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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

David Pennington and Jenna Hodgson

Non‐attendance for first appointments in primary care mental health services represents a major service delivery challenge. Previous research identified how invitation…

Abstract

Purpose

Non‐attendance for first appointments in primary care mental health services represents a major service delivery challenge. Previous research identified how invitation type can influence attendance rates and a localised study was therefore carried out to examine the most effective invitation method and to inform local service guidelines. This exploratory study aims to consider the rate of non‐attendance to assessment for clients referred for psychological therapy in relation to invitation type.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 521 invitations to initial assessment were sent over a three month period with clients being drawn from a rolling waiting list of referrals and invited to attend initial assessment by letter, telephone, or telephone with a telephone reminder. Non‐attendance rates were examined and findings compared across invitation type.

Findings

The study concluded that telephone invitations followed by a telephone prompting reminder significantly reduced non‐attendance to initial assessment appointments.

Research limitations/implications

The findings highlight how using phone based invitation to assessment with a phone reminder can increase attendance rates and improve service efficiencies locally and more widely. There were several limitations to the research project including key variables not included or controlled for which it is felt may have biased the findings and the small effect size.

Originality/value

The findings of the present study extend and build on previous research in the area of attendance, particularly in relation to the provision of localised evidence from which to develop and improve local, national and international service delivery.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 January 2015

Andrew T. Collins and David A. Hensher

There is extensive evidence that decision-makers, faced with increasing information load, may simplify their choice by reducing the amount of information to process. One…

Abstract

Purpose

There is extensive evidence that decision-makers, faced with increasing information load, may simplify their choice by reducing the amount of information to process. One simplification, commonly referred to as attribute non-attendance (ANA), is a reduction of the number of attributes of the choice alternatives. Several previous studies have identified relationships between varying information load and ANA using self-reported measures of ANA. This chapter revisits this link, motivated by recognition in the literature that such self-reported measures are vulnerable to reporting error.

Methodology

This chapter employs a recently developed modelling approach that has been shown to effectively infer ANA, the random parameters attribute non-attendance (RPANA) model. The empirical setting systematically varies the information load across respondents, on a number of dimensions.

Findings

Confirming earlier findings, ANA is accentuated by an increase in the number of attribute levels, and a decrease in the number of alternatives. Additionally, specific attributes are more likely to not be attended to as the total number of attributes increases. Willingness to pay (WTP) under inferred ANA differs notably from when ANA is self-reported. Additionally accounting for varying information load, when inferring ANA, has little impact on the WTP distribution of those that do attend. However, due to varying rates of non-attendance, the overall WTP distribution varies to a large extent.

Originality and value

This is the first examination of the impact of varying information load on inferred ANA that is identified with the RPANA model. The value lies in the confirmation of earlier findings despite the evolution of methodologies in the interim.

Details

Bounded Rational Choice Behaviour: Applications in Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-071-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Hoyt Bleakley and Sok Chul Hong

This study examines a sharp decline of school attendance among white children in the Southern US after the Civil War. According to Census data, the school-attendance rate…

Abstract

This study examines a sharp decline of school attendance among white children in the Southern US after the Civil War. According to Census data, the school-attendance rate among whites in the Confederate states declined by almost half from 1860 to 1870, whereas the rate in Northern states was approximately stable. This shock left the South approximately three decades behind its antebellum trend. We account for little of this drop with household variables plausibly affected by the War. However, a select few county-level variables (notably the drop in wealth) explains around half of the decline, which suggests a systemic explanation. We adopt a model-based approach to decomposing the decline in schooling into demand versus supply factors. On the supply side, the region saw a decline in wealth and public resources, but we observe a stable relationship between time in school and literacy or adult occupation, which is not consistent with a contracting constraint on school quantity or quality. Nevertheless, further research is required to determine how much the contraction in school access affected attendance. On the demand-side, we present suggestive evidence of a decline in the return to school (measured by the relative wage of engineers to laborers). Relatedly, we see a “brain drain”: in longitudinally linked census samples, educated Southerners were more likely to migrate out of the South after the War.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-880-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2013

Bob G. Kilpatrick, Kathryn S. Savage and Nancy L. Wilburn

The primary objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of supplemental instruction (SI) as an intervention strategy to improve student performance in the first…

