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Introduction‐Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Do you have trouble concentrating in meetings? Do you find yourself forgetting what you just read? Do you constantly…
Introduction‐Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Do you have trouble concentrating in meetings? Do you find yourself forgetting what you just read? Do you constantly fight a losing battle at “getting organised”? Do you become “depressed” too often?
Lay people might disagree with the ‘formal’ knowledge of medicine produced in medical schools and the internet has provided an opportunity for them to present their ideas…
Lay people might disagree with the ‘formal’ knowledge of medicine produced in medical schools and the internet has provided an opportunity for them to present their ideas. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a new concept and has always been a controversial topic. Many people are presenting their views regarding ADHD on the web. This article explores a sample of ADHD‐related materials found by Google and evaluates the possible effects that different voices may have on ‘formal’ knowledge.
Atomoxetine has been approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in both adults and children. However, it is also being examined for several…
Atomoxetine has been approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in both adults and children. However, it is also being examined for several off-label uses in adults including mood disorders, eating disorders, cognitive dysfunction, and the treatment of addictions. Prior to such use it is important to examine the reported adverse events to see if this represents an appropriate level of risk. This is particularly important in the light of recent warnings from several regulatory bodies about an increase in blood pressure in a significant percentage of patients taking atomoxetine. To understand the risks a literature review was performed, and which identified the following potential problems. The first is that this drug should not be given in patients with known cardiovascular problems, and that all adult patients who receive atomoxetine should be monitored for changes in blood pressure throughout treatment. Secondly, there are several clinical situations in which atomoxetine should be closely monitored, or avoided, including patients who have a history or risk of narrow angle glaucoma, epileptic seizures, Tourette's syndrome, a history of urinary outflow obstruction, or who are pregnant or lactating. In conclusion, the current literature suggests that atomoxetine can be safely used off-label provided the above precautions are taken.
Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disabilities (RD) is greater than what would occur by chance. Considering the well-documented…
Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disabilities (RD) is greater than what would occur by chance. Considering the well-documented adverse impact of both ADHD and RD on development, the presence of both conditions may lead to particularly poor outcomes for affected people. This chapter, which reviews 43 research studies carried out in the last decade that have focused on the link between ADHD and RD, is divided into two broad nuclei of contents. First, studies are described that contribute information about characteristics of the comorbid phenotype. Second, studies related to procedures directed toward evaluation and intervention in this problem are analyzed. The review carried out does not make it possible to extract definitive results on the exact nature of ADHD and RD comorbidity or, even less, reach conclusions about its causes. However, the literature-based evidence shows a cognitive profile of ADHD+RD characterized by failure of various functions that can produce more severe functional deficits and worse neuropsychological, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, the analysis of the set of results from the studies shows a limited efficacy of pharmacological and psychopedagogical treatments, and highlights the need for continued research on this topic. From a clinical and educational standpoint, the conclusions derived from this review underline the importance of performing an exhaustive evaluation of children and adolescents with symptoms of ADHD and/or RD, in order to be able to plan interventions with greater possibilities of success in each case.
Professionals working with community populations are often presented with complicated cases where it is difficult to determine which diagnosis or diagnoses are…
Professionals working with community populations are often presented with complicated cases where it is difficult to determine which diagnosis or diagnoses are appropriate. Differentiating among neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability can be a complex process, especially, as these disorders have some overlapping symptoms and often co-occur in young children. This series of case studies aims to present commonly overlapping symptoms in children who present to clinics with developmental concerns.
This paper presents three case studies that were completed at a free community ASD screening clinic in Southern California.
The case studies have common presenting behaviors and symptoms (e.g. social communication difficulties) that often co-occur across diagnoses; explanations for the final diagnoses are given in each case.
Conclusions from these three cases cannot generalize to all children being seen in clinics for neurodevelopmental concerns.
This series of case studies highlights commonly overlapping symptoms in children who present for differential diagnosis with social and/or behavioral concerns. Implications for educational placement and intervention are discussed.
These cases highlight the challenges involved in the differential and dual diagnostic process for young children with developmental concerns. Diagnostic considerations can affect later educational placement and opportunities for socialization.
This series of case studies provide practical information for clinicians about how to effectively differentiate between commonly occurring neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly given recent changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5).
A recent national survey of the US workforce suggests that adult attention related disorders are producing a wide range of negative outcomes in the workplace. The symptoms…
A recent national survey of the US workforce suggests that adult attention related disorders are producing a wide range of negative outcomes in the workplace. The symptoms typically associated with the disorder (difficulties with activation, concentration, effort, emotional interference and accessing memory) suggest that team work may represent a problematic situation for adults with the disorder. Subjects were one hundred and fifty‐five student teams (subjects=628) from universities in both Canada and the United States. The study begins by confirming a hypothesis arising out of previous qualitative research that team members with adult attention deficit have relatively greater difficulty with necessary but uninteresting tasks. The hypothesis that team members with the disorder will be extraordinarily reliant on their teammates was also supported. The need to secure situations of particular fit, and to do so without undermining the support of fellow teammates, suggests that cooperative conflict management styles are especially important for clinical AAD vs. non‐clinical team members. The specific hypotheses, that cooperative styles (problem solving and compromising) are especially important for producing positive team experiences/expectations and efficacy for working in teams, were supported. Future research needs to sample more workplace teams.
