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Book part

Joy Gaston Gayles, Rebecca E. Crandall and Clifford R. Jones

The overrepresentation and lack of academic success for Black male athletes on college campuses are problems that warrant attention in the 21st century. A recent report…

Abstract

The overrepresentation and lack of academic success for Black male athletes on college campuses are problems that warrant attention in the 21st century. A recent report from the University of Pennsylvania shows that over the four-year period between 2007 and 2010, Black males were overrepresented in college sports (Harper, Williams, & Blackman, 2013), a startling reality considering that Black males are severely underrepresented in the general student body. Further complicating matters is the fact that Black male student-athletes do not graduate from college at rates comparable to their peers (Harper et al., 2013). Focused primarily on the experiences of Division I Black male student-athletes, this chapter begins with an overview of literature relevant to successful academic support programs. The authors also present an overview of best practices for advising African American male student-athletes, derived from athletic departments with a demonstrated record of academic success for Black males.

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Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Book part

Luke A. Fedlam

Most professional athletes are broke financially within a short few years after they stop playing. It is easy for outsiders to place the blame squarely on the athlete…

Abstract

Most professional athletes are broke financially within a short few years after they stop playing. It is easy for outsiders to place the blame squarely on the athlete himself. This rush to judgment, however, is not entirely accurate. Black student-athletes who have the talent and ability to play professional sports are hyper-focused on getting to the next level, and the system around them is built to accommodate that focus. A lack of educational, financial, and legal structures creates a dynamic that sets the athlete up for failure. This chapter will focus on the legal and financial realities that Black males face when transitioning into and out of professional sports. In order to shift the current paradigm, this chapter will also provide solutions for both the athlete and the coaches, friends, family members, and agents who surround the athlete, in order to empower the athlete to positively impact himself, his family, and his community.

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Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Article

Thomas A. Hanson, Michael R. Bryant and Katie J. Lyman

The purpose of this paper is to explore relationships among three primary variables: sports spectatorship of intercollegiate football, university brand equity and student…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore relationships among three primary variables: sports spectatorship of intercollegiate football, university brand equity and student satisfaction. The primary purpose is to understand the extent to which athletic programs influence campus culture, sense of community and the satisfaction of undergraduate students. A secondary purpose is to probe the factor structure, reliability and validity of a recently developed sports spectatorship scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data through an online survey of 419 undergraduate students enrolled at three separate Midwestern universities, using previously developed and validated survey scales.

Findings

Relationships between brand equity and student satisfaction suggest that athletic programs provide a benefit to universities by improving students’ psychological sense of community and emotional connection to the institution. Furthermore, correlations between sports spectatorship and brand equity measures suggest an internal advertising effect.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the understanding of the role of intercollegiate athletic programs, in this case from the perspective of enrolled undergraduate students. Additionally, the findings recommend ways that universities might maximize some of the benefits by emphasizing the emotional connection of the student body to the teams. The paper also contributes to the validation of the sports spectatorship scale as a tool for further research.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Robert Benjamin Adams, Karen Nkechiyere Egbo and Barbara Demmig-Adams

The purpose of this review is to summarize new research indicating that high-dose supplements of the antioxidant vitamin C can interfere with the benefits of physical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this review is to summarize new research indicating that high-dose supplements of the antioxidant vitamin C can interfere with the benefits of physical exercise for athletic performance and the risk for chronic disease.

Design/methodology/approach

This article reviews current original literature on the regulation of human metabolism by oxidants and antioxidants and evaluates the role of exercise and high-dose vitamin C in this context. The presentation in this article aims to be informative and accessible to both experts and non-experts.

Findings

The evidence reviewed here indicates that single, high-dose supplements of the antioxidant vitamin C abolish the beneficial effects of athletic training on muscle recovery and strength as well as abolishing the benefits of exercise in lowering the risk for chronic disease. In contrast, an antioxidant-rich diet based on regular foods apparently enhances the benefits of exercise. These findings are consistent with an updated understanding of the critical importance of both oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of human metabolism. While more research is needed to address the role of timing and level of antioxidant consumption, it is clear that a balance between oxidants and antioxidants is essential.

Practical implications

The information presented in this review is important for both athletes and the public at large in their efforts to choose nutrition and exercise regimes appropriate to maximize the outcome of their training efforts and lower their risk for chronic disease.

Originality/value

This article provides accessible and comprehensive information to researchers, nutritionists, and consumers interested in optimal nutrition during athletic training and for obtaining the full benefit of physical exercise in lowering the risk for chronic disease.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part

C. Keith Harrison, Scott J. Bukstein and Suzanne M. Lawrence

The purpose of this chapter is to analyze ethical issues and current trends of major college athletics in relationship to Black males in society. The focus of this chapter…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to analyze ethical issues and current trends of major college athletics in relationship to Black males in society. The focus of this chapter is on identity and how higher education institutions can cultivate a more balanced student-athlete mindset through images and representations. In addition to a review of relevant literature, a content analysis of six State Farm Insurance Cliff and Chris Paul commercials was conducted so that new knowledge is applied to the constructs of academic and athletic identity. Commercial and advertisement content analysis was utilized to address student-athlete life skills issues in terms of transferable attributes from sport to life. College athletics programs need to develop systemic and culturally relevant strategies that enable Black males to transfer skill sets developed through participation in intercollegiate athletics to future occupational endeavors. The chapter concludes with a recommendation section for education research, practice, and policy.