Abstract

The primary objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of supplemental instruction (SI) as an intervention strategy to improve student performance in the first intermediate accounting course. We perform analysis of covariance to evaluate the effect of SI attendance on course grades, after controlling for variables that have been found significant in prior research as grade determinants (cumulative incoming grade point average (GPA), financial principles grade, and whether the principles course was taken at a university or community college). Results indicate that SI attendance had a significant effect on the first intermediate course grade, with an improvement in course GPA of 0.74 for students who attended five or more SI sessions over those students who did not attend any sessions. Even moderate attendance (three to four SI sessions) showed a marginally significant improvement in course GPA of 0.41 compared with no attendance.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-840-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2022

Luke Yates, Louise Brittleton and Nigel Beail

This study aims to investigate whether factors previously shown to influence attendance rates for appointments in general practice and general mental health services also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether factors previously shown to influence attendance rates for appointments in general practice and general mental health services also influence attendance rates in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID).

Design/methodology/approach

Post hoc data from 452 psychology appointments, ID diagnostic and initial screening (triage) appointments were collected from the health-care files of a community adult ID psychology service. Demographic factors (age, sex) and clinical factors (waiting time, time between appointment invitation being sent and appointment being held, presence of prior telephone call or letter, type of appointment, weekday, month) were recorded along with the attendance outcome (attended/did not attend [DNA]). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was also explored by documenting whether the appointment predated March 2020.

Findings

No significant associations were found between any variable investigated and attendance outcome when analysing appointment data as a whole and when splitting the data between appointment type. Weekday was found to significantly be associated with attendance outcome for appointments held during COVID-19, in which more DNA appointments occurred on a Wednesday compared to the other days of the week. No other associations were found for appointments held during the COVID-19 pandemic or for appointments held prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest that factors which influence attendance rates in general health-care settings do not necessarily generalise to ID services.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine whether certain demographic and clinical factors influenced attendance rates in an adult intellectual disability service.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Seomgyun Lee, Taeyeon Oh and Choong Hoon Lim

This study sought to determine if environmental barriers (i.e. air pollution, temperature and precipitation) affect outdoor (i.e. soccer and baseball) and indoor (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to determine if environmental barriers (i.e. air pollution, temperature and precipitation) affect outdoor (i.e. soccer and baseball) and indoor (i.e. basketball) professional sport attendance in South Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

By including actual air quality, temperature and precipitation data collected from each place where the sporting events take place, this study conducted a regression analysis to examine factors that influenced outdoor and indoor sport attendance.

Findings

In outdoor sports, the estimated results suggested that soccer and baseball attendance were not affected by air pollution. Indoor sport consumers did not change their consumption behaviors in attending sports despite the presence of air pollution. In addition, there was mixed evidence on the effect of weather-related variables on attendance. Average temperature had a positive effect on baseball (outdoor) and basketball (indoor) sport attendance, indicating that the warmer the temperature, the more likely those fans were to attend the games. Average precipitation was negatively associated with outdoor (soccer) sport spectators.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the sport environment literature by examining the impact of environmental barriers on spectators' behaviors in the context of outdoor and indoor professional sports.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Kwadwo Opoku and Emmanuel Adu Boahen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school attendance on learning and child labour in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school attendance on learning and child labour in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a nationally representative sample of household and individual data in 2005/06 and 2011/12 for the analysis. Regression discontinuity, the capitation grant in 2005 as exogenous, is used to estimate the impact of school attendance on child labour and learning outcomes.

Findings

The study found that children who were exposed to the capitation grant spent more hours in school and were more likely to enrol in primary school. School attendance was found to increase the likelihood to read and write a standardised test in English. Also, the improvement in children’s school attendance was found to enhance the likelihood of performing a written calculation. The authors could not find any evidence that school attendance affected child labour.

Originality/value

This research is the first causality analysis in sub-Saharan Africa that uses a nationally representative dataset to study the impact of school attendance on child labour and learning outcomes using a regression discontinuity estimator to deal with endogeneity issues.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

John Nowland

This study aims to document the variation in director attendance rates around the world and investigate the influence of cross-country differences in law and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to document the variation in director attendance rates around the world and investigate the influence of cross-country differences in law and infrastructure on director attendance practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Director attendance data are hand-collected from company annual reports and are related to differences in shareholder rights, director liability and transportation and telecommunications infrastructure across countries.

Findings

Using a hand-collected data set of 4,344 directorships from 33 countries, the results indicate that director attendance is significantly lower in emerging markets and is positively related to the extent of shareholder rights and the quality of telecommunications infrastructure.

