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Article

M. Lynne Markus

Identifies a set of expectations about information technology (IT)adoption and usage in work groups, based on prior theory. Describes alongitudinal study on the adoption…

Abstract

Identifies a set of expectations about information technology (IT) adoption and usage in work groups, based on prior theory. Describes a longitudinal study on the adoption and usage of asynchronous technologies in small face‐to‐face groups. Compares observations with expectations. Concludes that expectations were generally supported except in one case, where file transfer was used synchronously to support face‐to‐face interaction. Observed one use of asynchronous technology to maintain social distance because of poor relationships. Discusses the implications of the findings. Offers possible areas of future research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article

Dan Bouhnik, Yahel Giat and Yafit Sanderovitch

The purpose of this study is to characterize learning from asynchronous sources among research and development (R&D) personnel. It aims to examine four aspects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to characterize learning from asynchronous sources among research and development (R&D) personnel. It aims to examine four aspects of asynchronous source learning: employee preferences regarding self‐learning; extent of source usage; employee satisfaction with these sources and the effect of the sources on the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 120 R&D employees of a high‐tech firm were administered questionnaires consisting of open‐ended and close‐ended questions regarding different features of asynchronous learning.

Findings

The study finds that a synchronous sources are highly utilized by employees and are used both for general‐purpose learning and solving specific problems. Despite the high usage and satisfaction from these sources, we do not find evidence to support the creation of an expert community of practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to a single, albeit large, firm. Possibly, in different organizational, cultural or geographical settings, expert communities of knowledge may be created in a more pronounced manner.

Practical implications

Managers should: consult with employees as to what they need most to complement the asynchronous sources; put more emphasize on measuring satisfaction from asynchronous sources to predict the value of these sources to the organization; and encourage and ensure the creation of an expert community of practice and support and maintain it thereafter.

Originality/value

Empirical research about the implications of asynchronous sources on the workplace is scarce. This paper complements previous research and provides new insight into understanding these effects.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article

Josh DeSantis, Ryan Boyd, Kyle Marks, Jake Putsch and Terrance Shepler

Successful technology integration into the teaching of social studies is imperative in the twenty-first century classroom. This study sought to answer the following…

Abstract

Purpose

Successful technology integration into the teaching of social studies is imperative in the twenty-first century classroom. This study sought to answer the following questions: do synchronous and asynchronous technology integration increase a student’s understanding of social studies content? Are synchronous technology-integrated social studies lessons more effective than asynchronous technology-integrated social studies lessons? How do students perceive the effectiveness of a synchronous technology-integrated lesson vs the effectiveness of an asynchronous technology-integrated lesson? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the results of a quasi-experimental research project comparing the learning outcomes of students who participated in synchronous and asynchronous technology-augmented lessons.

Findings

The results of this study found that synchronous and asynchronous technology-enhanced lessons are both viable pedagogies for increasing a student’s understanding of social studies content. The results also yielded no statistical significance between the effectiveness of the synchronous instruction vs asynchronous instruction. However, a statistical significance exists when analyzing a student’s perception of their own learning. Students participating in synchronous technology-integrated instruction reported a higher confidence in the lesson’s ability to teach them, when compared to that of the asynchronous population.

Originality/value

By continuing to seek new ways to integrate technology effectively into classrooms, social studies teachers can design lessons more effectively to meet the needs of today’s social studies students. The need to understand the learning outcomes of various technology-integrated approaches will continue to grow as more technologies become available to social studies teachers.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Article

Behnam Ghavami

Power consumption is a top priority in high-performance asynchronous circuit design today. The purpose of this study is to provide a spatial correlation-aware statistical…

Abstract

Purpose

Power consumption is a top priority in high-performance asynchronous circuit design today. The purpose of this study is to provide a spatial correlation-aware statistical dual-threshold voltage design method for low-power design of template-based asynchronous circuits.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors proposed a statistical dual-threshold voltage design of template-based asynchronous circuits considering process variations with spatial correlation. The utilized circuit model is an extended Timed Petri-Net which captures the dynamic behavior of the asynchronous circuit with statistical delay and power values. To have a more comprehensive framework, the authors model the spatial correlation information of the circuit. The authors applied a genetic optimization algorithm that uses a two-dimensional graph to calculate the power and performance of each threshold voltage assignment.

Findings

Experimental results show that using this statistically aware optimization, leakage power of asynchronous circuits can be reduced up to 3X. The authors also show that the spatial correlation may lead to large errors if not being considered in the design of dual-threshold-voltage asynchronous circuits.

