of the SRS. By designing synergistic combinations, instructional interventions can be tailored to the developmental progress of trainees and can enhance learning, performance, and adaptability.Our research will target those training components that offer the greatest practical and theoretical potential for improving complex skill acquisition, and the enhancement of adaptive capabilities. By building on existing principles of training design (e.g. mastery goals, sequencing), and examining promising new ideas (e.g. information, interpretation) that are likely to be key capabilities of the next generation of advanced technology systems, the research is expected to yield new principles of training design uniquely suited for the design of integrated-embedded training systems.

Details

Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-087-6

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