Originality/value

For policymakers and shareholders, the findings of this study indicate that there is substantial variation in director attendance practices around the world. Across all markets, director attendance is higher when the telecommunications infrastructure better enables the potential for virtual attendance, thereby allowing directors to participate in meetings when they cannot be physically present. In emerging markets, director attendance is also higher where there is a stronger emphasis on shareholder rights, highlighting an avenue for improved director attendance by strengthening shareholder involvement in major corporate decisions.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2013

Yu Kyoum Kim, Galen T Trail and Marshall J Magnusen

In sports consumer behaviour literature only a small amount of variance in attendance is explained bymotives. One possible explanation for this is the existence of a third…

Abstract

In sports consumer behaviour literature only a small amount of variance in attendance is explained by motives. One possible explanation for this is the existence of a third factor which moderates this relationship between the motives and attendance. Individuals who strongly identify with a sports team demonstrate distinctly different behavioural patterns from weakly identified individuals. Identification may, therefore, serve as a moderator. Accordingly, two hypotheses are generated: (a) the relationship between motives and attendance intention ranges from weak to moderate; and (b) the overarching construct of Identification (Team Identification) moderates the influence of motives on attendance intention. Participants were 207 United States of America National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA student-subjects. Instrumentation includes measures of motivation, points of attachment and attendance intention. Through hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis, regression analyses and latent variable scores approach, the results largely support both hypotheses.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Rodney J. Paul, Justin Andrew Ehrlich and Jeremy Losak

Purpose of the study is to further expand insights into how weather impacts attendance at sporting events. With the NFL having only eight home games a year per team, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Purpose of the study is to further expand insights into how weather impacts attendance at sporting events. With the NFL having only eight home games a year per team, it is more of an event than other North American sports. We explore this in terms of how sensitive fans are to weather, by not only looking at traditional factors, but also other weather variables available through Accuweather. In addition, the authors explore team success, outcome uncertainty and other factors as determinants of demand.

Design/methodology/approach

The method includes Tobit model of attendance in terms of percent of capacity in the National Football League. Model includes factors such as outcome uncertainty, team success, etc. but mainly focuses on weather. Weather factors studied include traditional variables such as temperature and precipitation, and also includes cloud cover, barometric pressure, wind speed and humidity. Different model specifications are included to explore results. Key findings allow for differences between games played outdoors versus indoors.

Findings

In terms of control variables, team success, new stadiums and stadium age play a significant role in attendance in terms of percentage of capacity. Outcome uncertainty does not appear to be important, and fans desire the opposite when the home team is an underdog. The main results concern the weather. When only traditional weather variables are included, precipitation plays a key role. With further expansion of the weather variables, it appears that cloud cover offers some additional information beyond precipitation. In addition, barometric pressure plays a minor, but statistically significant role as it relates to attendance in terms of capacity.

Research limitations/implications

Including deeper and richer weather data helps to further explain attendance at sporting events. With the NFL, this may be limited by it being such as event due to the scarcity of games in a season. In addition, the weather variables are not truly independent, although they are not as correlated as may be anticipated on the surface. Use of different types of weather variables in models of attendance may help to deepen our understanding of factors influencing consumer decisions. These factors may play larger roles in sports with wider variance in attendance during the season.

Practical implications

The practical implications are that other weather-related variables besides temperature and precipitation may offer insight into consumer decisions related to attendance at sporting events. Cloud cover gives insights into anticipated poor weather in addition to it directly leading to less of a sunny day to be outdoors at an event. Barometric pressure has been shown to influence headaches and joint pain and may also influence consumer decisions to venture out to sporting events.

Social implications

As data becomes more widely available in general, it's possible to add additional insights into factors influencing various forms of decision-making. In this study, we show that more information on weather can shed insights into consumer decisions as it relates to attending events such as sports. These decisions likely differ based upon whether the event is held outdoors or indoors. With more entertainment choices as substitutes, it is important to identify key factors which influence consumer decisions to help better structure events in the future.

Originality/value

Weather variables beyond temperature and precipitation are included in a Tobit model for NFL attendance using percentage of capacity as the dependent variable. These weather variables are cloud cover, wind speed, humidity, and barometric pressure. Cloud cover and barometric pressure were found to have some significant effects on percentage of capacity. When included, precipitation itself is no longer found to be significant, but precipitation interacted with games played in domes retains statistical significance as there are key differences between games held outdoors versus indoors.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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