Originality/value

The proposed framework is the scheme giving a low-power design of asynchronous circuits compared to other schemes. The comparison exhibits that the proposed method has better results in terms of performance and power. To consider the process variations with spatial correlation, the authors apply the principle component analysis method to transform the correlated variables into uncorrelated ones.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Reijo Savolainen

Drawing on the ideas of conversation analysis (CA), the purpose of this paper is to elaborate the picture of dialogical information seeking and sharing. To this end…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the ideas of conversation analysis (CA), the purpose of this paper is to elaborate the picture of dialogical information seeking and sharing. To this end, information seeking and sharing are approached as interactive online talk occurring in an asynchronous discussion forum.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework is based on the elaboration of Schegloff’s model for sequence organisation in spoken conversation. As a result, ten categories constitutive of asynchronous online talk were identified. It was further examined how online talk of this type is structured by expanded question – answers adjacency pairs and how such pairs are constitutive of dialogical information seeking and sharing. This question was explored by scrutinising 20 discussion threads downloaded from a do-it-yourself related online forum.

Findings

Four ideal typical patterns of asynchronous online talk were identified. Answering the question is a basic pattern of online talk, based on the provision of responses to an individual request. Specifying the answer, broadening the discussion topic and challenging the answer represent more sophisticated patterns incorporating post-expansions of diverse kind.

Research limitations/implications

As the study focusses on four patterns constitutive of online talk occurring in a particular domain, the findings cannot be generalised to depict the phenomena of dialogical information interaction as a whole. Further research is needed to scrutiny the particular features of asynchronous online talk in the context of dialogical information interaction.

Originality/value

The paper pioneers by examining the potential of CA in the micro-level study of dialogical information seeking and sharing structured by expanded adjacency pairs. The findings also identify the limitations of the conversation analytic methodology in the study of asynchronous online discourse.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 75 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Johannes M. Basch, Klaus G. Melchers, Julia Kegelmann and Leonie Lieb

Videoconference interviews and asynchronous interviews are increasingly used to select applicants. However, recent research has found that technology-mediated interviews…

Abstract

Purpose

Videoconference interviews and asynchronous interviews are increasingly used to select applicants. However, recent research has found that technology-mediated interviews are less accepted by applicants compared to face-to-face (FTF) interviews. The reasons for these differences have not yet been clarified. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to take a closer look at potential reasons that have been suggested in previous research.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study surveyed 154 working individuals who answered questions concerning their perceptions of FTF, videoconference and asynchronous interviews in terms of perceived fairness, social presence and the potential use of impression management (IM) tactics. Furthermore, potential attitudinal and personality correlates were also measured.

Findings

Technology-mediated interviews were perceived as less fair than FTF interviews and this difference was stronger for asynchronous interviews than for videoconference interviews. The perceived social presence and the possible use of IM followed the same pattern. Furthermore, differences in fairness perceptions were mediated by perceived social presence and the possible use of IM tactics. Additionally, affinity for technology and core self-evaluations correlated positively with perceptions of videoconference interviews but not with those of FTF and asynchronous interviews.

Originality/value

This is the first study to compare fairness perceptions of FTF, videoconference and asynchronous interviews and to confirm previous assumptions that potential applicants perceive technology-mediated interviews as less favorable because of impairments in social presence and the potential use of IM.

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Article

Tony Tinker is at and Barbara Feknous

The litmus test of asynchronous learning lies not in supporting small groups of elite groups, who are well endowed with computer and communications resources, but in…

Abstract

The litmus test of asynchronous learning lies not in supporting small groups of elite groups, who are well endowed with computer and communications resources, but in providing for oversized classes, whose students are stretched by competing demands of work, family, and academic life, and who have — at best — modest experience and access to computer technology. This case study shows that a hybrid design — of synchronous and asynchronous methods — improves the quality of learning among large classes of undergraduate accounting students. Far from auguring the end of “education‐as‐we‐know‐it” (where a face‐to‐face community is replaced by a server‐in‐a‐box) this mixed strategy provides a useful tool in augmenting traditional learning methods.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article

Nixon Muganda and Kiyashen Pillay

The paper aims to investigate the forms of power, politics and leadership exercised by project leaders within asynchronous virtual project environments (VPEs). The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the forms of power, politics and leadership exercised by project leaders within asynchronous virtual project environments (VPEs). The purpose of this paper is to link effective project leadership to particular forms of power and politics within a VPE.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data are based on a quantitative telecommunications sector case study, complemented with some interviews, following a semi‐structured approach. The research was approached based from a positivistic philosophical paradigm and using a survey research strategy. The questionnaire‐based survey consisted of a sample of 28 respondents split between project managers (39.3 percent) and team members (60.7 percent).