This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and…
This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST) study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD sub-type. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI), inattentive (IA) and combined sub-types were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and health-related quality of life. A consistent pattern of differences was found between the ADHD-I and combined subtypes, with the combined subtype being more likely to be diagnosed in childhood, more severe symptom severity and lower HRQL. Twenty-three patients out of the total sample of 691 patients (3%) received a clinician diagnosis of ADHD -hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Review of the ratings on the ADHD-RS-IV demonstrated, however, that this group had ratings of inattention comparable to the inattentive group. There were no significant differences found between the ADHD-HI and the other subtypes in symptom severity, functioning or quality of life. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype group identified by clinicians in this study was not significantly different from the rest of the sample. By contrast, significant differences were found between the inattentive and combined types. This suggests that in adults, hyperactivity declines and inattention remains significant, making the hyperactive/impulsive sub-type as defined by childhood criteria a very rare condition and raising questions as to the validity of the HI subtype in adults.
The rise in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the use of stimulant medication such as Ritalin to treat it raises important questions…
The rise in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the use of stimulant medication such as Ritalin to treat it raises important questions about how childhood is conceptualised in contemporary western society today. By focusing on within‐child explanations for behaviour, the diagnosis of ADHD divorces a child from their context; real life experiences, including traumatic ones, are marginalised or excluded from clinical consideration. This paper1 explores how ADHD manages to occupy and hold on to such a dominant position despite the lack of evidence supporting its supposed medical origins, and explores what the ADHD diagnosis reveals about cultural expectations of childhood and power hierarchies in the UK and North America.
I discuss the formal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis process and whether the Black–White differences found in this process are the results of…
I discuss the formal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis process and whether the Black–White differences found in this process are the results of unmet needs or conscious decisions.
First, I offer a new analytic framework for understanding the “ADHD process.” The proposed framework breaks ADHD diagnoses down into three stages: the informal diagnosis, the formal diagnosis, and treatment. This approach reveals certain racial trends in the ADHD literature. Second, I use the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (total n = 75,764) to address racial differences.
I find that blacks are less likely to hold a formal ADHD diagnosis than whites. Third, nested logistic models reveal that this racial difference is not explained by health insurance status, family income, or family educational level. New explanatory models for the black–white difference in ADHD should stray from a strict reliance on the “unmet need” discourse, and instead focus on other factors that may affect the decision-making process in diverse families.
This chapter makes three contributions to the wider literature on ADHD and race.
The purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination of the mediating influence of time management (TM) on relationship between adult attention deficit (AAD…
The purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination of the mediating influence of time management (TM) on relationship between adult attention deficit (AAD) and role stress (RS).
In total, 117 actively employed business graduate students completed a self-report measure of RS and identified two close associates, one of which completed an observer version of the Brown Attention Deficit Scale while the other complete an observer version of a TM measure. Product moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses that AAD, TM and RS were associated. The Sobel test of mediation was used to test the hypothesis that TM mediated the relationship between AAD and RS.
AAD, TM and RS are associated with each other and TM partially mediates the relationship between AAD and RS.
Research study is limited by a measure of AAD that may not fully represent all the key symptom clusters and an indirect workplace sample. Further investigation of AAD symptoms, including potentially positive manifestations like entre/intrapreneurial cognition and behavior, is required to stabilize the content, structure and measurement of the construct.
Organizations wishing to ensure timely completion of tasks and limit disruptive RS need to be aware of the influence of AAD. The provision of TM training, productivity management tools and an organized work space free of distractions is suggested for disordered employees. Various forms of organizational coaching including a peer coaching system may help disordered employees better manage both their time and their role. The effective design and management of teams represents a significant opportunity for effectively distributing the potential benefits of the disorder while managing deficits like poor TM and increased RS. Organizational development interventions that focus on TM and role (re)negotiation are suggested. Employee assistance programs that raise awareness and provide access to assessment are an important part of multimodal management of the disorder.
Increasing social, economic and legal pressures to provide reasonable accommodation for functional but disordered employees and take appropriate advantage of employee diversity underscores the general social value of this research.
This research study is the first empirical examination of the mediating influence of TM on the relationship between AAD and RS. The results are of value to researchers, organizational development specialists, human resource management specialists, managers and employees who are seeking effective multimodal management of the disorder in the workplace.