Details

Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Book part

Samuel R. Hodge

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were established during an era of legal segregation in the United States and, by providing access to higher education…

Abstract

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were established during an era of legal segregation in the United States and, by providing access to higher education, added considerably to the progress of millions of Black Americans. Moreover, to the benefit of their students, faculties, staffs, alumni, and local communities, most HBCUs sponsor intercollegiate athletic teams. No doubt on these campuses, student-athletes are under pressure to meet academic and athletic demands. In this chapter, the central narrative is on the academic and athletic experiences of Black male student-athletes matriculating at HBCUs with National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliation. This chapter adds to the extant literature on the athletic status and academic plight of Black male student-athletes at HBCUs.

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Article

Antonios K. Travlos, Panagiotis Dimitropoulos and Stylianos Panagiotopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to examine the migration of foreign football players that participated in the elite football championship in Greece and the impact of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the migration of foreign football players that participated in the elite football championship in Greece and the impact of this migratory channel on the athletic success of the football clubs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzed a database of all migrant and local athletes that participated in the professional Greek football championship over the period 2001-2013 and performed descriptive and regression analyses.

Findings

The regression analyses revealed a positive and significant statistical relation between the investment in foreign talents and the position of the clubs in the championship; however, this impact was more intense for foreign athletes after the formation of the Greek Super League (SL) in 2007 but on the contrary native athletes seem to contribute less to the athletic success than their foreign counterparts.

Practical implications

The findings indicated that valuable resources where spent after SL formation for the acquisition of foreign well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study corroborated arguments in previous research that a basic reason for foreign player migration in football is the increased revenues accrued from the media and sponsors. The study also provided useful policy implications for football managers for improving their decisions on this matter.

Originality/value

The present study fills a gap in the empirical literature and contributes significantly on the ongoing debate about the international athletes’ migration and its impact on athletic success.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article

Denise Linda Parris, Adrien Bouchet, Jon Welty Peachey and Danny Arnold

Creating value through service innovation requires new processes and ways of communicating to multiple stakeholders. Institutions and stakeholders within the service…

Abstract

Purpose

Creating value through service innovation requires new processes and ways of communicating to multiple stakeholders. Institutions and stakeholders within the service ecosystem, however, often resist change. Adopting a new service strategy entails two distinct costs – monetary and psychological. The tensions between an organization’s need to generate incremental revenue and the challenges of balancing business as usual and the costs associated with service innovation are explored. Specifically, this paper aims to explore the adoption of a customer relationship management (CRM) technology solution in a bureaucratic setting, and the sequence of events needed for successful implementation, with emphasis on overcoming various barriers and hurdles.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study methodology is used to gather and analyze data on how the Arizona State University (ASU) athletic department responded to the changing competitive environment via adopting a CRM technology solution. Data collection consisted of ten semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The experience of ASU illustrates that the primary benefits of a CRM technology solution include the generation of incremental revenue, capturing data and personalized marketing. The main challenges are coordinating adoption, obtaining commitment, developing competency, estimating costs and creating content.

Research limitations/implications

A conceptual framework emerged from the data that describes the likelihood of a service technology’s successful implementation based upon the interaction of the strength of key actors, organizational situation perception and organizational commitment. The model extends the proposed duality of service innovation outcomes as either success or failure to acknowledge the likelihood of a partial implementation where marginal success is achieved.

Practical implications

The sequence of events needed for successful implementation of a service technology is highlighted, with emphasis on overcoming various barriers and hurdles. Implementation steps are provided, as well as a model to help pinpoint issues.

Originality/value

The case study provides insight for overcoming pitfalls and barriers to adopting a new service technology in a traditionally bureaucratic organization where resistance to change is the norm, and innovation is not.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Book part

Samuel R. Hodge

Empirical studies reveal Black male student-athletes have both positive and negative experiences on predominantly White college and university campuses. Mindful also of…

Abstract

Empirical studies reveal Black male student-athletes have both positive and negative experiences on predominantly White college and university campuses. Mindful also of race-based stereotypic beliefs about Black male student-athletes in collegiate sports, these phenomena warrant further discourse and scrutiny. Critical race theory is a race-centered theoretical and analytical framework that has shaped discourse on race and racism in intercollegiate athletics in recent years. Discourse in this chapter is therefore grounded in the narrative of critical race theory and focuses primarily on the academic and athletic plight of Black male student-athletes matriculating at predominantly White colleges and universities with National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliation.

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Book part

Darren D. Kelly, Louis Harrison and Leonard N. Moore

This chapter explores the potential of African American male faculty and staff members to serve as mentors to high-profile African American male student-athletes at large…

Abstract

This chapter explores the potential of African American male faculty and staff members to serve as mentors to high-profile African American male student-athletes at large, predominantly White institutions (PWIs) of higher education. These students are a large and very visible subset of the African American male student population at these institutions and often influence how African American male students are viewed and treated by other faculty, students, and the university communities at large. Based on empirical research and combined classroom and administrative experience of over 35 years, this chapter will present the issues that African American male student-athletes face as they transition into these institutions utilizing the athletic identity, transition, and mentoring frameworks and provide solutions for administrators and faculty members to use in their efforts to help guide these students toward achieving athletic, academic, and personal success.

Details

Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

Keywords

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