Findings

The research results indicated a significant finding which linked leadership effectiveness to asynchronous VPE usage and communication. Factor analysis of the type of leadership exercised within an asynchronous VPE revealed two forms of effective leadership. The first one, named, Structured Charismatic Exchange, is underpinned by three forms of leadership styles: charismatic, virtual and transactional leadership. The second insight from the factor analysis also revealed significant loadings for two forms of leadership: Participative and Shared leadership. The common strand in both is the need to elevate the ethos of teams, which effectively implies that control in VPE ought to be decentralized responsibly to enhance sharing. This is possibly relevant in a bid to minimize conflicts and thus develop a project organization that encourages teamwork. Therefore, this factor was named Decentralized Team Leadership. Unlike the first factor, where the focus is on how the project leader projects his/her personality to influence people, the realization is that for a project organization to succeed, project goals and decisions emerge from bargaining, negotiating, and jockeying for position among members of different coalitions.

Research limitations/implications

Reported limitations are based on the sample size, effect of sectoral culture on the findings and constrained view of the virtuality construct. Future research should investigate other sectors with a large sample and expand the dimensions of the virtuality as a construct.

Practical implications

The paper concludes that project leaders should re‐orient leadership practices to fit virtual project environments, taking into account the need for a more decentralized form of leadership and systematic trust building.

Originality/value

The recognition of the uniqueness of particular forms of power and politics relevant for the exercise of effective leadership in asynchronous virtual environments is emphasized in this research paper.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article

Sidney Weil, Nicholas McGuigan, Thomas Kern and Baiding Hu

This study aims to examine students' perceptions of the use of asynchronous discussion forums to facilitate case‐based learning in financial accounting, measuring whether…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine students' perceptions of the use of asynchronous discussion forums to facilitate case‐based learning in financial accounting, measuring whether students' perceptions of the benefits of using online discussion forums are related to – and can be predicted from – students' demographic profiles. The paper commences by briefly reviewing the case study‐based learning literature, followed by an in‐depth review of the use of asynchronous discussion forums as a delivery platform. These pedagogical approaches are then linked to the emerging needs and learning styles of the current generation of “digital” students.

Design/methodology/approach

The study, which is questionnaire‐based, uses data collected from two New Zealand universities. A choice modelling approach is used to analyse the data in order to correlate students' preferences for online discussion forum usage with their profiles.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that students perceive numerous benefits to be associated with case‐based online discussions, including learning from other students' opinions and perspectives, the opportunity to debate issues critically, encouragement to think independently, a heightened awareness of their communication ability and assisting them to revise prior‐held views of accounting. These findings, supported by students' comments, suggest that the use of asynchronous discussion forums has created a social discourse of learning, assisting in the construction of a community of practice in financial accounting. The choice modelling analysis of the results indicates that the students most likely to be positively disposed towards discussion groups are older, male, domestic students, who have English as a first language. Of the international student respondents, Asian students perceive the forum as being most useful.

Originality/value

The study provides evidence that accounting students perceive value from the use of asynchronous discussion forums. Furthermore, the choice modelling identifies which particular groups of students may benefit most from the use of online discussion forums. The findings suggest that accounting educators may gainfully employ this learning technique in their courses as a means of developing critical thinking skills, building a heightened awareness of the student's ability to communicate and enhancing overall student engagement and participation in course work.

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Article

Phuong Minh Khuong, Hasan Ü. Yilmaz, Russell McKenna and Dogan Keles

With the growing deployment of variable renewable energy sources, such as wind and PV and the increasing interconnection of the power grid, multi-regional energy system…

Abstract

Purpose

With the growing deployment of variable renewable energy sources, such as wind and PV and the increasing interconnection of the power grid, multi-regional energy system models (ESMs) are increasingly challenged by the growth of model complexity. Therefore, the need for developing ESMs, which are realistic but also solvable with acceptable computational resources without losing output accuracy, arises. The purpose of this study is to propose a statistical approach to investigate asynchronous extreme events for different regions and then assess their ability to keep the output accuracy at the level of the full-resolution case.

Design/methodology/approach

To extract the extreme events from the residual demands, the paper focuses on analyzing the tail of the residual demand distributions by using statistical approaches. The extreme events then are implemented in an ESM to assess the effect of them in protecting the accuracy of the output compared with the full-resolution output.

Findings

The results show that extreme-high and fluctuation events are the most important events to be included in data input to maintain the flexibility output of the model when reducing the resolution. By including these events into the reduced data input, the output's accuracy reaches the level of 99.1% compared to full resolution case, while reducing the execution time by 20 times.

Originality/value

Moreover, including extreme-fluctuation along with extreme-high in the reduced data input helps the ESM to avoid misleading investment in conventional and low-efficient generators.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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