Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Annika Linsner, Brad Hill, Kirstin Hallmann and Popi Sotiriadou

This study identifies important dimensions of the athlete brand identity construct incorporating the athlete perspective. It also uses Rasch analysis to provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies important dimensions of the athlete brand identity construct incorporating the athlete perspective. It also uses Rasch analysis to provide a practical tool (the Athlete Brand Identity Scale) to measure how closely an athlete's personal brand identity is aligned with their perceived brand image.

Design/methodology/approach

Reference to existing athlete branding measurement tools and consultation with ten athlete experts generated (74) items considered important to an athlete brand. Two different response scales were then used to test those items in wider surveys of athletes and consumers. This allowed for further scale development and measurement of congruence between an athlete's self-image and the brand image held by consumers (within the same survey). Factor analysis and Rasch analysis were carried out to refine the item pool and assess item measurement properties to establish a concise scale for determining athlete brand identity.

Findings

Results show successful identification of four dimensions of athlete brand identity measurement: athletic integrity, athletic success, fan engagement and character traits, informed development of the Athlete Brand Identity Scale (ABIdS). The unique and significant aspect of the ABIdS is its capacity to incorporate the athlete's perspective into brand management.

Practical implications

The ABIdS can be utilised by early-career athletes to plan and prioritise branding efforts whilst established athletes can identify incongruence between self-image and consumer perceptions. Such gaps can be evaluated and branding activities modified accordingly. This will enable athletes to better access corporate support/sponsorship thereby reducing reliance on public funds.

Originality/value

The major difference between the ABIdS and other existing scales in the athlete brand research domain is the focus on the athlete perspective, as opposed to the consumer perspectives. Evaluating consumer perspectives does not explain how athletes perceive their own brand or how their own perception of their brand compares to that of people external to the brand (fans and consumers). The ABIdS developed in this study has the potential to achieve this objective as its design was driven by athlete perceptions but tested on both athletes and consumers.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Jami Lobpries, Gregg Bennett and Natasha Brison

The purpose of this paper is to compare the extended brand identities of two elite female athletes. Specifically, this exploratory case study assessed the extended brand

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the extended brand identities of two elite female athletes. Specifically, this exploratory case study assessed the extended brand identities of Jennie Finch and Cat Osterman, two iconic female softball athlete brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the qualitative analysis of individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews, various documents, and social media, data revealed themes associated with positioning, personality, and presentation of the female athlete brands.

Findings

Theoretically, the themes provide empirical support for existing brand identity frameworks.

Practical implications

Practically, findings provide evidence for defining an athlete’s extended brand identity that can serve as the foundation for branding efforts that generate long-term value during and after their sport careers.

Originality/value

This case study adds to the extant literature on athlete branding and offers practical content for marketers seeking to brand female athletes.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Kenneth Cortsen

The purpose of this article is to investigate sports branding at the personal level by focusing on the evolvement, growth and sustainability of the ANNIKA BRAND – an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate sports branding at the personal level by focusing on the evolvement, growth and sustainability of the ANNIKA BRAND – an extension of Annika Sörenstam's success on golf courses worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study method inspired by “symbolic interactionist” aspects and focusing on Annika Sörenstam's commercial success with personal sports branding and its interdependence with sports branding at the product and corporate levels. Data collection was conducted in accordance with interpretative research traditions and hence based on qualitative semi‐ structured research interviews.

Findings

The “hybrid” nature of sports brands draws highly on “emotional capital” and “social currency”. Personal sports branding acts as a “hybrid”, which facilitates “hybrid” branding relationships between personal sports brands and sports brands at the product and corporate levels – often underlining good ROIs for all involved parties if the sports branding process is executed well strategically. This article presents personal sports branding as a hybrid phenomenon, which is dynamic by heart and part of a well‐coordinated process engaging several partners.

Practical implications

The practices and activities of the ANNIKA BRAND is a showcase for sports branding practitioners thinking about sustainable business models.

Originality/value

This paper is unique in offering a roadmap for how personal sport stars may approach brand development and growth while discussing key points of the interdependence between sports brands at the personal, product and corporate levels.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Olzhas Taniyev and Brian S. Gordon

The purpose of this paper exploratory study is to decipher sport consumer associations and sentiments connected to the brand image of retired athletes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper exploratory study is to decipher sport consumer associations and sentiments connected to the brand image of retired athletes.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 14 sport consumers, who demonstrated an in-depth knowledge of throwback branding tactics and expertise in athlete brand promotion, participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The findings indicate there are three prevalent themes across the present data (i.e. epoch epitome, athlete-team connection and off-the-field persona).

Originality/value

While the proliferation of throwback merchandise and affinity for brands of retired athletes is evident, the internalization of associations related to retired athletes has escaped empirical investigation. Numerous questions concerning how specific facets of a retired athlete’s image (e.g. athletic skills or life off the field) activate nostalgic feelings, drive consumer loyalty and establish market permanence remain unanswered. The current study contributes to the understanding of the brand image of the retired athlete and the existing literature concerning athlete branding.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko, Asli Tasci, Akiko Arai and Taehee Kim

Marketers worldwide consider athlete endorsement a highly effective promotional tool. However, little is known about consumers' responses towards athlete endorsement in…

Abstract

Marketers worldwide consider athlete endorsement a highly effective promotional tool. However, little is known about consumers' responses towards athlete endorsement in global markets - particularly the bi-directional image transfer mechanism. This study examines the image match between athlete endorsers and products using a three-dimensional visual map and comparing image perceptions towards athlete endorsements among respondent groups from Japan, Korea and the United States during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The results show that image perceptions of selected athlete endorsers, endorsed products and their match are significantly different in these markets.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Michael Robert Green

Over the past two decades the subject and growth of social media has been exponential, along with its relevance to the sport marketing industry. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past two decades the subject and growth of social media has been exponential, along with its relevance to the sport marketing industry. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strategic usage of social networking websites to develop the concept of a personal brand by international rugby union players.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was embedded within an interpretivist paradigm that allowed the qualitative examination of the way international rugby players use social networking sites. The primary data collection method involved ten semi-structured interviews and was triangulated with secondary sources which involved visiting the three social networking sites utilised by all the players (Facebook, Twitter and Instagram).

Findings

The research analysis revealed personal branding themes that can be classified according to the following mnemonic: personality, exposure, response, follow, endorse, consistent, and target audience (PERFECT).

Research limitations/implications

This study has focused entirely upon international rugby union players; therefore no claim is made for generalisability to other contexts. A potential area for future research lies in replicating this study in different sport settings in order to identify whether the identified contextual factors also play a role outside of international rugby union and for different gender, playing-level or social media categories.

Practical implications

This study has reinforced that, within “real-life” social networking contexts, the development of an online profile can help create differentiation for players in a highly competitive market, especially if they share similar “sporting” characteristics with colleagues or other athletes. This research highlights that the utilisation of social networks by sports athletes has to become part of a strategic marketing approach.

Originality/value

The author draws attention to the theoretical position based on the PERFECT mnemonic offering sports athletes a framework to develop a successful online branding strategy. The central premise is based on emphasising uniqueness and distinction to offer a competitive advantage by delivering added value throughout various communications.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 June 2020

Maria Lucila Osorio, Edgar Centeno and Jesus Cambra-Fierro

The purpose of this study is threefold. First, human brands are conceptualized and the distinction between them and personal brands is established. Second, human-brand

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is threefold. First, human brands are conceptualized and the distinction between them and personal brands is established. Second, human-brand research is reviewed in light of a strategic brand management framework and gaps in the knowledge that may suggest new research pathways are identified. Third, the extent to which a brand management model designed for products could be applied to human brands is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted in this study. The content analysis of the selected set of papers allowed the assessment of the state of this field of brand management and the identification of proposals for future research.

Findings

Substantial research exists on different aspects of human brands. However, these studies are fragmented in nature, thus highlighting the need for specific and complete human-brand management models.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this literature review is that it is based on a sample of papers collected by one specific criterion; furthermore, the way the papers were classified may be challenged. However, this study provides a comprehensive picture of studies on human brands available today.

Originality/value

A parsimonious distinction and connectivity between human and personal brands suggest a branding-by-individual continuum. Additionally, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first identifiable one that summarizes the growing literature on human brands, reveals important gaps in the knowledge and calls for the development of particular human-brand management models.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Jae-Ahm Park, Jun-Mo Sung, Jae-Man Son, Kyunga Na and Suk-Kyu Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among an individual athlete’s brand equity, overall spectator satisfaction at sporting events and behavioral intentions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among an individual athlete’s brand equity, overall spectator satisfaction at sporting events and behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The convenience sampling method was used when approaching potential participants among spectators of the LG Whisen Rhythmic All Stars 2013, a sporting event in which celebrated sports players perform choreographed dance routines. A total of 350 surveys were completed in Go-Yang, South Korea. Of the surveys collected, 20 were discarded due to excessive missing values, resulting in 330 usable surveys.

Findings

Using structural equation modeling, this study found that the brand equity of an individual athlete positively and directly affects the overall sporting event satisfaction and behavioral intentions, including re-purchase and word-of-mouth intentions among event attendees, which are factors that are mediated indirectly by satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study shows that the brand equity of an individual athlete can increase the spectator satisfaction levels in a similar manner to the brand equity of a sports team or product.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Ann Mitsis and Civilai Leckie

The purpose of this paper is to validate Tsiotsou’s (2012) sport team brand personality scale in a new country (Australia) and segment (Generation Y) and extend its use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate Tsiotsou’s (2012) sport team brand personality scale in a new country (Australia) and segment (Generation Y) and extend its use from sport teams to individual athletes. This paper also explores the scale’s predictive power in an athlete’s role model influence.

Design/methodology/approach

An online panel survey with 560 responses from Australian Generation Y consumers was obtained. Structural equation modelling was used to test and validate the scale.

Findings

This paper confirmed the sport team brand personality scale can be applied to an individual athlete. Three dimensions of the scale, namely, competitiveness, morality and authenticity, were found to have predictive power in an athlete’s role model influence. Authenticity was the strongest predictor, followed by morality and competitiveness.

Practical implications

Individual athlete brand personality is powerful in influencing how Australian Generation Y consumers identify with their favourite athlete as a role model. These insights assist brand and marketing managers to use athletes as part of their communication strategies regarding brand and product endorsements.

Originality/value

This research addresses Tsiotsou’s (2012) call to test the robustness and external validity of the sport team brand personality scale and to empirically test how the scale can predict outcomes. The authors succeeded in validating and extending the sport brand personality scale to an individual athlete level in a new country and consumer segment. The scale was found to have predictive power in an athlete’s role model influence.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Yonghwan Chang and Yong Jae Ko

The purpose of this study was to test whether endorsements that show a low strength of association (bottom-up bias) benefit from increased attention and processing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to test whether endorsements that show a low strength of association (bottom-up bias) benefit from increased attention and processing efforts. The current study also tested whether consumer involvement level (top-down bias) dynamically interacts with the bottom-up attention phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a series of pretests, 36 potential celebrity-product matches were identified using real athletes and product brands. Two experiments were conducted: 330 individual responses (110 participants × three conditions) were obtained in a within-subjects lab experiment, and 868 participants were recruited for a between-subjects online experiment. Linear mixed modeling and moderated mediation analysis were performed.

Findings

The relationships between the strength of image associations and attention time to endorsements and recall and choice consideration of endorsed brands were U-shaped and curvilinear. Attention largely mediated the relationship between the strength of association and recall/choice. Involvement effects were diluted by the strength of association effects, rejecting top-down attentional control.

Practical implications

Brand managers for both products and celebrities are recommended to search for corresponding not only image-matched partners but also endorsement partners with dissonant pre-existing images.

Originality/value

The majority of the existing endorsement literature has conventionally suggested that congruence between the endorser and the endorsed property, rather than incongruence, induces consumers’ positive endorsement evaluation. This study constructs important theoretical advancements to the existing literature by empirically proving that through an attentional process, an endorsement contract, conventionally perceived as mismatched, can also generate positive outcomes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000